A cruiser is a type of warship. Modern cruisers are the largest ships in a fleet after aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships, can perform several roles; the term has been in use for several hundred years, has had different meanings throughout this period. During the Age of Sail, the term cruising referred to certain kinds of missions—independent scouting, commerce protection, or raiding—fulfilled by a frigate or sloop-of-war, which were the cruising warships of a fleet. In the middle of the 19th century, cruiser came to be a classification for the ships intended for cruising distant waters, commerce raiding, scouting for the battle fleet. Cruisers came in a wide variety of sizes, from the medium-sized protected cruiser to large armored cruisers that were nearly as big as a pre-dreadnought battleship. With the advent of the dreadnought battleship before World War I, the armored cruiser evolved into a vessel of similar scale known as the battlecruiser; the large battlecruisers of the World War I era that succeeded armored cruisers were now classified, along with dreadnought battleships, as capital ships.
By the early 20th century after World War I, the direct successors to protected cruisers could be placed on a consistent scale of warship size, smaller than a battleship but larger than a destroyer. In 1922, the Washington Naval Treaty placed a formal limit on these cruisers, which were defined as warships of up to 10,000 tons displacement carrying guns no larger than 8 inches in calibre; some variations on the Treaty cruiser design included the German Deutschland-class "pocket battleships" which had heavier armament at the expense of speed compared to standard heavy cruisers, the American Alaska class, a scaled-up heavy cruiser design designated as a "cruiser-killer". In the 20th century, the obsolescence of the battleship left the cruiser as the largest and most powerful surface combatant after the aircraft carrier; the role of the cruiser varied according to ship and navy including air defense and shore bombardment. During the Cold War, the Soviet Navy's cruisers had heavy anti-ship missile armament designed to sink NATO carrier task forces via saturation attack.
The U. S. Navy built guided-missile cruisers upon destroyer-style hulls designed to provide air defense while adding anti-submarine capabilities, being larger and having longer-range surface-to-air missiles than early Charles F. Adams guided-missile destroyers tasked with the short-range air defense role. By the end of the Cold War, the line between cruisers and destroyers had blurred, with the Ticonderoga-class cruiser using the hull of the Spruance-class destroyer but receiving the cruiser designation due to their enhanced mission and combat systems. Indeed, the newest U. S. and Chinese destroyers are more armed than some of the cruisers that they succeeded. Only two nations operate cruisers: the United States and Russia, in both cases the vessels are armed with guided missiles. BAP Almirante Grau was the last gun cruiser in service, serving with the Peruvian Navy until 2017; the term "cruiser" or "cruizer" was first used in the 17th century to refer to an independent warship. "Cruiser" meant the mission of a ship, rather than a category of vessel.
However, the term was nonetheless used to mean a faster warship suitable for such a role. In the 17th century, the ship of the line was too large and expensive to be dispatched on long-range missions, too strategically important to be put at risk of fouling and foundering by continual patrol duties; the Dutch navy was noted for its cruisers in the 17th century, while the Royal Navy—and French and Spanish navies—subsequently caught up in terms of their numbers and deployment. The British Cruiser and Convoy Acts were an attempt by mercantile interests in Parliament to focus the Navy on commerce defence and raiding with cruisers, rather than the more scarce and expensive ships of the line. During the 18th century the frigate became the preeminent type of cruiser. A frigate was a small, long range armed ship used for scouting, carrying dispatches, disrupting enemy trade; the other principal type of cruiser was the sloop, but many other miscellaneous types of ship were used as well. During the 19th century, navies began to use steam power for their fleets.
The 1840s sloops. By the middle of the 1850s, the British and U. S. Navies were both building steam frigates with long hulls and a heavy gun armament, for instance USS Merrimack or Mersey; the 1860s saw the introduction of the ironclad. The first ironclads were frigates, in the sense of having one gun deck. In spite of their great speed, they would have been wasted in a cruising role; the French constructed a number of smaller ironclads for overseas cruising duties, starting with the Belliqueuse, commissioned 1865. These "station ironclads" were the beginning of the development of the armored cruisers, a type of ironclad for the traditional cruiser missions of fast, independent raiding and patrol; the first true armored cruiser was the Russian General-Admiral, completed in 1874, followed by the British Shannon a few years later. Until the 1890s armored cruiser
Martin James "Marty" Schreiber is an American politician, publisher and lobbyist, the 38th Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin, the 39th Governor of Wisconsin from 1977 to 1979. Schreiber has become an advocate on issues related to Alzheimer's dementia. Schreiber was born in Wisconsin, his father Martin E. Schreiber was a Republican member of the Wisconsin State Assembly, a member of the Milwaukee Common Council; the younger Schreiber attended the youth government and leadership program Badger Boys State in 1956 as a representative chosen from Milwaukee Lutheran High School. He attended Valparaiso University, the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, majoring in urban studies, he earned a law degree from Marquette University Law School in 1964. A Democrat, Schreiber served in the Wisconsin State Senate from 1963 to 1971. During his political career, Schreiber focused on education, children’s issues, consumer protection, the rights of workers and the elderly. Schreiber was the youngest senator in state history, having been elected at age 23.
In 1970, Schreiber was elected lieutenant governor on the Lucey-Schreiber ticket. He was elected the youngest chairperson for the National Lieutenant Governors Association in 1972. In July 1977, following the resignation of Lucey to become the United States ambassador to Mexico, Schreiber succeeded him as Governor for the remainder of their four-year term. In the 1978 election, Schreiber faced a divisive primary challenge by developer David Carley. In the general election, political newcomer Lee S. Dreyfus, a populist Republican and skilled orator, waged an unconventional campaign and attacked the Lucey-Schreiber record on taxes and big government. Schreiber lost 54% to 44%. Following the election, Schreiber moved to Stevens Point and became vice-president of Sentry Insurance, he ran for the governor's office again in 1982, campaigning against Anthony S. Earl, former head of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, he returned to Sentry Insurance. Schreiber ran again for office in 1988, seeking the Mayoralty of Milwaukee, but was defeated by John Norquist.
In 1988, after leaving state government, Schreiber formed his own public affairs consulting firm, becoming a successful lobbyist. In 1961 Schreiber married Elaine Thaney and they had four children. Schreiber serves on the Milwaukee Public Library Board of Trustees, his wife, Elaine, is a former Milwaukee public-school teacher. Schreiber is the author of My Two Elaines: Learning and Surviving as an Alzheimer's Caregiver, detailing his experiences in caring for his wife, who battled Alzheimer's Disease. Schreiber helped to found the "Elaine and Friends Caregiver Help Center" and is a frequent speaker on issues relating to Alzheimer's, his book was recognized by Caring.com as one of its "Best Caregiving Books of 2018."Schreiber helped the Alzheimer's Association launch its "Operation: Stronger Together" awareness program. He collaborated with Wisconsin’s state government and business groups to help create the "Dementia-Friendly Employers" Toolkit, used by human resources departments and employee assistance programs.
My Two Elaines: Learning and Surviving as an Alzheimer's Caregiver with Cathy Breitenbucher Governor Martin Schreiber, Wisconsin State Historical Society Martin Schreiber & Associates, Inc. Public Affairs Consulting
The Book of Jasher, which means the Book of the Upright or the Book of the Just Man is an apocryphal book mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. The translation "Book of the Just Man" is the traditional Greek and Latin translation, while the transliterated form "Jasher" is found in the King James Bible, 1611; the book is mentioned twice in the Hebrew Bible. According to the Book of Joshua, while Joshua was winning a battle against Adonizedek and his allies, Joshua prayed for the sun and moon to stand still. Joshua 10:13 states: And the Sun stood still, the Moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves on their enemies. Is this not written in Sefer HaYashar? The presence of this event in a book of poetry has been interpreted as a poetic description of the prolonged battle. According to the medieval Jewish scholar Rashi, "Sefer HaYashar" in this verse refers to the Pentateuch: Jacob's prophecy regarding Joshua's ancestor Ephraim—"His seed will fill the nations"—was fulfilled when Joshua's victory gave him renown among the various nations who heard of the victory.
According to the Book of Samuel, when David spoke his lament over the deaths of Saul and Jonathan, he began as follows: To teach the Sons of Judah the use of the bow. The King James Version of the English Bible includes the words "the use of" in italics, material which its translator added in order to render the text into what they considered understandable and comfortable English. According to some other translations, David taught his Judeans "The Bow", which they hypothesize was a poetic lament of the deaths of Saul and Jonathan. According to this interpretation, this "Bow" was a lament or a tune contained in the Book of Jashar which that book says was taught to the Israelites; the Septuagint translation renders sefer hayashar in both cases as the'Book of the Just'. It misses the reference to the bow, it reads: And he gave orders to teach it the sons of Iouda: behold it is written in the Book of the Just. A possible third reference appears in I Kings 8. In the Septuagint, verse 8:53 says that the preceding prayer of Solomon is written "in the book of song".
The Hebrew version of "book of song" could be ספר השיר, the same as "Sefer HaYashar" with two letters transposed. This suggests that the book's name could be related to its function as a book of song, the second word of the name might have been שיר or ישיר. Book of Jasher – an 18th-century literary forgery which purports to be an English translation of the lost Book of Jasher. Sefer haYashar – a Hebrew midrash known as The Book of Jasher, named after the lost Book of Jasher