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Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. More cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, physics. Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, military communications. Cryptography prior to the modern age was synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense; the originator of an encrypted message shares the decoding technique only with intended recipients to preclude access from adversaries. The cryptography literature uses the names Alice for the sender, Bob for the intended recipient, Eve for the adversary. Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World War I and the advent of computers in World War II, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become complex and its application more widespread.

Modern cryptography is based on mathematical theory and computer science practice. It is theoretically possible to break such a system, but it is infeasible to do so by any known practical means; these schemes are therefore termed computationally secure. There exist information-theoretically secure schemes that provably cannot be broken with unlimited computing power—an example is the one-time pad—but these schemes are more difficult to use in practice than the best theoretically breakable but computationally secure mechanisms; the growth of cryptographic technology has raised a number of legal issues in the information age. Cryptography's potential for use as a tool for espionage and sedition has led many governments to classify it as a weapon and to limit or prohibit its use and export. In some jurisdictions where the use of cryptography is legal, laws permit investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to an investigation. Cryptography plays a major role in digital rights management and copyright infringement of digital media.

The first use of the term cryptograph dates back to the 19th century—originating from The Gold-Bug, a novel by Edgar Allan Poe. Until modern times, cryptography referred exclusively to encryption, the process of converting ordinary information into unintelligible form. Decryption is the reverse, in other words, moving from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext. A cipher is a pair of algorithms that create the reversing decryption; the detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a "key". The key is a secret a short string of characters, needed to decrypt the ciphertext. Formally, a "cryptosystem" is the ordered list of elements of finite possible plaintexts, finite possible cyphertexts, finite possible keys, the encryption and decryption algorithms which correspond to each key. Keys are important both formally and in actual practice, as ciphers without variable keys can be trivially broken with only the knowledge of the cipher used and are therefore useless for most purposes.

Ciphers were used directly for encryption or decryption without additional procedures such as authentication or integrity checks. There are two kinds of cryptosystems: asymmetric. In symmetric systems the same key is used to decrypt a message. Data manipulation in symmetric systems is faster than asymmetric systems as they use shorter key lengths. Asymmetric systems use a public key to encrypt a private key to decrypt it. Use of asymmetric systems enhances the security of communication. Examples of asymmetric systems include RSA, ECC. Symmetric models include the used AES which replaced the older DES. In colloquial use, the term "code" is used to mean any method of encryption or concealment of meaning. However, in cryptography, code has a more specific meaning, it means the replacement of a unit of plaintext with a code word. Cryptanalysis is the term used for the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information without access to the key required to do so; some use the terms cryptography and cryptology interchangeably in English, while others use cryptography to refer to the use and practice of cryptographic techniques and cryptology to refer to the combined study of cryptography and cryptanalysis.

English is more flexible than several other languages in which crypt

Allendale North, South Australia

Allendale North is a locality in the Australian state of South Australia about 4 km north of the town of Kapunda. Allendale North was surveyed in 1859; the post office was opened in 1861. The wheatsheaf pub was built in 1855; the fertile land made perfect for farming. A steam flour mill was built in the 1855. A school was erected in 1881. Allen's creek runs through the village. In 1856 William Oldham lived in Allendale, he ran the Allendale mill until the 1860s, was mine manager in Kapunda. A Bible Christian Church, used by the United Evangelical Lutherans, was built in the village in the 1854. On 16 March 2000, boundaries for the locality were created for the "long established name." Anita Holmes. Twidders. Ozark Mountain Publishing. Pp. 59–. ISBN 978-1-886940-11-6; the Australian Handbook Shippers and Professional Directory & Business Guide for... Gordon and Gotch. 1875. Sands & McDougall's South Australian Directory with, Incorporated Boothby's South Australian Directory. 1901

No Ceilings

No Ceilings is a mixtape by American rapper Lil Wayne. It was leaked before the official date. No Ceilings was released on October 31, with 4 additional tracks; the mixtape is available as a free and legal download and it received positive reviews from critics. Lil Wayne had two tracks, "Wasted" and "Swag Surf," both of which were recorded and leaked onto the internet on October 11; these were followed by "Run This Town" on October 25. The majority of the mixtape was leaked out to the public on multiple websites October 26, 2009; the mixtape contains various freestyles over popular rap and R&B songs' instrumentals and features current artists from his Young Money label including Nicki Minaj, Short Dawg, Gudda Gudda, Jae Millz, Tyga. It was released on weareyoungmoney.com via a live Ustream video and included higher quality audio as well as 4 additional tracks. The song "Single" was released on May 11, 2010 as a single on iTunes titled "I'm Single", has charted on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. A video for the track has been shot.

The single was released on Wayne's I Am Not a Human Being album. The song "No Ceilings" was released to iTunes under the title Pop That on the "Loyalty EP" which included Birdman's new single "Loyalty" which featured Tyga and Lil Wayne; when police pulled over Lil' Wayne's tour bus after claiming to smell marijuana, the rapper pleaded guilty to "attempted criminal possession of a weapon." Although pleading guilty still landed Wayne in Riker's Island Prison for a year, it reduced his possible sentence. Lil' Wayne was dealing with his arrest and charges while writing his mixtape, "No Ceilings", he mentions his arrest multiple times in lyrics throughout the tape. A sequel mixtape, No Ceilings 2, was confirmed on the 6-year anniversary of the original mixtape's release by Mack Maine on his Twitter page. Lil Wayne performed his freestyle over Future's "Where Ya At?" at an event on Saturday and two 30-second clips of that performance can be found online. He recorded his freestyle over Drake's Back To Back before an interview on October 29.

Lil Wayne – No Ceilings Mixtape stream and download

History of Blake's 7

This article is about the production history of the television series Blake's 7: for a more general overview of this series, please see the main Blake's 7 article. Blake's 7 is a British science fiction television programme, produced by the British Broadcasting Corporation for its station BBC1. Set in the far future, Blake's 7 follows the fortunes of a group of rebels in their fight against the dictatorial Terran Federation. Four thirteen-episode series were produced between 1978 and 1981. Blake's 7 was created by Terry Nation, who described it as "The Dirty Dozen in space”. David Maloney was assigned to produce the series and Chris Boucher was appointed as the script editor. Gareth Thomas was cast as the eponymous Blake; the series' budget was restricted, which limited the scope for visual effects. Nation wrote the first 13-episode series and contributed a further six scripts in the second and third series. Twelve additional writers provided material for the series. After three successful series, Blake's 7.

Vere Lorrimer was appointed as producer, oversaw major changes in its format. Following the dramatic finale of the fourth series, Blake's 7 was not re-commissioned and the programme ended. In 1975, Terry Nation attended a meeting with Ronnie Marsh, the BBC's Head of Serials, to discuss ideas for new television series. Marsh was looking for formats for co-productions with American television channels. Nation suggested a number of ideas for crime dramas, none of which appealed to Marsh. According to Nation, "...the interview was drawing to a close when I surprised myself by starting to detail a new science fiction adventure'Have you got a title?' Someone asked. Blake's 7 I replied without hesitation." Marsh's notes of the meeting survive and record the pitch Nation made as follows: “cracking Boy's Own/ kidult sci-fi. A space Western adventure. A modern swashbuckler. Blake's Seven. Group of villains being escorted onto a rocket ship which goes astray and lands on an alien planet, where inhabitants are planning to invade and destroy Earth.

Live underground." Nation left the meeting with a commission for a pilot script and "...the bewildered feeling that I could not trace the source of the idea". Nation submitted his pilot script, titled "Blake's 7 – A Television Series created by Terry Nation", in April 1976, sub-titling the draft episode Cygnus Alpha. Nation's pilot script broadly resembled what would become The Way Back, the first episode of Blake's 7 to be transmitted, although the agent who betrays Glyd's group and plots Blake's conviction was named Cral Travis, rather than Dev Tarrant in the transmitted episode; the proposed characters for the series were: Rog Blake, Vila Restal, Jenna Stannis, Kerr Avon, Olag Gan, Arco Trent, Tone Selman and Brell Klein. The descriptions of Blake and Gan are similar to those of the developed characters. However, Vila's character is somewhat different, described as “thirty five, a good-looking athletic”, he appearred more similar to the popular fictional character Simon Templar than the Vila portrayed on screen.

The character of Arco Trent was described as a powerful figure in the Administration who had become a scapegoat for a group of corrupt officials involved in arms dealing. Arco would gain respect for him after Blake saves his life. Arco's sidekick would be a self-serving, treacherous coward; the characters of Selman and Klein did not appear in the pilot script, which noted that these characters would join the series in a episode. Marsh asked Nation for a draft script for a second episode of Blake's 7 in June 1976. Two months Nation delivered Space Fall, in which the spacecraft Liberator was introduced. On 12 November, Marsh confirmed the series for full development. Marsh asked Nation to deliver a further five scripts, it was intended that 13 episodes of Blake's 7 would be produced to replace the police drama Softly, Softly: Taskforce. Nation would write the first seven episodes, the following four would be written by other writers and Nation would write a two-part finale. Blake's 7 now entered production.

The BBC chose David Maloney to produce Blake's 7 because of his experience with Doctor. Maloney approached Robert Holmes, as a script editor. Holmes declined, as he was script editing Doctor Who, but he recommended Chris Boucher, who had written three scripts for Doctor Who. Early in 1977, Nation was commissioned to write four more episodes for Series One and five episodes for Series Two, he was now contracted to write all thirteen episodes of the first series. The BBC had expanded Nation's writing commitment in order that Nation's high profile would help the promotion of the series. Providing a large amount of material in a short time would prove difficult for Nation. Admitting that he had agreed to write every episode out of "ego and supreme confidence", Nation recalled that he returned home following the commission and told his wife, "I think I've got myself into deep trouble!" Nation informed Boucher that he would only be able to deliver the first draft of each script, telling Boucher, "...you can have rewrites or you can have the next episode: which do you want?”

As a result, while Nation created the plots, Boucher provided a great deal of input into the characters and dialogue. According to Boucher, "Terry came up with the characters, he came up with thirteen good stories, but he didn't come up with the dialogue. I remember saying, I think it's pretty close to the truth, that for a long time, Paul Darrow never spoke a line that I hadn't written or altered to make the lines sharper."The strain of writing all thirteen episodes was starting to affec

Altona, Victoria

Altona is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 13 km south-west of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Hobsons Bay local government area. Altona recorded a population of 10,762 at the 2016 census. Altona is a large suburb consisting of low density residential in the south-eastern half, with mixed industry in the north-western half. A key feature is Altona Beach on Port Phillip, one of only two swimming beaches in the western suburbs. Altona takes its name from the independent German city of Altona, today a borough of Hamburg. Prior to arrival of Europeans, the Altona area was home to Kurung-Jang-Balluk Aboriginal people, of the Woiwurrung clan. Altona was first permanently settled in 1842, with the construction of The Homestead by Alfred Langhorne; the name'Altona' first appeared on maps in 1861. It was named by Frederick Taegtow, a German who hailed from Altona a town just outside of Hamburg. Taegtow believed that coal was to be found in the area, in 1881 he formed the Williamstown Prospecting Company.

From 1886 housing in the Altona and Merton Street estates was sold, by 1901 the Victorian Government owned an explosives reserve in the west of Altona. On 20 February 1911 J J Hammond flew the first cross country flight between towns in Australia from Altona Bay to Geelong in Victoria, on 23 February at Altona Bay in Victoria, he undertook the first powered passenger flight in Australia. Coal mining formed the basis of the local economy from 1908 to 1919. By 1918 the population was sufficient to justify a Post Office which opened on 14 January 1918. Similar to the rest of Melbourne, following the Second World War Altona embraced a large influx of immigrants from the Mediterranean, Central Europe and a smaller number from the Middle East. From 1862 Altona was a town in the Shire of Werribee, but in 1957, the Altona Riding of the Shire, which included Altona itself as well as Altona North and Altona Meadows, was severed, became the City of Altona in 1968; this was merged into the City of Hobsons Bay in June 1994 under local government amalgamations undertaken by the Kennett government.

On 24 June 2010, Altona became home to Australia's first female prime minister, Julia Gillard, a resident of Altona. Gillard was voted in by the governing Australian Labor Party to replace Kevin Rudd as its leader, making her Australia's 27th Prime Minister. In the 2016 Census, there were 10,762 people in Altona. 64.6% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 4.8%, New Zealand 2.3%, Malta 2.1%, India 1.7% and Italy 1.6%. 73.3% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Italian 2.3%, Maltese 2.2%, Mandarin 1.7%, Vietnamese 1.3% and Greek 1.3%. The most common responses for religion in were No Religion 33.2%, Catholic 30.5% and Anglican 8.9%. Altona has many significant parks and gardens, including some important environmental conservation areas and wetlands along the shores of Port Phillip; these are used by visitors and residents recreationally, including a long promenade along the bay. Notable areas include: Kororoit Creek Cherry Lake Altona Coastal Park Truganina Coastal Parklands Altona has four primary schools consisting of Altona Primary School, Seaholme Primary School, Altona College and St. Marys Catholic Primary School.

The secondary schools include Altona College. Altona has a library branch; this centre provides the community access to media concerning the environmental initiatives of Hobsons Bay, including Industry Environment Improvement Plans from local industry. The Altona Beach Festival is a free event held annually at the Logan Reserve precinct, to promote and celebrate Hobsons Bay and the western suburbs, it involves various activities, including a twilight street parade, beach market, double-decker bus tour, professional entertainers, RAAF fly-overs and fireworks off the Altona Pier. The Altona Beach Festival was known as the Bayside Festival and Operation Recreation, some residents still refer to it by one of these names; the 30th anniversary of the festival was held in 2007. It enjoyed a brief period of heightened prominence in 2002 when it was featured on the Channel 9 travel program Postcards in a segment hosted by Geoff Cox; the festival is accessed by buses and suburban passenger trains as it is just a few minutes walk away from Altona Station.

Scouts Australia is a major feature of the parade and the many community activities that take place close to the beautiful beach front. The Altona City Theatre is a production company based in the Altona Civic Theatre, producing two major musicals and a smaller pantomime annually; the pantomime coincides with the Bayside Festival and was intended as an outlet for young directors. Scouts Australia has two groups in Altona; the 1st Altona Scout Group runs from the Scout Hall. The 4th Altona Scout Group are located at an old camp owned by the City of Hobsons Bay. Altona is home to many sporting clubs including Australian rules football, hockey, basketball and lacrosse. Melbourne Ballpark is a baseball complex in the west of Altona. Altona is represented by many teams, including the soccer team Altona Magic competing in the Victorian State League Division 1, the third tier in Australia behind the A-Le

Clockwatchers

Clockwatchers is an American comedy-drama film released in 1997. Directed by Jill Sprecher, it stars Parker Posey, Lisa Kudrow, Toni Collette and Alanna Ubach as temporary office staffers in an office complex; the four become misfit friends in an office environment where they are ignored and mistrusted by their co-workers. Iris is a shy young professional. Margaret is the polar opposite, serves as a catalyst to help Iris become more assertive. Paula eagerly awaits the chance to flirt with attractive men. Jane is engaged to marry a jerk, cheating on her. Margaret hopes to become a permanent employee as an assistant to Mr. Lasky, but her dreams are thwarted when he dies; the four temps form a camaraderie which assists them in getting through their boring and tedious days at work. A series of thefts occur in the office and suspicion falls on the temps Margaret; when Iris finds a plastic monkey inside Margaret's desk that she had thought was stolen, Iris loses faith in Margaret and believes that she is the office thief.

Margaret suggests a one-day strike from work due to mistreatment and being under appreciated as temps, her friends halfheartedly agree to join her, but on the appointed day Margaret is the only one who does not come to work. As a result, the company's officious head of human resources fires Margaret, management micromanages the remaining three temps. Iris and Jane's friendship comes to an end as result of the stress, ending the camaraderie among the temporary workers, they all go their separate ways. Paula is upset when she learns of Jane's wedding from a newspaper announcement, to which she was not invited, leaves to work in another department, it is discovered that another employee was the thief and that Margaret had a similar toy in her desk. Iris confronts the thief; when Iris is not hired for a permanent job she wanted, she quits the temp pool. A senior executive agrees to sign a letter of recommendation for Iris. Iris takes advantage of the fact that executives learn the temps' names, she tells the executive that her name is Margaret, so that Margaret can receive the recommendation she had been striving for as a temp.

Iris mails the letter of recommendation to Margaret with a note. The film was first released on June 1997 in Australia, the native country of Toni Collette. In America, it was released nearly a year in May of 1998. Clockwatchers received positive reviews, it holds an 83% approval rating at Rotten Tomatoes based on 24 reviews. Clockwatchers on IMDb Clockwatchers at AllMovie Clockwatchers at Rotten Tomatoes Clockwatchers at Box Office Mojo