SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Crucifixion

Crucifixion was a method of capital punishment in which the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days, until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation. The crucifixion of Jesus is central to Christianity, the cross is the main religious symbol for many Christian churches. Ancient Greek has two verbs for crucify: ana-stauro, from stauros and apo-tumpanizo "crucify on a plank", together with anaskolopizo. In earlier pre-Roman Greek texts anastauro means "impale". New Testament Greek uses four verbs, three of them based upon stauros translated "cross"; the most common term is stauroo, "to crucify". Prospegnumi, "to fix or fasten to, crucify" occurs only once at the Acts of the Apostles 2:23; the English term cross derives from the Latin word crux. The Latin term crux classically referred to a tree or any construction of wood used to hang criminals as a form of execution; the term came to refer to a cross. The English term crucifix derives from the Latin crucifixus or cruci fixus, past participle passive of crucifigere or cruci figere, meaning "to crucify" or "to fasten to a cross".

Crucifixion was most performed to dissuade its witnesses from perpetrating similar crimes. Victims were sometimes left on display after death as a warning to any other potential criminals. Crucifixion was intended to provide a death, slow, gruesome and public, using whatever means were most expedient for that goal. Crucifixion methods varied with location and time period; the Greek and Latin words corresponding to "crucifixion" applied to many different forms of painful execution, including being impaled on a stake, or affixed to a tree, upright pole, or to a combination of an upright and a crossbeam. Seneca the Younger wrote: "I see crosses there, not just of one kind but made in many different ways: some have their victims with head down to the ground. In some cases, the condemned was forced to carry the crossbeam to the place of execution. A whole cross would weigh well over 135 kg, but the crossbeam would not be as burdensome, weighing around 45 kg; the Roman historian Tacitus records that the city of Rome had a specific place for carrying out executions, situated outside the Esquiline Gate, had a specific area reserved for the execution of slaves by crucifixion.

Upright posts would be fixed permanently in that place, the crossbeam, with the condemned person already nailed to it, would be attached to the post. The person executed may have been attached to the cross by rope, though nails and other sharp materials are mentioned in a passage by the Judean historian Josephus, where he states that at the Siege of Jerusalem, "the soldiers out of rage and hatred, nailed those they caught, one after one way, another after another, to the crosses, by way of jest". Objects used in the crucifixion of criminals, such as nails, were sought as amulets with perceived medicinal qualities. While a crucifixion was an execution, it was a humiliation, by making the condemned as vulnerable as possible. Although artists have traditionally depicted the figure on a cross with a loin cloth or a covering of the genitals, the person being crucified was stripped naked. Writings by Seneca the Younger state some victims suffered a stick forced upwards through their groin. Despite its frequent use by the Romans, the horrors of crucifixion did not escape criticism by some eminent Roman orators.

Cicero, for example, described crucifixion as "a most cruel and disgusting punishment", suggested that "the mention of the cross should be far removed not only from a Roman citizen's body, but from his mind, his eyes, his ears". Elsewhere he says, "It is a crime to bind a Roman citizen. What shall I say of crucifying him? So guilty an action cannot by any possibility be adequately expressed by any name bad enough for it."Frequently, the legs of the person executed were broken or shattered with an iron club, an act called crurifragium, frequently applied without crucifixion to slaves. This act hastened the death of the person but was meant to deter those who observed the crucifixion from committing offenses; the gibbet on which crucifixion was carried out could be of many shapes. Josephus says that the Roman soldiers who crucified the many prisoners taken during the Siege of Jerusalem under Titus, diverted themselves by nailing them to the crosses in different ways; this was the simplest available construction for killing the condemned.

However, there was a cross-piece attached either at the top to give the shape of a T or just below the top, as in the fo

CharaƱa Municipality

Charaña Municipality is the fifth municipal section of the Pacajes Province in the La Paz Department, Bolivia. Its seat is Charaña; some of the highest mountains of the municipality are listed below: Ch'iyara Salla Jach'a Kunturiri Kunturiri K'illima Parki Laram Q'awa Laram Q'awa Phaq'u Q'awa Tatitu Qullu Wayra Lupi Qullu The climate in Charaña is characterized by a sub-freezing mean annual temperature, with large annual temperature ranges, moderately low precipitation. The Köppen Climate System classifies this as a Tundra climate, abbreviated as ET

Andrew Gant

Andrew Gant is a British composer, author and Liberal Democrat politician. He was organist and composer at Her Majesty's Chapel Royal from 2000 to 2013, has published three books on musical subjects. Gant is leader of the Liberal Democrat group on Oxford City Council and was the party's parliamentary candidate for The Cotswolds constituency at the 2017 general election. Gant attended Radley College before going on to read Music and English at St John's College, Cambridge, he sang in the College Choir under George Guest. He subsequently studied composition with Paul Patterson at the Royal Academy of Music and completed his PhD at Goldsmiths College, University of London. Gant is Stipendiary Lecturer in Music at St Peter's College, University of Oxford, held the same position at St Edmund Hall until 2014, he is an experienced singer, having sung with most of the United Kingdom's leading choirs and vocal ensembles including The Sixteen, the Monteverdi Choir, the Cambridge Singers and the Tallis Scholars.

He has held posts as a church musician at Westminster Abbey, Selwyn College, The Royal Military Chapel, Worcester College, Oxford. In September 2000 he was appointed Organist and Composer at Her Majesty's Chapels Royal, he has led the Chapel Royal choir at, among many other events, the funeral of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, the Golden Jubilee service in St Paul's Cathedral in 2002, the 10th anniversary service for the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, the wedding of H. R. H. Prince William and Kate Middleton in 2011, the annual Remembrance Day parade at the Cenotaph and the annual Royal Maundy service. During the Summer of 2002 he was featured in a BBC Radio 4 documentary. Gant set the text of the Poet Laureate Andrew Motion to music, creating A Hymn for the Golden Jubilee as part of the 2002 jubilee celebrations, at the request of the Lord Chamberlain's Office at Buckingham Palace; this piece was sung at many places across the world, including at the National Cathedral of Canada, by the RSCM in Australia, to Queen Elizabeth II in a concert at Windsor Castle.

It was featured on the official Jubilee CD produced by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and the Choir of St Paul's Cathedral. This recording was broadcast on BBC Radio 2, 3, 4, on Classic fM, where it featured high in the Classical Music Charts. Other compositions include "The Vision of Piers Plowman", an oratorio for the 2002 Three Choirs Festival, "A British Symphony", premiered by the Philharmonia in 2007, "May we borrow your husband?" an a cappella opera, "Don't go down the Elephant after midnight", an opera for soprano Patricia Rozario, a song-cycle for counter-tenor James Bowman, several works for choir. 2013 saw the beginning of an association with Profile Books. Gant's first title for the publisher was "Christmas Carols: from village green to church choir", published in 2014. A US edition, "The carols of Christmas", was published by Thomas Nelson in 2015. A second title for Profile, "O Sing unto the Lord: a history of English Church Music" followed in 2015, receiving favourable notices across the national media.

A US edition was published by University of Chicago Press in 2017, receiving favourable reviews in, among other publications, The New York Times. His contribution to Profile's series "Ideas in Profile", called "Music", was published in early 2017. Gant is working on a book about the sources and reception of Handel's "Messiah" for the Bodleian Press, a major one-volume history of music for Profile, due for publication in 2019. Gant's "Johann Sebastian Bach: A Very Brief History" was published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London, in 2018. Gant has appeared at literary festivals across the UK and further afield, on national TV and radio. At the May 2014 Oxford City Council election, Gant was elected as Liberal Democrat councillor for the Summertown ward, he was re-elected at the May 2016 election, took over as leader of the Lib Dem group and leader of the opposition. He stood unsuccessfully for the parliamentary constituency of The Cotswolds at the 2017 general election. Andrew Gant, Classics Online