SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents are arranged in a ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macroscopic single crystals are identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations; the scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification; the word crystal derives from the Ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος, meaning both "ice" and "rock crystal", from κρύος, "icy cold, frost". Examples of large crystals include snowflakes and table salt. Most inorganic solids are not crystals but polycrystals, i.e. many microscopic crystals fused together into a single solid. Examples of polycrystals include most metals, rocks and ice. A third category of solids is amorphous solids, where the atoms have no periodic structure whatsoever.

Examples of amorphous solids include glass and many plastics. Despite the name, lead crystal, crystal glass, related products are not crystals, but rather types of glass, i.e. amorphous solids. Crystals are used in pseudoscientific practices such as crystal therapy, along with gemstones, are sometimes associated with spellwork in Wiccan beliefs and related religious movements; the scientific definition of a "crystal" is based on the microscopic arrangement of atoms inside it, called the crystal structure. A crystal is a solid where the atoms form a periodic arrangement.. Not all solids are crystals. For example, when liquid water starts freezing, the phase change begins with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse, forming a polycrystalline structure. In the final block of ice, each of the small crystals is a true crystal with a periodic arrangement of atoms, but the whole polycrystal does not have a periodic arrangement of atoms, because the periodic pattern is broken at the grain boundaries.

Most macroscopic inorganic solids are polycrystalline, including all metals, ice, etc. Solids that are neither crystalline nor polycrystalline, such as glass, are called amorphous solids called glassy, vitreous, or noncrystalline; these have no periodic order microscopically. There are distinct differences between crystalline solids and amorphous solids: most notably, the process of forming a glass does not release the latent heat of fusion, but forming a crystal does. A crystal structure is characterized by its unit cell, a small imaginary box containing one or more atoms in a specific spatial arrangement; the unit cells are stacked in three-dimensional space to form the crystal. The symmetry of a crystal is constrained by the requirement that the unit cells stack with no gaps. There are 219 possible crystal symmetries, called crystallographic space groups; these are grouped into 7 crystal systems, such as hexagonal crystal system. Crystals are recognized by their shape, consisting of flat faces with sharp angles.

These shape characteristics are not necessary for a crystal—a crystal is scientifically defined by its microscopic atomic arrangement, not its macroscopic shape—but the characteristic macroscopic shape is present and easy to see. Euhedral crystals are those with well-formed flat faces. Anhedral crystals do not because the crystal is one grain in a polycrystalline solid; the flat faces of a euhedral crystal are oriented in a specific way relative to the underlying atomic arrangement of the crystal: they are planes of low Miller index. This occurs; as a crystal grows, new atoms attach to the rougher and less stable parts of the surface, but less to the flat, stable surfaces. Therefore, the flat surfaces tend to grow larger and smoother, until the whole crystal surface consists of these plane surfaces. One of the oldest techniques in the science of crystallography consists of measuring the three-dimensional orientations of the faces of a crystal, using them to infer the underlying crystal symmetry.

A crystal's habit is its visible external shape. This is determined by the crystal structure, the specific crystal chemistry and bonding, the conditions under which the crystal formed. By volume and weight, the largest concentrations of crystals in the Earth are part of its solid bedrock. Crystals found in rocks range in size from a fraction of a millimetre to several centimetres across, although exceptionally large crystals are found; as of 1999, the world's largest known occurring crystal is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina, Madagascar, 18 m long and 3.5 m in diameter, weighing 380,000 kg. Some crystals have formed by magmatic and metamorphic processes, giving origin to large masses of crystalline rock; the vast majority of igneous rocks are formed from molten magma and the degree of crystallization depends on the conditions under which they solidified. Such rocks as granite, which have cooled slowly and under great pressures, have crystallized.

Ivy Hill Cemetery (Philadelphia)

Ivy Hill Cemetery is a public cemetery located at 1201 Easton Road in Philadelphia, United States. Chartered in 1867, it was call the "Germantown and Chestnut Hill Cemetery." William Law Anderson, professional golfer Boy in the Box, unidentified murder victim George Potter Darrow, US congressman Mahlon Duckett, professional baseball player Charles Edgar Duryea, automotive engineer and inventor "Smokin' Joe" Frazier, professional boxer L. Fidelia Woolley Gillette, first women ordained a minister in Canada Franklin B. Gowen, businessman Bill Gray, professional baseball player Harold B. Hairston, Philadelphia fire commissioner Ed Lafitte, professional baseball player Margaret Lawrence, actress Thomas McIntosh, Philadelphia city councilman Harold Melvin, Soul singer Edwin Ward Moore, commodore of the Texas Navy Matthew Saad Muhammad, professional boxer Francis D. Pastorius, Philadelphia City Treasurer Fayette Pinkney, Soul singer Joni Sledge and Disco singer William Thompson Russell Smith, landscape painter Bill Tilden, professional tennis player Lauretha A. Vaird, Philadelphia police officer Louis Wagner, US Army general Marion Williams, Gospel singer

The Beatles' 1966 tour of Germany, Japan and the Philippines

The English rock group the Beatles toured Germany and the Philippines between 24 June and 4 July 1966. The thirteen concerts comprised the first stage of a world tour that ended with the band's final tour of the United States, in August 1966; the shows in what was West Germany represented a return to the country where the Beatles had developed as a group before achieving fame in 1963. The return flight from the Philippines to England included a stopover in Delhi in India. There, the Beatles indulged in two days of sightseeing and shopping for musical instruments while still under the attention of the press and local fans. Concerts provided the band with little in the way of artistic fulfillment; the program was in the package-tour format typical of the 1960s, with two shows per day, several support acts on the bill, the Beatles' set lasting around 30 minutes. The band's set list included their new single, "Paperback Writer", but no songs from their completed album, Revolver. Marked by poor playing, the shows highlighted the division between what the group could achieve when performing live as a four-piece with inadequate amplification, the more complex music they were able to create in the recording studio.

Concerts at the Circus-Krone-Bau in Munich and the Nippon Budokan hall in Tokyo were filmed and broadcast on local television networks. The tour signalled a change in the Beatlemania phenomenon, as violent measures were used to control crowds for the first time and the band became a symbol of societal division between conservative and liberal thinking; the bookings at the Budokan, a venue reserved for martial arts, offended many traditionalists in Japan, resulting in death threats to the Beatles and a heightened police presence throughout their stay. In Manila, the band's nonattendance at a social engagement hosted by Imelda Marcos led to a hostile reaction from citizens loyal to the Marcos regime, government officials and army personnel; the Beatles and their entourage were manhandled while attempting to leave the country and forced to surrender much of the earnings from the group's two shows at the Rizal Memorial Stadium. On their return to London, the Beatles were outspoken in their condemnation of the Philippines.

As a result of the events in Manilla, the band lost faith with their longtime manager, Brian Epstein, made the decision to end their career as live performers that year. By contrast, the stay in Tokyo established an enduring bond between the Beatles and Japan, where each of the band members visited or performed in the decades following the group's break-up. Brian Epstein, the Beatles' manager, had intended that 1966 would follow the format of the previous two years, in which the Beatles had made a feature film with an accompanying soundtrack album, toured in North America and select countries during the summer months, recorded a second album for a pre-Christmas release. Following the group's UK tour in December 1965, the band members decided to reject the planned film project, an adaptation of Richard Condon's novel A Talent for Loving, for which Epstein had purchased the film rights; the band therefore had an unprecedented three months free of professional engagements. The group resumed work in early April, when they began recording Revolver, an album that reflected a more experimental approach as well as the increasing division between the music they made as live performers and their studio work.

The band interrupted the sessions to perform at the NME Poll-Winners Concert on 1 May. During the early months of 1966, Epstein arranged bookings for the Beatles to play a series of concerts beginning in late June, in West Germany and the Philippines; these locations comprised the first leg of a world tour that would resume on 11 August, when the group embarked on their third US tour. When discussing a possible itinerary in New York on 3 March, Epstein had said that the Beatles were to play in Britain but made no mention of the Philippines. Concerts in what was the Soviet Union were under consideration; the band completed work on Revolver on 22 June and flew to Munich the following day to begin the tour. According to author Jonathan Gould, the Beatles would gladly have stayed in Britain rather than continue to perform in halls filled with screaming fans; the band's dedication to completing Revolver, together with their lack of touring experience since December 1965, ensured that they were under-rehearsed for the concerts.

Author Philip Norman writes that the knowledge that they would not be heard above the hysteria of their fans was another factor behind the group's failure to rehearse adequately for the tour. Given the complexity of their new recordings, the band did not include any of the songs from Revolver in their 1966 set list. Author and critic Richie Unterberger writes that this omission has been interpreted as laziness by some commentators, yet it was in keeping with the Beatles' policy not to perform any unreleased material, their current single, "Paperback Writer", was included, but as with the few selections from Rubber Soul they performed live – "Nowhere Man" and "If I Needed Someone" – the Beatles were unable to capture the intricacies of the multi-track recording in concert. The set lasted just over 30 minutes. Aside from the introduction of "Paperback Writer", it was unchanged from the 1965 UK tour. "Rock and Roll Music" became the opening song, while Ringo Starr's moment as the featured singer, "Act Naturally", was replaced by "I Wanna Be Your Man".

The Beatles played "Yesterday" –, a Paul McCartney solo performance, on acoustic guitar – with electric group backing for the first time. According to author Jon Savage, "It was a strange set... Rockers w