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In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at low temperatures. It is not well defined at what point on the temperature scale refrigeration ends and cryogenics begins, but scientists assume a gas to be cryogenic if it can be liquefied at or below −150 °C; the U. S. National Institute of Standards and Technology considers the field of cryogenics as that involving temperatures below −180 °C; this is a logical dividing line, since the normal boiling points of the so-called permanent gases lie below −180 °C while the Freon refrigerants and other common refrigerants have boiling points above −180 °C. Discovery of superconducting materials with critical temperatures above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has provided new interest in reliable, low cost methods of producing high temperature cryogenic refrigeration; the term "high temperature cryogenic" describes temperatures ranging from above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, −195.79 °C, up to −50 °C. Cryogenicists use the Kelvin or Rankine temperature scale, both of which measure from absolute zero, rather than more usual scales such as Celsius which measures from the freezing point of water at sea level or Fahrenheit with its zero at an arbitrary temperature.

Cryogenics The branches of engineering that involve the study of low temperatures, how to produce them, how materials behave at those temperatures. Cryobiology The branch of biology involving the study of the effects of low temperatures on organisms. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources The conservation of genetic material with the intention of conserving a breed. Cryosurgery The branch of surgery applying cryogenic temperatures to destroy malignant tissue, e.g. cancer cells. Cryoelectronics The study of electronic phenomena at cryogenic temperatures. Examples include variable-range hopping. Cryotronics The practical application of cryoelectronics. Cryonics Cryopreserving humans and animals with the intention of future revival. "Cryogenics" is sometimes erroneously used to mean "Cryonics" in the press. The word cryogenics stems from Greek κρύο – "cold" + γονική – "having to do with production". Cryogenic fluids with their boiling point in kelvins. Liquefied gases, such as liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, are used in many cryogenic applications.

Liquid nitrogen is the most used element in cryogenics and is purchasable around the world. Liquid helium is commonly used and allows for the lowest attainable temperatures to be reached; these liquids may be stored in Dewar flasks, which are double-walled containers with a high vacuum between the walls to reduce heat transfer into the liquid. Typical laboratory Dewar flasks are spherical, made of glass and protected in a metal outer container. Dewar flasks for cold liquids such as liquid helium have another double-walled container filled with liquid nitrogen. Dewar flasks are named after James Dewar, the man who first liquefied hydrogen. Thermos bottles are smaller vacuum flasks fitted in a protective casing. Cryogenic barcode labels are used to mark Dewar flasks containing these liquids, will not frost over down to −195 degrees Celsius. Cryogenic transfer pumps are the pumps used on LNG piers to transfer liquefied natural gas from LNG carriers to LNG storage tanks, as are cryogenic valves; the field of cryogenics advanced during World War II when scientists found that metals frozen to low temperatures showed more resistance to wear.

Based on this theory of cryogenic hardening, the commercial cryogenic processing industry was founded in 1966 by Ed Busch. With a background in the heat treating industry, Busch founded a company in Detroit called CryoTech in 1966 which merged with 300 Below in 1999 to become the world's largest and oldest commercial cryogenic processing company. Busch experimented with the possibility of increasing the life of metal tools to anywhere between 200% and 400% of the original life expectancy using cryogenic tempering instead of heat treating; this evolved in the late 1990s into the treatment of other parts. Cryogens, such as liquid nitrogen, are further used for specialty chilling and freezing applications; some chemical reactions, like those used to produce the active ingredients for the popular statin drugs, must occur at low temperatures of −100 °C. Special cryogenic chemical reactors are used to remove reaction heat and provide a low temperature environment; the freezing of foods and biotechnology products, like vaccines, requires nitrogen in blast freezing or immersion freezing systems.

Certain soft or elastic materials become hard and brittle at low temperatures, which makes cryogenic milling an option for some materials that cannot be milled at higher temperatures. Cryogenic processing is not a substitute for heat treatment, but rather an extension of the heating–quenching–tempering cycle; when an item is quenched, the final temperature is ambient. The only reason for this is. There is nothing metallurgically significant about ambient temperature; the cryogenic process continues this action from ambient temperature down to −320 °F. In most instances the cryogenic cycle is followed by a heat tempering procedure; as all alloys do not have the same chemical constituents, the tempering procedure varies according to the material's chemical composition, thermal history and/or a tool's particular service application. The entire process takes 3–4 days. Another use of cryogenics is cryogenic fu

KFF Hajvalia

KFF Hajvalia known as Hajvalia is a women's football club based in Hajvalia, Kosovo. It is the women's section of KF Hajvalia; the club play in the Kosovo Women's Football League, the top tier of football in the country. On 13 January 2018. Hajvalia was withdrawal from competitions due to the lack of the huge expenses. On 26 January 2018. Rrahim Pacolli with the aim of return of Hajvalia in competitions, he took running the club and took over the obligations of technical staff and players for the next four months; as of 25 August 2017Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. KFF Hajvalia will compete in the UEFA Women's Champions League for the first time in the 2016–17 season, entering at the qualifying round. Official website KFF Hajvalia at Soccerway KFF Hajvalia at UEFA

Sykes' monkey

Sykes' monkey known as the white-throated monkey or Samango monkey, is an Old World monkey found between Ethiopia and South Africa, including south and east Democratic Republic of Congo. It is named after English naturalist Colonel William Henry Sykes, has been considered conspecific with the blue monkey, but has a large white patch on the throat and upper chest, a grizzled cap; the 12 subspecies of Sykes' monkey are: C. a. albogularis – Zanzibar Sykes' monkey C. a. albotorquatus – Pousargues' Sykes' monkey C. a. erythrarchus – white-throated guenon C. a. francescae C. a. kibonotensis C. a. kolbi - Mount Kenya Sykes' monkey C. a. labiatus – rhite-lipped monkey or Samango monkey C. a. moloneyi C. a. monoides C. a. phylax C. a. schwarzi C. a. zammaranoi – Zammarano's white-throated guenon Samango Monkey Research Project

Ralph de Limesy

Ralph de Limesy lord of the manor of Limésy in Normandy was a Domesday Book Anglo-Norman magnate and tenant-in-chief of King William the Conqueror. According to Camden: "At the time of the General Survey made by King William the Conqueror, Ralph de Limesi had great possessions in this Realm; the Duchess of Cleveland wrote as follows concerning the family of Linnebey in her "Battle Abbey Roll with some Account of the Norman Lineages" "Leland here once more comes to our assistance, for he gives this and the following name as "Lymesay et Latymer." It appears in another part of Duchesne's copy under its Scottish form of Lindsay. Lord Lindsay tells us that "the names Lindesay and Limesay are identical, both of them implying'Isle of Lime-trees,' and are interchanged, applied to the same individuals, not in the heraldic MSS. of two hundred years ago, but in ancient public records, in the early transcripts of Battle Abbey Roll. "The original Norman Sires de Limesay were seated at the place so called in the Pays de Caux, near Pavilly, fives leagues N.

W. of Rouen. They flourished for many generations after the Conquest, failed shortly after the middle of the thirteenth century, when the Sires de Frontebosc, a younger branch, succeeded to the property, their descendants in the female line, Comtes de Frontebosc and Marquesses de Limesay, flourished till the French Revolution, still, I believe, exist. Randolph de Limesay, said to have been sister's son to the Conqueror, was the first of the Anglo-Norman stock who settled in England, he obtained above forty lordships in different counties of England, including Wolverley in Warwickshire, the chief seat of his posterity, from which they took their style as barons. There was but little of the castle remaining in Dugdale's time, save the moat, certain'great banks, whereon ancient trees do grow,' coeval with the first arrival of the Normans. Randolph died towards the close of William the Conqueror's reign, after founding the Priory of Hertford, in dependency of the Abbey of St. Albans, within whose hallowed precincts he and his wife Hadewisia were admitted as brother and sister before their decease.

Alan de Limesay, his son, Gerard, his grandson, succeeded him, were bountiful, but the son of Gerard dying without issue, the property went to his two daughters, wife of Sir Hugh de Odingsels, Aleonora, wife of Sir David de Lindsay of Crawford." The husband selected for the younger co-heiress of the barony of Wolverley was of her own blood, being the descendant of Walter de Lindesay, who first settled in Scotland under the banner of David I. He figures in the charters of the latter while Prince of Cumberland, his exact relationship to the English Limesays is not known. They resided at Ercildoune in Roxburghshire—in after times the home of Thomas the Rhymer. Sir David, High Justiciary of Scotland, who married his English kinswoman in 1201, was the son of a Scottish princess, sister of King William the Lion and David Earl of Huntingdon. Sir David himself was the elder of three brothers. Sir Walter, the second, founded the house of Lamberton, of which four successive generations married heiresses, till Christiana de Lindesay, representing the last of the line, carried its accumulated riches to her husband Ingelram de Guisnes, Sire de Coucy.

Thus the descendants of the third brother, who had the barony of Luffness, in East Lothian, as his appanage, became the heads of the house, recovered the hereditary estates. "Even before the death of Sir Henry Pinkeney in 1301, Crawford and its dependencies had been seized and declared forfeit by the Scottish authorities, bestowed on Sir Alexander Lindsay of Luffness, who sat as one of the great barons in the Parliament of 1308-9, which acknowledged Robert Bruce as lawful King of Scotland." From his son, David a faithful adherent of Bruce, the "Schir Dawy the Lyndyssay, That was true and of stedfast fay—" descend the greater part of the twenty distinct branches of the family—one of them settled in the United States of America—that are enumerated in the pedigree given in the Lives of the Lindsays and were for the most part extinguished during the great civil war. His grandson and namesake was created Earl of Crawford in 1398: "the Earldom of Crawford being the third created since the extinction of the Celtic dynasty.

Another branch were Lords Lindsay of the Byres, Earls of Lindsay, the most powerful cadet of the house. "Still is thy name of high account, And still thy verse has charms, Sir David Lindsay of the Mount, Lord Lion-King-at-Arms." It would be idle fo

Tommy Amaker

Harold Tommy Amaker Jr. is an American college basketball coach and the head coach of the Harvard University men's basketball team. He has coached for the University of Michigan and Seton Hall University, he played point guard and served as an assistant coach at Duke University under Mike Krzyzewski. An All-American player, Amaker earned many honors and awards, he took Seton Hall to the post season in each of his four seasons as their coach, helped Michigan win the National Invitation Tournament the year after a probationary ban from postseason play, had the three highest single-season win totals in the history of Harvard basketball, the school's first six Ivy League championships and first NCAA tournament victory. Amaker was a Parade All-American; as a college basketball player, he set most of the assists records and many steals records for Duke basketball. He set the Atlantic Coast Conference single-season games played and games started records. Among his numerous accolades, he was the first winner of the NABC Defensive Player of the Year, he was a third team All-American.

Amaker was an assistant coach for the Duke Blue Devils men's basketball under Krzyzewski for nine seasons. His first four seasons were part of a five-year streak of Final Four appearances by Duke; as a head coach, Amaker took the Seton Hall Pirates to postseason tournaments in each of his four seasons as their coach. He dealt with the turmoil and self-imposed sanctions of the University of Michigan basketball scandal in his first years with Michigan, where he won the 2004 National Invitation Tournament with the 2003–04 Michigan Wolverines men's basketball team and finished as the runner-up with Michigan in the 2006 National Invitation Tournament. In his tenure as Harvard men's basketball coach, he was the first coach to lead the Crimson to victory over a ranked opponent with the 2008–09 team, he coached the 2009–10 Harvard Crimson men's basketball team into the postseason in his third year there, which included the highest single-season victory total in school history. In the summer of 2010, the NCAA ruled that Amaker had committed a recruiting violation, resulting in NCAA-mandated recruiting restrictions, the university's first NCAA penalty of the men's basketball program.

The 2010–11 team became the first Harvard men's basketball team to clinch a share of the Ivy League championship and surpassed the prior season win total. The 2011–12 team became the first in school history to appear in the Associated Press and Coaches Polls and, for the third year in a row, established a new school record for wins. Amaker's 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14 and 2014–15 teams repeated as Ivy League champions; the 2012–13 team gave Harvard its first NCAA tournament victory. The 2013–14 team posted a record 27 wins. Amaker became the winningest coach in school history in 2016. Amaker was born in Falls Church, Virginia, in 1965, he was raised by Alma Amaker, a high school English teacher. Although not a part of Amaker's young life, his father attended some of Amaker's high school basketball games. Amaker resided in Falls Church, but he attended W. T. Woodson High School in Fairfax, because his mother was a teacher in Fairfax County, her job allowed her to choose among the county schools, her choice made because the school's basketball coach, Red Jenkins, who called Amaker "T-bird," had been impressed with his performances at his youth summer league since Amaker was 10 years old.

He began playing varsity for Woodson by December, making him the first freshman to play varsity in the school's history. His mother, whom Jenkins called "his first coach and his best coach," attended his practices and graded papers in the coach's office. Duke University basketball head coach Mike Krzyzewski, who had just completed his first season as Duke coach, was in town to evaluate Johnny Dawkins in a 1981 Washington D. C. summer was convinced to stay for a second game to see Amaker play. Krzyzewski met Amaker's mother and said, "Mrs. Amaker, your son is going to look great in Duke blue." At the time, Amaker had wanted to play for the Maryland Terrapins because his sister Tami went to the University of Maryland, College Park and Amaker idolized Maryland star guard John Lucas. He was recruited to Duke by assistant coach Chuck Swenson, who would become an assistant coach during Amaker's first five seasons at Michigan from 2001 to 2006. Amaker played on the 1983 McDonald's All-American Team and was named to the Parade All-American team.

According to the Fairfax Connection, the county changed the rules regarding where teachers could send their children due to Amaker's success at Woodson. Amaker was a star point guard at Duke after becoming a freshman starter for head coach Krzyzewski, he in steals four seasons. While at Duke his roommate for away games was Mike Brey. Dawkins played point guard for the 1982–83 Blue Devils, but moved to shooting guard the following year to make way for Amaker; when Amaker joined the 1983–84 Blue Devils, unranked Duke, led by Dawkins and Amaker, won its first seven games, the longest winning streak of fourth-year head coach Krzyzewski's career. Amaker had a field goal accuracy of over 65 percent in those games, he led Duke to the NCAA Tournament during his 1984 freshman and 1985 sophomore seasons, but neither team advanced to the Sweet Sixteen. In the quarterfinal round of the 1984 ACC Men's Basketball Tournament against the Mark Price-led Georgia Tech

TarcĂ­sio Meira

Tarcísio Magalhães Sobrinho known as Tarcísio Meira is a Brazilian actor. He was one of the first actors to work in the most popular Brazilian channel Globo, he was born in São Paulo and is the longtime owner of Fazenda Sao Marcos, a 5000 ha cattle ranch in the eastern Amazonian state of Para. Fazenda Sao Marcos is located 20 km east of Aurora do Para, off the Belem-Brasília highway. 1984: Meu destino é pecar - Paulo de Oliveira 1985: O Tempo e o Vento - Capitão Rodrigo Cambará 1985: Grande Sertão: Veredas - Hermógenes 1988: Tarcísio & Glória - Bruno Lazzarini 1998: Hilda Furacão - Coronel João Possidônio 2000: A Muralha - Dom Jerônimo Taveira 2004: Um Só Coração - Antônio de Sousa Borba Tarcísio Meira on IMDb