Earl of Sefton
Earl of Sefton was a title in the Peerage of Ireland created in 1771 for the 8th Viscount Molyneux. The Earls of Sefton held the subsidiary titles Viscount Molyneux, of Maryborough in the Queen's County, in the Peerage of Ireland, Baron Sefton, of Croxteth in the County Palatine of Lancaster, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the Molyneux's powerful allegiances led to an acquisition of lands and wealth throughout the period 1100–1700 when the family were Lords of the manor at Sefton. All three titles became extinct upon the death of the 7th Earl in 1972; the seat of the Earls of Sefton was Croxteth Hall near Liverpool. It was bequeathed to the City of Liverpool by the 7th and last Earl of Sefton and his wife, the former Josephine Gwynne Armstrong, the last member of the Molyneux family to live at Croxteth; the American-born Countess of Sefton, nicknamed "Foxy" and a fashion model of great beauty, was a lifelong friend of the Duchess of Windsor. Another seat of the Earls of Sefton was the Abbeystead estate in Lancashire owned by the Duke of Westminster.
Abbeystead was used as a hunting and recreational estate by the Earls of Sefton. Despite being part of the Peerage of Ireland, the earldom referred to Sefton in Lancashire; the ancestors of the Molyneaux family who arrived in England around the time of the Norman Conquest of 1066 bore the name "de Molines". They came from Molineaux-sur-Seine, near Rouen, in Normandy where they were guardians of Château de Robert-le-Diable known as Château de Moulineaux, they were granted lands in Lancashire. They can be shown to have held a large moated manor and St. Helen's Church at Sefton without interruption from about 1100 to 1700 before they moved to Croxteth Hall. Of the Molyneux family, Sir Richard and Sir William Molyneux, knights of the Crusades, are entombed within the church, are its oldest inhabitants, their effigies now lie beneath an arch moulding set into the wall in the Molyneux chapel, outside of the 14th-century church walls. The senior branch of the family had been staunch Catholics and Royalists through the worst times until Charles Molyneux, 8th Viscount Molyneux, was rewarded for converting to the Protestant faith.
The youthful second and third Viscounts fought on the Royalist side both politically and militarily. Although Liverpool Castle had been dismantled in 1660-1678, Caryll Molyneux, the 3rd Viscount, had used it for storing arms. During the reign of King James II, he was outlawed by Parliament for supporting the deposed king in 1688 to 1689. Control of the Castle passed out of Molyneux hands after Caryll had again been suspected of participation in a Jacobite plot. William, the 7th Viscount, was a Jesuit, there were in his time not less than seven Molyneux in the Society of Jesus alone. Over the centuries, several deviations of the name Molyneaux have emerged; as the English language changed and incorporated elements of other European languages such as Norman French and Latin literate people changed the spelling of their names. Scribes and monks in the Middle Ages spelled names as they sounded, so it is common to find several variations that refer to a single person; the variations of the name include Molinex, Mullenneix, Molinieux, Molineaux, Mollineaux and several others.
Many variations were due to misspellings in American or other country's immigration services. Although Anglo-Norman surnames like Molyneaux are characterized by many spelling variations, the form Molyneux has prevailed with the modern trend towards standardisation. Sir Richard Molyneux, 1st Baronet Member of Parliament for Lancashire Sir Richard Molyneux, 2nd Baronet Richard Molyneux, 1st Viscount Molyneux Richard Molyneux, 2nd Viscount Molyneux Caryll Molyneux, 3rd Viscount Molyneux William Molyneux, 4th Viscount Molyneux Richard Molyneux, 5th Viscount Molyneux Caryll Molyneux, 6th Viscount Molyneux William Molyneux, 7th Viscount Molyneux Charles William Molyneux, 8th Viscount Molyneux Charles William Molyneux, 1st Earl of Sefton William Philip Molyneux, 2nd Earl of Sefton Charles William Molyneux, 3rd Earl of Sefton William Philip Molyneux, 4th Earl of Sefton Charles William Hylton Molyneux, 5th Earl of Sefton Osbert Cecil Molyneux, 6th Earl of Sefton Hugh William Osbert Molyneux, 7th Earl of Sefton Molyneux Baronets of Teversal Manor Molyneux of Castle Dillon, County Armagh Family tree of the Earls of Sefton History and biographical, of the Molyneux families.
N. Z. R. Molyneux. 1904. C. W. Bardeen. Syracuse, New York. International Molyneux Family Association
Dracaena is a genus of about 120 species of trees and succulent shrubs. In the APG IV classification system, it is placed in subfamily Nolinoideae, it has formerly been separated into the family Dracaenaceae or placed in the Agavaceae. The majority of the species are native to Africa, with a few in southern Asia through to northern Australia with two species in tropical Central America; the segregate genus Pleomele is now included in Dracaena. The genus Sansevieria is related, has been synonymized under Dracaena in the Kubitzki system. Species of Dracaena have a secondary thickening meristem in their trunk, quite different from the thickening meristem found in dicotyledonous plants and is termed Dracaenoid thickening by some authors; this characteristic is shared with members of the Agavoideae and Xanthorrhoeoideae among other members of the Asparagales. D. americana, D. arborea, D. cinnabari, D. draco, D. ombet, D. tamaranae are known as dragon trees and grow in arid semi-desert areas. They are tree-sized with stiff, broad-based leaves.
The remaining species are known collectively as shrubby dracaenas. They are smaller and shrub-like, with slender stems and flexible strap-shaped leaves, grow as understorey plants in rainforests. Many species of Dracaena are kept as houseplants due to tolerance of lower light and sparse watering. There are around 110 species of Dracaena, including: Dracaena afromontana – Afromontane dragon tree Dracaena americana – Central America dragon tree Dracaena aletriformis Bos) Dracaena arborea – tree dracaena Dracaena aubryana Brongn. Ex E. Morren Dracaena aurea H. Mann Dracaena bicolor Hook. Dracaena braunii Engl. Dracaena bushii Dracaena camerooniana Baker Dracaena cincta Dracaena cinnabari Balf.f. – Socotra dragon tree Dracaena concinna Kunth Dracaena draco L. – Canary Islands dragon tree Dracaena ellenbeckiana - Kedong Dracaena Dracaena elliptica Dracaena fragrans Ker Gawl. – striped dracaena, compact dracaena, corn plant, cornstalk dracaena Dracaena goldieana W. Bull Dracaena hookeriana Dracaena kaweesakii Wilkin & Suksathan Dracaena mannii Dracaena marmorata Dracaena ombet – Gabal Elba dragon tree Dracaena phrynioides Dracaena reflexa Lam.
– Pleomele dracaena or "Song of India" D. reflexa var. marginata – red-edged dracaena or Madagascar dragon tree Dracaena sanderiana Engl. – ribbon dracaena, marketed as "lucky bamboo" Dracaena serrulata Baker – Yemen dragon tree Dracaena surculosa Lindl. – spotted or gold dust dracaena. D. godseffiana Dracaena tamaranae – Gran Canaria dragon tree Dracaena umbraculifera Jacq. Asparagus asparagoides. Cordyline fruticosa A. Chev. Cordyline indivisa Steud. Cordyline obtecta Baker Cordyline stricta Endl. Dianella ensifolia DC. Liriope graminifolia Baker Lomandra filiformis Britten Some shrubby species, such as D. fragrans, D. surculosa, D. marginata, D. sanderiana, are popular as houseplants. Many of these are toxic to pets, though not humans, according to the ASPCA among others. Rooted stem cuttings of D. sanderiana are marketed in the U. S. A. and the UK as "lucky bamboo", although only superficially resembling true bamboos. A occurring bright red resin, dragon's blood, is collected from D. draco and, in ancient times, from D. cinnabari.
Modern dragon's blood is however more to be from the unrelated Daemonorops rattan palms.. It has a social functions in marking graves, sacred sites and farm plots in many African societies Media related to Dracaena at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Dracaena at Wikispecies Socotra botany. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh
A wildflower is a flower that grows in the wild, meaning it was not intentionally seeded or planted. Yet "wildflower" meadows of a few mixed species are sold in seed packets; the term implies that the plant is neither a hybrid nor a selected cultivar, in any way different from the way it appears in the wild as a native plant if it is growing where it would not naturally. The term can refer to the flowering plant as a whole when not in bloom, not just the flower."Wildflower" is not an exact term. Terms like native species, exotic or, introduced species, of which some are labelled invasive species and naturalized are much more accurate. In the United Kingdom, the organisation Plantlife International instituted the "County Flowers scheme" in 2002, for which members of the public nominated and voted for a wild flower emblem for their county; the aim was to spread awareness of the heritage of native species and about the need for conservation, as some of these species are endangered. For example, Somerset has adopted the Cheddar Pink, London the Rosebay Willowherb and Denbighshire/Sir Ddinbych in Wales the rare Limestone Woundwort.
Adonis aestivalis - summer pheasant's-eye Anthemis arvensis Anagallis Agrostemma githago Centaurea cyanus Coreopsis tinctoria Dianthus barbatus Digitalis purpurea Eschscholzia californica - California Poppy Gypsophila elegans Glebionis segetum Lantana spp. Papaver rhoeas Silene latifolia Viola tricolor Dimorphotheca aurantiaca Alnus glutinosa Callirhoe involucrata Potentilla sterilis Prunus padus Petasites hybridus Ranunculus ficaria Tussilago farfara Viola riviniana Phlox drummondii Ulmus sp. List of San Francisco Bay Area wildflowers Superbloom Megaherbs Native plant Naturalisation Media related to Wild flowers at Wikimedia Commons Wildflower Magazine promotes the use and conservation of wildflowers and native plants, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Published by the North American Native Plant Society Plantlife, UK organisation Wildflower in Cyprus Information on 1250 native plant species to North Cyprus. Ontario Wildflowers Detailed information about wildflowers of Ontario and Northeastern North America Western USA wildflower reports NPIN: Native Plant Database Native Plant Database from the North American Native Plant Society
The Bromeliaceae are a family of monocot flowering plants of 51 genera and around 3475 known species native to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa, Pitcairnia feliciana. They are among the basal families within the Poales and are the only family within the order that has septal nectaries and inferior ovaries; these inferior ovaries characterize a subfamily of the Bromeliaceae. The family includes both epiphytes, such as Spanish moss, terrestrial species, such as the pineapple. Many bromeliads are able to store water in a structure formed by their tightly-overlapping leaf bases. However, the family is diverse enough to include the tank bromeliads, grey-leaved epiphyte Tillandsia species that gather water only from leaf structures called trichomes, a large number of desert-dwelling succulents; the largest bromeliad is Puya raimondii, which reaches 3–4 m tall in vegetative growth with a flower spike 9–10 m tall, the smallest is Spanish moss.
Bromeliads are plants. Foliage takes different shapes, from needle-thin to broad and flat, symmetrical to irregular, spiky to soft; the foliage, which grows in a rosette, is patterned and coloured. Leaf colours range through shades of green, to gold. Varieties may have leaves with red, yellow and cream variations. Others may be spotted with purple, red, or cream, while others have different colors on the tops and botecies Tillandsia cyanea have a fragrance resembling that of clove spice. One study found 175,000 bromeliads per hectare in one forest. A wide variety of organisms takes advantage of the pools of water trapped by bromeliads. A study of 209 plants from the Ecuadorian lowlands identified 11,219 animals, representing more than 300 distinct species, many of which are found only on bromeliads. Examples include some species of ostracods, small salamanders about 2.5 cm in length, tree frogs. Jamaican bromeliads are home to Metopaulias depressus, a reddish-brown crab 2 cm across, which has evolved social behavior to protect its young from predation by Diceratobasis macrogaster, a species of damselfly whose larvae live in bromeliads.
Some bromeliads form homes for other species of bromeliads. Plants in the Bromeliaceae are represented in their natural climates across the Americas. One species can be found in Africa, they can be found at altitudes from sea level from rainforests to deserts. 1814 species are epiphytes, some are lithophytes, some are terrestrial. Accordingly, these plants can be found in the Andean highlands, from northern Chile to Colombia, in the Sechura Desert of coastal Peru, in the cloud forests of Central and South America, in southern United States from southern Virginia to Florida to Texas, in far southern Arizona. Bromeliads serve as phytotelmata, accumulating water between their leaves; the aquatic habitat created as a result is host to a diverse array of invertebrates aquatic insect larvae. These bromeliad invertebrates benefit their hosts by increasing nitrogen uptake into the plant. Bromeliads are among the more recent plant groups to have emerged; the greatest number of primitive species resides in the Andean highlands of South America, where they originated in the tepuis of the Guyana Shield.
The most basal genus, Brocchinia, is endemic to these tepuis, is placed as the sister group to the remaining genera in the family. The west African species Pitcairnia feliciana is the only bromeliad not endemic to the Americas, is thought to have reached Africa via long-distance dispersal about 12 million years ago. Bromeliads are able to live in a vast array of environmental conditions due to their many adaptations. Trichomes, in the form of scales or hairs, allow bromeliads to capture water in cloud forests and help to reflect sunlight in desert environments; some bromeliads have developed an adaptation known as the tank habit, which involves them forming a bound structure with their leaves that helps to capture water and nutrients in the absence of a well-developed root system. Bromeliads use crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis to create sugars; this adaptation allows bromeliads in hot or dry climates to open their stomates at night rather than during the day, which reduces water loss.
The family Bromeliaceae is placed in the order Poales. The family Bromeliaceae is organized into eight subfamilies: Brocchinioideae Lindmanioideae Tillandsioideae Hechtioideae Navioideae Pitcairnioideae Puyoideae BromelioideaeBromeliaceae were split into three subfamilies: Bromelioideae and Pitcairnioideae based on morphological characters. However, molecular evidence has revealed that while Bromelioideae and Tillandsioideae are monophyletic, Pitcairnioideae is, in fact and should be split into six subfamilies: Brocchinioideae, Hechtioideae, Navioideae and Puyoideae. Brocchinioideae is defined as the most basal branch of Bromeliaceae based on both morphological and molecular evidence, namely genes in chloroplast DNA. Lindmanioideae is the next most basal branch distinguished from the other subfamilies by convolute sepals and chloroplast DNA. Hechtioideae is defined based on analyses of chloroplast DNA. Navioideae is split from Pitcairnioideae based on its cochlear sepals and chloroplast DNA.
Puyoideae has been re-classified multiple times and its monophyly remains controversial according to analyses of c
Liverpool City Council
Liverpool City Council is the governing body for the city of Liverpool in Merseyside, England. It consists of three for each of the city's 30 wards; the council is controlled by the Labour Party and is led by Mayor Joe Anderson. It is a constituent council of Liverpool City Region Combined Authority. Liverpool has been a town since 1207, it has had a town corporation since before the 19th century, this was one of the corporations reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. The corporation created a police force in 1836. Liverpool was granted city status in 1880; when local government was reformed in 1888 under the Local Government Act 1888 it was one of the cities to become a county borough, thus independent of Lancashire. This situation persisted until 1974 with the Local Government Act 1972, when due to urban expansion and the accretion of a large metropolitan area, the city was made a metropolitan district of the metropolitan county of Merseyside; this saw the old corporation nomenclature abolished and the council reconstituted as Liverpool City Council.
In 1835 Liverpool expanded into the village of Everton and the township of Kirkdale in the 1860s. In 1895 Wavertree and parts of Toxteth and West Derby were incorporated into the city. Fazakerley and Gateacre followed the rest of West Derby known as West Derby Rural in 1928 and Speke in 1932. In 1986 the council of Merseyside was abolished and its functions devolved to its districts, but the county still exists. Liverpool has never been a district council under Lancashire County Council. In the late 1970s the City was run by the Liberal Party under Sir Trevor Jones; as part of their plans, a cost-cutting exercise was drawn up, to reduce the council's costs by 25%. In 1979 the Conservative Party won the General Election; the new government intended to cut council spending but Liverpool City Council negotiated an exception from this, on the grounds that they were following government policy and cutting 25%. During the 1980s, the Trotskyist Militant group gained control of Liverpool's Labour Party and the council, attempted to challenge the national government on several issues including refusing to set a budget in 1985.
The council adopted a'deficit budget' in which spending exceeded income, causing a financial crisis. The leadership of the Labour Party was drawn into the controversy, culminating with Neil Kinnock's speech to the Party Conference in 1985, denouncing Liverpool City Council without explicitly naming it. Derek Hatton, councillor for Netherley ward and Deputy Leader of the Council, shouted "lies" at the platform, Eric Heffer, MP for Liverpool Walton constituency, left the conference platform; the Labour Party succeeded in expelling members of Militant, Hatton himself was expelled from the Labour Party in June 1986. 1998 The Liberal Democrats win control of Liverpool City Council, led by Councillor Mike Storey 2001 Paradise Project is unveiled as plan to transform Chavasse Park in city centre with creation of new retail complex - to be called Liverpool ONE. 2003 Liverpool win the UK nomination of European Capital of Culture for 2008. 2004 Liverpool's waterfront and parts of the city centre are given World Heritage status.
2005 Liverpool Culture Company is established to deliver city's 800th anniversary in 2007 and European Capital of Culture in 2008. 2005 in November Lib Dem leader of the Council Mike Storey resigns after eight years following accusations of plotting to try to engineer departure of Council's Chief Executive, Sir David Henshaw. 2005 Cllr Storey was replaced as leader by Warren Bradley. Sir David Henshaw was replaced as chief executive by Colin Hilton. 2005 Liverpool City Council issue a formal apology for the flooding of Capel Celyn, near Bala, North Wales. The community was destroyed and the land flooded to create Llyn Celyn in 1965; the reservoir was created to supply water to Liverpool and Wirral. 2007 Council owned. 2007 Liverpool celebrates 800th anniversary on 28 August. 2007 Council owned. 2008 Liverpool launches its year as European Capital of Culture on January 11 with a "people's party" outside St George's Hall, attended by more than 40,000 people. On January 12 the Liverpool Echo Arena, owned by the council, was opened with a concert featuring Liverpool music bands past and present.
2008 Council awarded 1 star by Audit Commission. 2008 Liberal Democrats lose overall control of city on 1 May in local elections, however a midnight defection of an Independent Councillor gives them a majority of 1. 2008 Green Party take second seat in St Michael's ward, becoming a recognisable "group" on the council. 2009 The council announces a major shake up of middle management. 2010 The Labour party win control of the council for the first time in 12 years, with Councillor Joe Anderson becoming the new council leader 2010 The Liverpool Schools Investment Programme was created in response to UK government scrapping Building Schools for the Future. £180m was invested over an eight year period, transforming 22 of the city’s primary and secondary schools - including 15 new builds. 2011 The Labour Party's Jake Morrison, aged 18, defeats Lord Mike Storey after 38 years service 2012 The Labour Party's Joe Anderson was elected as the first Mayor for Liverpool on a three year term. 2013 Council owned.
2015 Joe Anderson was re-elected as Mayor of Liverpool on a five year term. 2016 Council established Paddington Village - a £1bn development site to attract world class science research and
Parks and open spaces in Liverpool
Liverpool, England, UK has a significant area of public parks and gardens. The English Heritage National Register of Historic Parks describes Merseyside’s Victorian Parks as collectively the "most important in the country"; the city of Liverpool has ten listed parks and cemeteries, including two Grade I and five Grade II*, more than any other English city apart from London. There are over open spaces in the city. Much of the open space was for centuries private estate land. In particular several of the city's grand houses of the Georgian and Victorian eras are now either demolished or in public ownership, with their grounds and gardens given over to the city. Notable, are several parks which were conceived from the outset as public parks, modelled in part on the nearby Birkenhead Park, outwith Liverpool across the River Mersey, amongst the first of its type in the world. In 1833, the government's Select Committee on Public Walks emphasised the need to provide accessible space for recreation to improve the health of the urban population, to defuse social tensions and to allow social classes to mix.
From the early 1850s onwards, Liverpool endorsed this policy with the introduction of a ring of major municipal parks through a significant level of investment in public parks. These included Princes, Wavertree, Shiel and Stanley Parks; this list includes all the parks and open spaces included in the website of Liverpool City Council, all the registered parks and gardens in the National Heritage List for England, a historic park, now closed. Entry to all of these parks is unrestricted in terms of opening hours, with the exception of the walled botanic garden in Wavertree Park. Today Croxteth Country Park is managed by Liverpool City Council; this park is an example of a working country estate, with the park featuring the historic Hall itself, surrounded by mature woodlands, a collection of rare breed farm animals in the traditional "Home Farm" yard, a Victorian walled garden. The Hall is Grade II* listed and the Park Grade II. Academics from the University of Liverpool's School of History have undertaken research on the historic development of parks and open spaces in the city and their future contribution to community development, bio-diversity, public health and urban regeneration.
The team have worked to compile the first definitive chronology of the city’s parks over the past 200 years and a book should document the changing role of parks, from their prominence during the Victorian era through to the present day. BibliographyLayton-Jones, Katy.
An earl is a member of the nobility. The title is Anglo-Saxon in origin, akin to the Scandinavian form jarl, meant "chieftain" a chieftain set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it was replaced by duke. In medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count. However, earlier in Scandinavia, jarl could mean a sovereign prince. For example, the rulers of several of the petty kingdoms of Norway had the title of jarl and in many cases they had no less power than their neighbours who had the title of king. Alternative names for the rank equivalent to "earl/count" in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as the hakushaku of the post-restoration Japanese Imperial era. In modern Britain, an earl is a member of the peerage, ranking below a marquess and above a viscount. A feminine form of earl never developed; the term earl has been compared to the name of the Heruli, to runic erilaz. Proto-Norse eril, or the Old Norse jarl, came to signify the rank of a leader.
The Norman-derived equivalent count was not introduced following the Norman conquest of England though countess was and is used for the female title. Geoffrey Hughes writes, "It is a speculation that the Norman French title'Count' was abandoned in England in favour of the Germanic'Earl' because of the uncomfortable phonetic proximity to cunt". In the other languages of Britain and Ireland, the term is translated as: Welsh iarll and Scottish Gaelic iarla, Scots yarl or yerl, Cornish yurl. An earl has the title Earl of when the title originates from a placename, or Earl when the title comes from a surname. In either case, he is referred to as Lord, his wife as Lady. A countess who holds an earldom in her own right uses Lady, but her husband does not have a title; the eldest son of an earl, though not himself a peer, is entitled to use a courtesy title the highest of his father's lesser titles, for instance the eldest son of The Earl Of Wessex is styled as James, Viscount Severn. Younger sons are styled The Honourable, daughters, The Lady.
In the peerage of Scotland, when there are no courtesy titles involved, the heir to an earldom, indeed any level of peerage, is styled Master of, successive sons as younger of. In Anglo-Saxon England, earls had authority over their own regions and right of judgment in provincial courts, as delegated by the king, they collected fines and taxes and in return received a "third penny", one-third of the money they collected. In wartime they led the king's armies; some shires were grouped together into larger units known as earldoms, headed by an ealdorman or earl. Under Edward the Confessor earldoms like Wessex, East Anglia and Northumbria—names that represented earlier independent kingdoms—were much larger than any shire. Earls functioned as royal governors. Though the title of Earl was nominally equal to the continental duke, unlike them, earls were not de facto rulers in their own right. After the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror tried to rule England using the traditional system but modified it to his own liking.
Shires became the largest secular subdivision in England and earldoms disappeared. The Normans did create new earls like those of Herefordshire and Cheshire but they were associated with only a single shire at most, their power and regional jurisdiction was limited to that of the Norman counts. There was no longer any administrative layer larger than the shire, shires became "counties". Earls no longer aided in tax collection or made decisions in country courts and their numbers were small. King Stephen increased the number of earls to reward those loyal to him in his war with his cousin Empress Matilda, he gave some earls the right to hold royal castles or control the sheriff and soon other earls assumed these rights themselves. By the end of his reign, some earls held courts of their own and minted their own coins, against the wishes of the king, it fell to Stephen's successor Henry II to again curtail the power of earls. He took back the control of royal castles and demolished castles that earls had built for themselves.
He did not create new earldoms. No earl was allowed to remain independent of royal control; the English kings had found it dangerous to give additional power to an powerful aristocracy, so sheriffs assumed the governing role. The details of this transition remain obscure, since earls in more peripheral areas, such as the Scottish Marches and Welsh Marches and Cornwall, retained some viceregal powers long after other earls had lost them; the loosening of central authority during the Anarchy complicates any smooth description of the changeover. By the 13th century, earls had a social rank just below the king and princes, but were not more powerful or wealthier than other noblemen; the only way to become an earl was to inherit the title or marry into one—and the king reserved a right to prevent the transfer of the title. By the 14th century, creating an earl included a special public ceremony where the king tied a sword belt around the waist of the new earl, emphasizing the fact that the earl's rights came from him.
Earls still held influence and, as "companions of the king", were regarded as supporters of the king's power. They showed that power for the first time in 1327 when they deposed Edward II, they would do th