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Cruiser Mk VIII Challenger

The Tank, Challenger was a British tank of World War II. It mounted the QF 17-pounder anti-tank gun on a chassis derived from the Cromwell tank to add anti-tank firepower to the cruiser tank units; the design compromises made in fitting the large gun onto the Cromwell chassis resulted in a tank with a powerful weapon and reduced armour. The extemporised 17-pounder Sherman Firefly conversion of the US-supplied Sherman was easier to produce and, with delays in production, only 200 Challengers were built; the Challenger was used with them. The driving force in the development of the Challenger was William Arthur Robotham. "Roy" Robotham had been a Rolls-Royce executive in the car division who, with no work to do, had led a team to develop a tank powerplant from the Rolls-Royce Merlin aircraft engine. The Rolls-Royce Meteor gave the British a powerful, reliable engine, used in the A27M Cruiser Mk VIII Cromwell tank. Robotham's contributions gained him a place in the Ministry of Supply and on the Tank Board, despite his lack of experience in tank design.

The General Staff brought forward specification A29 for a 45 ton, 17 pounder-armed cruiser tank based on needs identified in the African desert campaign. British tanks were underarmed compared to German vehicles; the design weight of this vehicle was subsequently seen as excessive and the specification was passed over in favour of the alternate specification, A30, 10 long tons lighter. In 1942, an order for the development of an A30 based tank was placed with Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company expecting it to be based on the Cromwell components being manufactured by BRC&W; the turret and gun mounting were in the hands of Pitt. Birmingham Carriage had to modify the Cromwell hull to take a bigger turret; the first prototype was ready in August 1942, only seven months after development had commenced, but proved to be flawed. An improved second prototype was still considered unacceptable. A committee met to determine; the Challenger had been developed in anticipation of more armoured Axis tanks, following the trend in Nazi German tank design.

At the same time the Tiger 1 entered service with the German army, placing an immediate need for a 17-pounder armed tank in response. When the second prototype was tested at Lulworth, it was found that although it would be effective at long range against the current best-gunned tank in German service, at shorter ranges it would be at a disadvantage due to its slow firing rate and thin armour; the design received additional emphasis when, in May 1943, it was found in that the Cromwell could not carry its intended armament. Vickers had been developing a 75 mm L 50 calibre high velocity tank gun, it was realised late in the design process that the Cromwell's turret ring was too small for this gun. The Challenger would be the only British cruiser tank to mount a weapon that could tackle heavier German armour until the arrival of the A34 Comet; therefore in February 1943 an order was made of two hundred vehicles. British tank production was constrained by limited resources and insufficient numbers could be made.

This was compensated by American production. In the lead up to D-Day, Sherman tanks were fitted with the 17 pounder, creating the interim 17 pounder Sherman Firefly. Converting Sherman tanks was simpler than producing Challengers, so it was decided in November 1943 to terminate the A30 production run after the two hundred vehicles had been built, allowing BRC&W to concentrate on the Cromwell. At the same time the A 40 "Challenger Stage II" project was cancelled, which had envisaged a 36 tonne type with heavier armour. Future design priority was concentrated on the A34 Comet, which replaced the Cromwell and Challenger. Challenger production started in March 1944; that year 145 vehicles were delivered with another 52 in 1945. Production was in two batches. A first run of forty vehicles had a 40 mm gun mantlet. From the hundredth vehicle onwards appliqué 25 mm armour plates were fitted on the turret, applied to existing vehicles by field units; the tank was rendered obsolete when the Vickers HV 75 mm gun was developed to become the 77 mm HV to arm the Comet tank.

The 77 mm HV used the same projectiles as the 17 pounder with a reduced propellant charge. The 17 pounder gun was reintroduced on earlier marks of the Comet's successor, the Centurion tank; the turret mounted the Ordnance QF 17-pounder gun required in the Tank Board specification and the hull machine gun was removed to provide stowage space for the long 17-pounder cartridges. The War Office expected that this larger ammunition, together with its stowage forward, would require two loaders, which raised the turret crew to four, the commander, loader 1 and loader 2. To fit the larger weapon and additional crewman in the turret, a much larger turret than that of the Cromwell was specified, developed separately, which had a significant effect on the design and was not resolved until development of Avenger. To carry the weight of the 17-pounder and ammunition, an extra wheel station and suspension arm was needed, lengthening the hull; this change in length, without a corresponding change in width across the tracks, reduced mobility compared to the Cromwell, although speed remained high at 25 mph.

To limit the weight, the amount of armour was reduced but this could only be achieved on the turret, 63 mm on the front and 40 mm on the sides compared to 75 mm (3.0

Eagle Nest, New Mexico

Eagle Nest is a village in Colfax County, New Mexico, United States. The population was 290 at the 2010 census. Situated on the Enchanted Circle Scenic Byway, Eagle Nest is a small resort area. Named Therma, the village was renamed Eagle Nest in the 1930s; the town is located in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in northern New Mexico near the Colorado-state line. Eagle Nest is located in western Colfax County at 36°33′8″N 105°15′41″W, in the Moreno Valley, between the Cimarron Range to the east and the main mass of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains to the west; the village is at the north end of a reservoir on the Cimarron River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 5.1 square miles, of which 4.2 square miles is land and 0.85 square miles, or 16.76%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 306 people, 141 households, 90 families residing in the village; the population density was 71.0 people per square mile. There were 333 housing units at an average density of 77.3 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the village was 84.97% White, 0.33% African American, 3.27% Native American, 6.21% from other races, 5.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.75% of the population. There were 141 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.65. In the village, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 23.2% from 25 to 44, 41.2% from 45 to 64, 6.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.6 males. The median income for a household in the village was $36,477, the median income for a family was $38,750.

Males had a median income of $22,292 versus $18,333 for females. The per capita income for the village was $17,974. About 18.4% of families and 22.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.5% of those under the age of eighteen and 20.8% of those sixty five or over. Eagle Nest Lake State Park is New Mexico's newest state park, a popular camping and sightseeing attraction. A new visitor center was scheduled opened in 2010; the main game fish caught in the 2,400-acre lake are kokanee rainbow trout. Eagle Nest has a humid continental climate, with large day-night temperature variations warm days and chilly nights in summer, cold nights in winter. On average, 250 nights have minima below 32 °F and 40.3 nights fall below 0 °F, though maxima top freezing on all but 25.5 days. Eagle Nest holds numerous low temperature records for New Mexico, including the coldest temperatures recorded in the state during January, April, May and November. Snowfall is heavy, averaging 62.8 inches and reaching 140 inches or 3.56 metres between July 1934 and June 1935, but the abundant sunshine and low latitude limit cover in mid-winter to 4 inches or 0.10 metres.

Village of Eagle Nest Chamber of Commerce official website

Mahan Dal

Mahan Dal is an Indian political party founded by Keshav Dev Maurya based in Uttar Pradesh, India. On 11 March 2014 Maurya in a joint press conference with Rashtriya Parivartan Dal's chief DP Yadav said "Our party does not have any ideology... Our main aim is to grab power for the welfare of our society... Every one is doing so but I say it openly.". Maurya added that his party "did not have the position to contest in the Lok Sabha polls alone" and its "alliance with RPD will continue in future too". Mahan Dal had joined Indian National Congress-led United Progressive Alliance. In western Uttar Pradesh, Mahan Dal contested on three Lok Sabha constituencies, Badaun and Etah while Rashtriya Lok Dal contested in eight constituencies as per an arrangement with INC. Mahan Dal claimed that the OBC voters of western UP specially Shakyas and Kushwahas would support them in the election but Mahan Dal candidates lost on all three allocated seats Official Website Mahan Dal on Facebook

Fabien Fryns

Fabien Fryns is a Belgian art dealer and collector, residing in Beijing since 2004. He has worked in the art world since 1986, specializing in contemporary Chinese art since 2000. Fryns grew up in Belgium, from 1984 to 1988 he attended the prestigious Le Rosey School in Switzerland, he first started dealing and collecting art in 1986, has been active in the art world since. Upon graduating from Le Rosey with an IB, he was the youngest student to enroll in the two year History of Art Course at Christie’s London, graduating with a bachelor's degree in Fine Arts. Thereafter, he graduated from the European Business School in London in 1994 with a Bachelor in International Business degree. In 1994 Fryns opened F2 Gallery Ltd located in the fabled Marbella Club Hotel in Marbella, Spain. Subsequently, Fryns partnered with UBS Private Banking and jointly opened Fabien Fryns Fine Art – UBS Cultural Centre in Marbella. In 2000, Fryns turned to contemporary Chinese art, which led to his moving to Beijing in 2004 and subsequently opening F2 Gallery in 1995, the second gallery in Caochangdi, joining CAAW.

Three Shadows Art Center, Platform China and The Courtyard Gallery followed suit. F2 Gallery was one of the first galleries in China to show western artists. In 2006, he expanded and opened DF2 Gallery in Los Angeles in a partnership, subsequently took it over and renamed it Fabien Fryns Fine Art, Los Angeles. Artists shown and affiliated with the galleries include Sun Yuan and Peng Yu, Sheng Qi, Li Qing, Chen Man, Henry Hudson, Lars Mikkes, Cui Xiuwen, Feng Shu, Zhang Huan, Cui Jie, Hu Xiaoyuan, Qiu Xiaofei, Zheng Lu, Xu Hualing, Zhu Fadong, Zeng Fanzhi, Yan Shaobin, Tang Zhigang, Liu Ye, Li Songsong, Shi Xinning, Feng Zhengjie, Yin Zhaoyang, Liu Hung, Sui Jianguo, Ling Jian, Zheng Guogu, Xun Sun, Tu hongtao, Chen Ke, Jiao Xingtao, Wu Junyong, Yuan Yuan, Zhou Yilun, Jiang Zhi, Yang Liming, Ji Dachun, Lu Xinjian, among others. On an institutional level, Fryns conceived China Gold, with curator Alona Kagen, which took place at the Musée Maillol in Paris during the 2008 Summer Olympics. Artists associated with the show included Ai Weiwei, Cui Xiuwen, Zhang Dali, Yue Minjun, Wang Guangyi, Ma Liuming, Cang Xin, Wang Qingsong, Ling Jian, Yin Zhaoyang, Feng Zhengjie, Yang Shaobin, Zeng Fanzhi, Zhang Xiaogang, Tang Zhigang, Zhang Huan, Li Qing and Zheng Guogu, among others.

Since meeting Zeng Fanzhi in 2005, Fryns became a trusted friend, advisor and main secondary market dealer for the artist’s work. Fryns played an important role in introducing the artist to top collectors and dealers worldwide, including Jose Mugrabi. In 2009, Fryns played a crucial role in organising Zeng Fanzhi’s solo show at Acquavella Galleries in NY, he conceived and edited the monograph on the artist, published by Hatje Cantz in 2009, including a text by Dr. Richard Shiff and introduction by Fryns. In 2010, Fryns organised a solo show for Zeng Fanzhi at the National Gallery for Foreign Art in Sofia and subsequently instigated the artist’s most important museum show to date at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris. In 2012, Fryns closed both the LA and Beijing galleries to focus on advising private and corporate clients and continues working on unique projects to facilitate cross-cultural exchange between China and Europe. Lu Xinjian continues to collaborate with Fabien Fryns Fine Art on special exhibitions.

In February 2014, Fryns went on an initial trip to discover the art world in Saudi Arabia and is working on several cultural exchange projects between China and Saudi Arabia. In a 2015 interview, Fryns was asked, "What is your art world pet peeve?" He replied, "I tend to take a long-term vision when I collect artists' works, never buy for speculation. The contemporary art market has become a rapidly moving market and I feel that many “players” consider art purely as a commodity and have little patience to reap the benefits and move on to the next hot thing." Zeng Fanzhi Henry Hudson Richard Hudson Sheng Qi Lu Xinjian Jia Aili Xu Zhen Zhang Huan Sun Xu Li Qing Fabien Fryns Fine Art website Fabien Fryns on Artnet Fabien Fryns on Artstack

Robert Wiebking

Robert Wiebking was a German-American engraver typeface designer, known for cutting type matrices for Frederic Goudy from 1911 to 1926. Robert Wiebking was born in Schwelm, Germany in 1870, he emigrated to Chicago in 1881 where his father worked as an engraver for many companies, including the Marder, Luse, & Co. type foundry. In 1884, Wiebking began working for an engraving company. By 1893 he was in business for himself, cutting type matrices for both the Crescent and Independent Type Foundries. In 1900, with H. H. Hardinge, he formed ‘‘Wiebking, Hardinge & Company’’ which ran the Advance Type Foundry. In 1914 the partnership was dissolved and Advance merged with the Western Type Foundry. After Western Foundry merged into Barnhart Brothers & Spindler, Wiebking began working once again for himself, he designed type and cut matrices for many foundries and, from 1911 to 1926 he cut all of the matrices for Frederic Goudy's designs were cut by Wiebking. He taught both Goudy and R. Hunter Middleton how to cut matrices.

World Gothic series, a series in name only, as three only marginally similar faces were brought together under one heading as a marketing ploy to compete with ATF’s Globe Gothic. World Gothic Wesel.'World Gothic Condensed Tropic. World Gothic Italic named Dewey in honor of Admiral Dewey. Engravers Roman + Bold Artcraft Bold BB&S still ATF) Modern Text. Caslon series Caslon Catalog Caslon Clearface + Italic Caslon Light Italic Invitation Text. Rogers Roman renamed Engravers Litho Bold by BB&S who added a Bold Condensed and a Bold Condensed Title; the line was retained by ATF after the merger. Advertisers Gothic series; the outline faces are cut to register with the solid type for two-color work. Advertisers Gothic Advertisers Gothic Condensed Advertisers Gothic Outline Advertisers Gothic Condensed Outline Square Gothic, a knock-off of Benton’s Franklin Gothic. Munder series Laclede Oldstyle, when Laclede was bought out by BB&S this face was re-cut as Munder Venetian and named in honor of Norman T. A. Munder dean of American printers.

Munder Venetian. Copied by Stephenson Blake as ‘‘Verona’’. Munder Bold Munder Italic Munder Bold Italic Bodoni Series Bodoni Light + Light Italic True-Cut Bodoni + Light Italic, modeled on original samples of Bodoni’s work at the Newberry Library. Pabst Old Style or Pabst Roman, based on hand lettering done by Frederic Goudy for advertisements for the Pabst Brewing Company, though commissioned by a Chicago department store. Cast by ATF with the proviso that the department store would have the exclusive use of the font for a time before it would be offered to the public; this was the first of many collaborations by Wiebking. Pabst Roman Italic Village, design by Goudy. Designed for Kuppenheimer & Company, who decided it would be too expensive to cast, it was bought by Frederick Sherman; the mats are still cast by Dale Guild Foundry. Baron’s Boston News Letter, a private face designed by Frederic Goudy for Joseph Baron’s financial newsletter. Norman Capitals, designed by Frederic Goudy for Munder-Thompson Company, a Baltimore printing firm, named for Norman Munder.

Klaxon, designed by Frederic Goudy Centaur, a private type for the Museum Press of the Metropolitan Museum of Art designed by Bruce Rogers. Hadriano Title, designed by Frederic Goudy Goudy Open, designed by Frederic Goudy Goudy Modern, basica

Car Engineer of the Century

The Car Engineer of the Century was an international award given to the most influential car engineer of the twentieth century. The election process was overseen by the Global Automotive Elections Foundation; the winner, Ferdinand Porsche, was announced at an awards gala on December 1999 in Las Vegas. The process for deciding the Car Engineer of the Century started with the list of candidates below; the next step was for a jury of 132 professional automotive journalists, from 33 different countries, under the presidency of Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, to reduce the list to 5, which they did, the result was announced in November 1999. The 5 were ranked by the jury and the overall winner was selected. Automotive engineer List of motor vehicle awards Car of the Century Car Designer of the Century Car Entrepreneur of the Century Car Executive of the Century "Dr Porsche is Car Engineer of the Century". 1999-12-31. Retrieved 2006-04-29