Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner. Medical education and training varies across the world. Various teaching methodologies have been utilised in medical education, an active area of educational research. Entry-level medical education programs are tertiary-level courses undertaken at a medical school. Depending on jurisdiction and university, these may be either undergraduate-entry, or graduate-entry programs; some jurisdictions and universities provide both undergraduate entry programs and graduate entry programs. In general, initial training is taken at medical school. Traditionally initial medical education is divided between clinical studies; the former consists of the basic sciences such as anatomy, biochemistry, pathology. The latter consists of teaching in the various areas of clinical medicine such as internal medicine, pediatrics and gynecology, general practice and surgery. However, medical programs are using systems-based curricula in which learning is integrated, several institutions do this.
In the United States, until quite the requirements for the M. D. degree did not include one course in human nutrition. Today, this omission has been rectified, at least to the extent. There has been a proliferation of programmes that combine medical training with research or management programmes, although this has been criticised because extended interruption to clinical study has been shown to have a detrimental effect on ultimate clinical knowledge. Following completion of entry-level training, newly graduated doctors are required to undertake a period of supervised practice before full registration is granted. Further training in a particular field of medicine may be undertaken. In the U. S. further specialized training, completed after residency is referred to as "fellowship". In some jurisdictions, this is commenced following completion of entry-level training, while other jurisdictions require junior doctors to undertake generalist training for a number of years before commencing specialisation.
Education theory itself is becoming an integral part of postgraduate medical training. Formal qualifications in education are becoming the norm for medical educators, such that there has been a rapid increase in the number of available graduate programs in medical education. In most countries, continuing medical education courses are required for continued licensing. CME requirements vary by country. In the USA, accreditation is overseen by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. Physicians attend dedicated lectures, grand rounds and performance improvement activities in order to fulfill their requirements. Additionally, physicians are opting to pursue further graduate-level training in the formal study of medical education as a pathway for continuing professional development. Medical education is utilizing online teaching within learning management systems or virtual learning environments. Additionally, several medical schools have incorporated the use of blended learning combining the use of video and in-person exercises.
A landmark scoping review published in 2018 demonstrated that online teaching modalities are becoming prevalent in medical education, with associated high student satisfaction and improvement on knowledge tests. However, the use of evidence-based multimedia design principles in the development of online lectures was reported, despite their known effectiveness in medical student contexts. Research areas into online medical education include practical applications, including simulated patients and virtual medical records; when compared to no intervention, simulation in medical education training is associated with positive effects on knowledge and behaviors and moderate effects for patient outcomes. At present, in the United Kingdom, a typical medicine course at university is 5 years or 4 years if the student holds a degree. Among some institutions and for some students, it may be 6 years. All programs culminate in the Bachelor of Surgery degree; this is followed by 2 clinical foundation years afterward, namely F1 and F2, similar to internship training.
Students register with the UK General Medical Council at the end of F1. At the end of F2, they may pursue further years of study; the system in Australia is similar, with registration by the Australian Medical Council. In the US and Canada, a potential medical student must first complete an undergraduate degree in any subject before applying to a graduate medical school to pursue an program. U. S. medical schools are all four-year programs. Some students opt for the research-focused M. D./Ph. D. Dual degree program, completed in 7–10 years. There are certain courses that are pre-requisite for being accepted to medical school, such as general chemistry, organic chemistry, mathematics, English, etc; the specific requirements vary by school. In Australia, there are two path
Physical restraint refers to means of purposely limiting or obstructing the freedom of a person's bodily movement. Binding objects such as handcuffs, ropes, straps or straitjackets are used for this purpose. Alternatively different kinds of arm locks deriving from unarmed combat methods or martial arts are used to restrain a person, which are predominantly used by trained police or correctional officers; this less also extends to joint locks and pinning techniques. The freedom of movement in terms of locomotion is limited, by locking a person into an enclosed space, such as a prison cell and by chaining or binding someone to a heavy or immobile object; this effect can be achieved by seizing and withholding specific items of clothing, that are used for protection against common adversities of the environment. Examples can be protective clothing against temperature, forcing the individual to remain in a sheltered spot. A practice employed in countries including Zimbabwe is to take away a prisoner's shoes, forcing them to remain barefoot.
The freedom of movement is restricted in many everyday situations without the protection offered by conventional footwear. Various ground textures in urban as well as natural areas can cause substantial physical distress for a shoeless person and hinder the locomotion. Ground textures consisting of crushed stone or similar construction aggregate can be impossible for a person to walk or run over without wearing shoes. Aside from extreme circumstances, an unshod person is compromised by the usual imponderabilities of most surroundings and localities. Controlling the free movement of detainees by keeping them barefoot is therefore common practice in many countries. A main motive can be seen in the fact, that the principal effects of frustrating prison escape and curbing acts of resistance are obtained without cost and with only minimal effort. Further it is an effective complementation of binding restraints. British Police officers are authorised to use leg and arm restraints, if they have been instructed in their use.
Guidelines set out by the Association of Chief Police Officers dictate that restraints are only to be used on subjects who are violent while being transported, restraining the use of their arms and legs, minimising the risk of punching and kicking. Pouches carrying restraints are carried on the duty belt, in some cases carried in police vans. For restraint for medical or psychiatric purposes, see medical restraint. Physical restraints are used: by police and prison authorities to obstruct delinquents and prisoners from escaping or resisting to enforce corporal punishment by impeding motions of the target, as is still practiced in penal functions of several countries by specially-trained teachers or teaching assistants to restrain children and teenagers with severe behavioral problems or disorders like autism or Tourette syndrome, to prevent hurting others or themselvesapproximately 70 % of teachers who work with students with behavioral disabilities use a type of physical restraint used in emergency situations or for de-escalation purposes many educators believe restraints are used to maintain the safety and order of the classroom and students, while those who oppose their use believe they are dangerous to the physical and mental health of children and may result in death and.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act has stated that "Restraints may not be used as an alternative to adequate staff". "restraint may be used only when aggressive behavior interferes with an individual's own ability to benefit from programming or poses physical threat to others".by escapologists and stunt performers to restrain people who are suffering from involuntary physical spasms, to prevent them from hurting themselves controversially, in psychiatric hospitalsrestraints were developed during the 1700s by Philippe Pinel and performed with his assistant, Jean-Baptiste Pussin in hospitals in Franceby a kidnapper or other material for eroticismthe chemical mixed with sodium, causes anxiety Restraining someone against their will is a crime in most jurisdictions, unless it is explicitly sanctioned by law.. The misuse of physical restraint has resulted in many deaths. Physical restraint can be dangerous, sometimes in unexpected ways. Examples include: postural asphyxia unintended strangulation death due to choking or vomiting and being unable to clear the airway death due to inability to escape in the event of fire or other disaster death due to dehydration or starvation due to the inability to escape cutting off of blood circulation by restraints nerve damage by restraints cutting of blood vessels by struggling against restraints, resulting in death by loss of blood death by hypothermia or hyperthermia whilst unable to escape death from deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism due to lack of movementFor these and many other reasons, extreme caution is needed in the use of physical restraint.
Gagging a restrained person is risky, as it involves a substantial risk of asphyxia, both from the gag itself, from choking or vomiting and being unable to clear the airway. In practice, simple gags do not restrict communication much. Gags that prevent communication may prevent the communication of di
Hanged, drawn and quartered
To be hanged and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III. A convicted traitor was fastened to a hurdle, or wooden panel, drawn by horse to the place of execution, where he was hanged, disembowelled and quartered; the traitor's remains were displayed in prominent places across the country, such as London Bridge. For reasons of public decency, women convicted of high treason were instead burned at the stake; the severity of the sentence was measured against the seriousness of the crime. As an attack on the monarch's authority, high treason was considered a deplorable act demanding the most extreme form of punishment. Although some convicts had their sentences modified and suffered a less ignominious end, over a period of several hundred years many men found guilty of high treason were subjected to the law's ultimate sanction, they included many English Catholic priests executed during the Elizabethan era, several of the regicides involved in the 1649 execution of Charles I.
Although the Act of Parliament defining high treason remains on the United Kingdom's statute books, during a long period of 19th-century legal reform the sentence of hanging and quartering was changed to drawing, hanging until dead, posthumous beheading and quartering, before being abolished in England in 1870. The death penalty for treason was abolished in 1998. During the High Middle Ages those in England guilty of treason were punished in a variety of ways, including drawing and hanging. In the 13th century other, more brutal penalties were introduced, such as disembowelling, burning and quartering; the 13th-century English chronicler Matthew Paris described how in 1238 "a certain man at arms, a man of some education" attempted to kill King Henry III. His account records in gruesome detail how the would-be assassin was executed: "dragged asunder beheaded, his body divided into three parts, he was sent by William de Marisco, an outlaw who some years earlier had killed a man under royal protection before fleeing to Lundy Island.
De Marisco was captured in 1242 and on Henry's order dragged from Westminster to the Tower of London to be executed. There he was hanged from a gibbet until dead, his corpse was disembowelled, his entrails burned, his body quartered and the parts distributed to cities across the country. The punishment is more recorded during Edward I's reign; the Welsh Prince Dafydd ap Gruffydd became the first nobleman in England and Wales to be hanged and quartered after he turned against the king and proclaimed himself Prince of Wales and Lord of Snowdon. Dafydd's rebellion infuriated Edward so much. Therefore, following his capture and trial in 1283, for his betrayal he was drawn by horse to his place of execution. For killing English nobles he was hanged alive. For killing those nobles at Easter he was eviscerated and his entrails burned. For conspiring to kill the king in various parts of the realm, his body was quartered and the parts sent across the country. A similar fate was suffered by the Scottish leader Sir William Wallace.
Captured and tried in 1305, he was forced to wear a crown of laurel leaves and was drawn to Smithfield, where he was hanged and beheaded. His entrails were burned and his corpse quartered, his head was set on London Bridge and the quarters sent to Newcastle, Berwick and Perth. These and other executions, such as those of Andrew Harclay, 1st Earl of Carlisle, Hugh Despenser the Younger, which each occurred during King Edward II's reign, happened when acts of treason in England, their punishments, were not defined in common law. Treason was based on an allegiance to the sovereign from all subjects aged 14 or over and it remained for the king and his judges to determine whether that allegiance had been broken. Edward III's justices had offered somewhat over-zealous interpretations of what activities constituted treason, "calling felonies treasons and afforcing indictments by talk of accroachment of the royal power", prompting parliamentary demands to clarify the law. Edward therefore introduced the Treason Act 1351.
It was enacted at a time in English history when a monarch's right to rule was indisputable and was therefore written principally to protect the throne and sovereign. The new law offered a narrower definition of treason than had existed before and split the old feudal offence into two classes. Petty treason referred to the killing of a master by his servant, a husband by his wife, or a prelate by his clergyman. Men guilty of petty treason were hanged, whereas women were burned. High treason was the most egregious offence. Attempts to undermine the king's authority were viewed with as much seriousness as if the accused had attacked him which itself would be an assault on his status as sovereign and a direct threat to his right to govern; as this might undermine the state, retribution was considered an absolute necessity and the crime deserving of the ultimate punishment. The practical difference between the two offences therefore was in the consequence of being convicted; the Act declared that a person ha
The Marshall Islands the Republic of the Marshall Islands, is an island country and a United States associated state near the equator in the Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia; the country's population of 53,158 people is spread out over 29 coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. The islands share maritime boundaries with the Federated States of Micronesia to the west, Wake Island to the north, Kiribati to the southeast, Nauru to the south. About 27,797 of the islanders live on Majuro. Data from the United Nations indicates an estimated population in 2016 of 53,066. In 2016, 73.3% of the population were defined as being "urban". The UN indicates a population density of 295 per km2 and its projected 2020 population is 53,263. Micronesian colonists reached the Marshall Islands using canoes circa 2nd millennium BC, with interisland navigation made possible using traditional stick charts.
They settled here. Islands in the archipelago were first explored by Europeans in the 1520s, starting with Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese at the service of Spain, Juan Sebastián Elcano and Miguel de Saavedra. Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar reported sighting an atoll in August 1526. Other expeditions by Spanish and English ships followed; the islands derive their name from British explorer John Marshall, who visited in 1788. The islands were known by the inhabitants as "jolet jen Anij". Spain claimed the islands in 1592, the European powers recognized its sovereignty over the islands in 1874, they had been part of the Spanish East Indies formally since 1528. Spain sold some of the islands to the German Empire in 1885, they became part of German New Guinea that year, run by the trading companies doing business in the islands the Jaluit Company. In World War I the Empire of Japan occupied the Marshall Islands, which in 1920, the League of Nations combined with other former German territories to form the South Pacific Mandate.
During World War II, the United States took control of the islands in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign in 1944. Nuclear testing began in 1946 and concluded in 1958; the US government formed the Congress of Micronesia in 1965, a plan for increased self-governance of Pacific islands. The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1979 provided independence to the Marshall Islands, whose constitution and president were formally recognized by the US. Full sovereignty or Self-government was achieved in a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Marshall Islands has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983 and a United Nations member state since 1991. Politically, the Marshall Islands is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, with the US providing defense and access to U. S.-based agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission and the United States Postal Service. With few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture.
The country uses the United States dollar as its currency. In 2018, it announced plans for a new cryptocurrency to be used as legal tender; the majority of the citizens of the Republic of Marshall Islands, formed in 1982, are of Marshallese descent, though there are small numbers of immigrants from the United States, China and other Pacific islands. The two official languages are Marshallese, one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, English; the entire population of the islands practices some religion, with three-quarters of the country either following the United Church of Christ – Congregational in the Marshall Islands or the Assemblies of God. Evidence suggests that around 3,000 years ago successive waves of human migrants from Southeast Asia spread across the Western Pacific populating its many small islands; the Marshall Islands were settled by Micronesians in the 2nd millennium BC. Little is known of the islands' early history. Early settlers traveled between the islands by canoe using traditional stick charts.
The Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar landed there in 1526, the archipelago came to be known as "Los Pintados", "Las Hermanas" and "Los Jardines" within the Spanish Empire, first falling within the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, to be administered directly by Madrid upon the independence of Latin America and the dissolution of New Spain starting in 1821. They were only formally possessed by Spain for much of their colonial history, were considered part of the "Carolines", or alternatively the "Nuevas Filipinas"; the islands were left to their own affairs except for short-lived religious missions during the 16th and 17th centuries. They were ignored by European powers except for cartographic demarcation treaties between the Iberian Empires in 1529, 1750 and 1777; the archipelago corresponding to the present-day country was independently named by Krusenstern, after British explorer John Marshall, who visited them together with Thomas Gilbert in 1788, en route from Botany Bay to Canton (two s
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18. It is a noble gas. Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, at 0.934%. It is more than twice as abundant as water vapor, 23 times as abundant as carbon dioxide, more than 500 times as abundant as neon. Argon is the most abundant noble gas in Earth's crust, comprising 0.00015% of the crust. Nearly all of the argon in the Earth's atmosphere is radiogenic argon-40, derived from the decay of potassium-40 in the Earth's crust. In the universe, argon-36 is by far the most common argon isotope, as it is the most produced by stellar nucleosynthesis in supernovas; the name "argon" is derived from the Greek word ἀργόν, neuter singular form of ἀργός meaning "lazy" or "inactive", as a reference to the fact that the element undergoes no chemical reactions. The complete octet in the outer atomic shell makes argon stable and resistant to bonding with other elements, its triple point temperature of 83.8058 K is a defining fixed point in the International Temperature Scale of 1990.
Argon is produced industrially by the fractional distillation of liquid air. Argon is used as an inert shielding gas in welding and other high-temperature industrial processes where ordinarily unreactive substances become reactive. Argon is used in incandescent, fluorescent lighting, other gas-discharge tubes. Argon makes a distinctive blue-green gas laser. Argon is used in fluorescent glow starters. Argon has the same solubility in water as oxygen and is 2.5 times more soluble in water than nitrogen. Argon is colorless, odorless and nontoxic as a solid, liquid or gas. Argon is chemically inert under most conditions and forms no confirmed stable compounds at room temperature. Although argon is a noble gas, it can form some compounds under various extreme conditions. Argon fluorohydride, a compound of argon with fluorine and hydrogen, stable below 17 K, has been demonstrated. Although the neutral ground-state chemical compounds of argon are presently limited to HArF, argon can form clathrates with water when atoms of argon are trapped in a lattice of water molecules.
Ions, such as ArH+, excited-state complexes, such as ArF, have been demonstrated. Theoretical calculation predicts several more argon compounds that should be stable but have not yet been synthesized. Argon, is named in reference to its chemical inactivity; this chemical property of this first noble gas to be discovered impressed the namers. An unreactive gas was suspected to be a component of air by Henry Cavendish in 1785. Argon was first isolated from air in 1894 by Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay at University College London by removing oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen from a sample of clean air, they had determined that nitrogen produced from chemical compounds was 0.5% lighter than nitrogen from the atmosphere. The difference was slight, they concluded. Argon was encountered in 1882 through independent research of H. F. Newall and W. N. Hartley; each observed new lines in the emission spectrum of air. Until 1957, the symbol for argon was "A", but now is "Ar". Argon constitutes 0.934% by volume and 1.288% by mass of the Earth's atmosphere, air is the primary industrial source of purified argon products.
Argon is isolated from air by fractionation, most by cryogenic fractional distillation, a process that produces purified nitrogen, neon and xenon. The Earth's crust and seawater contain 0.45 ppm of argon, respectively. The main isotopes of argon found on Earth are 40Ar, 36Ar, 38Ar. Occurring 40K, with a half-life of 1.25×109 years, decays to stable 40Ar by electron capture or positron emission, to stable 40Ca by beta decay. These properties and ratios are used to determine the age of rocks by K–Ar dating. In the Earth's atmosphere, 39Ar is made by cosmic ray activity by neutron capture of 40Ar followed by two-neutron emission. In the subsurface environment, it is produced through neutron capture by 39K, followed by proton emission. 37Ar is created from the neutron capture by 40Ca followed by an alpha particle emission as a result of subsurface nuclear explosions. It has a half-life of 35 days. Between locations in the Solar System, the isotopic composition of argon varies greatly. Where the major source of argon is the decay of 40K in rocks, 40Ar will be the dominant isotope, as it is on Earth.
Argon produced directly by stellar nucleosynthesis, is dominated by the alpha-process nuclide 36Ar. Correspondingly, solar argon contains 84.6% 36Ar, the ratio of the three isotopes 36Ar: 38Ar: 40Ar in the atmospheres of the outer planets is 8400: 1600: 1. This contrasts with the low abundance of primordial 36Ar in Earth's atmosphere, only 31.5 ppmv, comparable with that of neon on Earth and with interplanetary gasses, measured by probes. The atmospheres of Mars and Titan contain argon, predominantly as 40Ar, its content may be as high as 1.93%. The predominance of radiogenic 40Ar is the reason the standard atomic weight of terrestrial argon is greater than that of the next element, potassium, a fact that was
Impalement, as a method of execution and torture, is the penetration of a human by an object such as a stake, spear, or hook by the complete or partial perforation of the torso. It was used in response to "crimes against the state" and regarded across a number of cultures as a harsh form of capital punishment and recorded in myth and art. Impalement was used during times of war to suppress rebellions, punish traitors or collaborators, punish breaches of military discipline. Offenses where impalement was employed included: contempt for the state's responsibility for safe roads and trade routes by committing highway robbery or grave robbery, violating state policies or monopolies, or subverting standards for trade. Offenders have been impaled for a variety of cultural and religious reasons. References to impalement in Babylonia and the Neo-Assyrian Empire are found as early as the 18th century BC. Impaling an individual along the body length has been documented in several cases, the merchant Jean de Thevenot provides an eyewitness account of this, from 17th century Egypt, in the case of a Jewish man condemned to death for the use of false weights: They lay the malefactor upon his belly, with his hands tied behind his back they slit up his fundament with a razor, throw into it a handful of paste that they have in readiness, which stops the blood.
After that, they thrust up into his body a long stake as big as a mans arm, sharp at the point and tapered, which they grease a little before. One day I saw a man upon the pale, sentenced to continue so for three hours alive and that he might not die too soon, the stake was not thrust up far enough to come out at any part of his body, they put a stay or rest upon the pale, to hinder the weight of his body from making him sink down upon it, or the point of it from piercing him through, which would have presently killed him: In this manner he was left for some hours, turning from one side to another, prayed those that passed by to kill him, making a thousand wry mouths and faces, because of the pain he suffered when he stirred himself, but after dinner, the Basha sent one to dispatch him; the length of time which one managed to survive upon the stake is reported as quite varied, from a few seconds or minutes to a few hours or 1 to 3 days. The Dutch overlords at Batavia, present day Jakarta, seem to have been proficient in prolonging the lifetime of the impaled, one witnessing a man surviving 6 days on the stake, another hearing from local surgeons that some could survive 8 or more days.
A critical determinant for survival length seems to be how the stake was inserted: If it went into the "interior" parts, vital organs could be damaged, leading to a swift death. However, by letting the stake follow the spine, the impalement procedure would not damage the vital organs, the person could survive for several days. Alternatively, the impalement could be transversely performed, for example in the frontal-to-dorsal direction, that is, from front to back or vice versa. In the Holy Roman Empire, women who killed their newborn babies were placed in open graves, stakes were hammered into their hearts if their cases contained any implications of witchcraft. A detailed description of an execution, carried out in this manner comes from 17th century Košice; the case of a woman, to be executed for infanticide involved an executioner and two assistants. First, a grave some one-and-a-half ell deep was dug; the woman was placed within it, her hands and feet were secured by driving nails through them.
The executioner placed a small thorn bush upon her face. He placed, held vertically, a wooden stave on her heart in order to mark its location, while his assistants piled earth on the woman, keeping her head free of earth at the behest of the clerics, because to do otherwise would have quickened the death process. Once the earth had been piled upon her, the executioner used a pair of tongs to grab a rod made of iron, made red hot, he positioned the glowing iron rod beside the wooden stave, as one of his assistants hammered the rod in, the other assistant emptied a trough of earth upon the woman's head. It is said that a scream was heard, the earth moved upwards for a moment, before it was all over. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, travelling on botanical research in the Levant 1700–1702, observed both ordinary longitudinal impalement, but a method called "gaunching", in which the condemned is hoisted up by means of a rope over a bed of sharp metal hooks, he is released, depending on how the hooks enter his body, he may survive in impaled condition for a few days.
Forty years earlier than de Tournefort, de Thévenot described much the same process, adding that it was used because it was regarded as too cruel. Some 80 years prior to de Thevenot, in 1579, Hans Jacob Breuning von Buchenbach witnessed a variant of the gaunching ritual. A large iron hook was fixed on the horizontal cross-bar of the gallows and the individual was forced upon this hook, piercing him from the abdomen through his back, so that he hung from it, hands and head downward. On top of the cross bar, the executioner si
Death by burning
Death by burning is an execution method involving deliberately causing death through the effects of combustion or exposure to extreme heat. It has a long history as a form of capital punishment, many societies have employed it for activities considered criminal such as treason, rebellious actions by slaves, witchcraft and sexual transgressions, such as incest or homosexuality; the best known executions of this type are those where the condemned is bound to a large wooden stake and a fire lit beneath them. This is called burning at the stake, or in some cases, auto-da-fé. For burnings at the stake, if the fire was large, death came from carbon monoxide poisoning before flames caused lethal harm to the body. If the fire was small, the condemned would burn for some time until death from hypovolemia, heatstroke or the simple thermal decomposition of vital body parts. Other forms of death resulting from exposure to extreme heat are known. For example, pouring substances such as molten metal onto a person, as well as enclosing persons within, or attaching them to, metal contraptions subsequently heated.
Immersion in a heated liquid as a form of execution is considered distinct from death by burning, classified as death by boiling. The 18th century BC law code promulgated by Babylonian king Hammurabi specifies several crimes in which death by burning was thought appropriate. Looters of houses on fire could be cast into the flames, priestesses who abandoned cloisters and began frequenting inns and taverns could be punished by being burnt alive. Furthermore, a man who began committing incest with his mother after the death of his father could be ordered by courts to be burned alive. In Ancient Egypt, several incidents of burning alive perceived rebels are attested. For example, Senusret I is said to have rounded up the rebels in campaign, burnt them as human torches. Under the civil war flaring under Takelot II more than a thousand years the Crown Prince Osorkon showed no mercy, burned several rebels alive. On the statute books, at least, women committing adultery might be burned to death. Jon Manchip White, did not think capital judicial punishments were carried out, pointing to the fact that the pharaoh had to ratify each verdict.
Furthermore, the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus asserts that the Egyptians had a terrible punishment for children who murdered their parents: With sharpened reeds, bits of flesh the size of a finger were cut from the criminal's body. He was placed on a bed of thorns and burnt alive. In the Middle Assyrian period, paragraph 40 in a preserved law text concerns the obligatory unveiled face for the professional prostitute, the concomitant punishment if she violated that by veiling herself: A prostitute shall not be veiled. Whoever sees a veiled prostitute shall seize her... and bring her to the palace entrance.... They shall pour hot pitch over her head. For the Neo-Assyrians, mass executions seem to have been not only designed to instill terror and to enforce obedience, but as proof of their might. For example, Neo-Assyrian King Asuhurnasirpal II was evidently proud enough of his bloody work that he committed it to monument and eternal memory as follows:I cut off their hands, I burned them with fire, a pile of the living men and of heads over against the city gate I set up, men I impaled on stakes, the city I destroyed and devastated, I turned it into mounds and ruin heaps, the young men and the maidens in the fire I burned.
In Genesis 38, Judah orders Tamar—the widow of his son, living in her father's household—to be burned when she is believed to have become pregnant by an extramarital sexual relation. Tamar saves herself by proving. In the Book of Jubilees, the same story is told, with some intriguing differences, according to Caryn A. Reeder. In Genesis, Judah is exercising his patriarchal power at a distance, whereas he and the relatives seem more involved in Tamar's impending execution. In Hebraic law, death by burning was prescribed for ten forms of sexual crimes: The imputed crime of Tamar, namely that a married daughter of a priest commits adultery, nine versions of relationships considered as incestuous, such as having sex with one's own daughter, or granddaughter, but for example, to have sex with one's mother-in-law or with one's wife's daughter. In the Mishnah, the following manner of burning the criminal is described: The obligatory procedure for execution by burning: They immersed him in dung up to his knees, rolled a rough cloth into a soft one and wound it about his neck.
One pulled it one the other until he opened his mouth. Thereupon one ignites the wick and throws it in his mouth, it descends to his bowels and sears his bowels; that is, the person dies from being fed molten lead. The Mishnah is, however, a late collections of laws, from about the 3rd century AD, scholars believe it replaced the actual punishment of burning in the old biblical texts. In the 6th century AD collection of the sayings and rulings of the pre-eminent jurists from earlier ages, the Digest, a number of crimes are regarded as punishable by death by burning; the 3rd century jurist Ulpian, for example, says that enemies of the state, deserters to the enemy are to be burned alive. His rough contemporary, the juristical w