Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
U.S. Route 98 in Florida
U. S. Route 98 is an east-west United States highway that runs 671 miles from the Alabama-Florida state line to southern Florida, it is the longest US road in Florida. It was established in 1933 as a route between Pensacola and Apalachicola, has since been extended eastward across the Florida Peninsula and westward into Mississippi, it runs along much of the Gulf Coast between Mobile and Crystal River, including extensive sections following the coast eastward from the Alabama-Florida state line to St. Marks. At a length of 671 miles, US 98 is the longest numbered route in the state of Florida. Within Florida, US 98 is marked as an east–west road from the Alabama-Florida border to Perry. Throughout most of the Florida Peninsula, the road is marked as a north–south road, but directions return to east-west on the northeast shore of Lake Okeechobee; as is the case with all Florida roads with federal designations, the entirety of US 98 has a hidden Florida Department of Transportation designation: State Road 80 from the US route's eastern terminus at SR A1A to Main Street in Belle Glade.
State Road 15 from Hooker Highway in Belle Glade to the junction with Parrot Avenue and Park Street in Okeechobee. State Road 700 from the route's eastern split in Canal Point to Lake Parker Avenue in Lakeland, again from to US 92 in Lakeland to South Suncoast Boulevard in Citrus County. State Road 35 from SR 60 / Broadway Avenue in Bartow to US 301 in Pasco County, with one exception: State Road 548 from Main Street to George Jenkins Boulevard in Lakeland. State Road 55 from South Suncoast Boulevard in Citrus County to US 221 in Perry. State Road 30 from US 221 in Perry to the Alabama state line via the Lillian Bridge over Perdido Bay, with the following exceptions: State Road 30A between the eastern and western terminii of both of US 98 Business and US 98 Alternate in Bay County State Road 289 from US 98 Business to US 90 in Pensacola. State Road 10A from North 9th Avenue to North Pace Boulevard in Pensacola. State Road 292 from West Cervantes Street to US 98 Business in Pensacola. Concurrencies include US 90 in Pensacola, US 319 from Port St. Joe to St. Teresa and in Medart, ALT US 27 from Perry to Chiefland, US 19 from Perry to Chassahowitzka, US 41 SR 50A in Brooksville, SR 50 from Brooksville to Ridge Manor, US 301 from Moss Town to Clinton Heights, US 17 from Bartow to Fort Meade, US 27 from West Frostproof to South Sebring, US 441 from Okeechobee to Royal Palm Beach, SR 80 from near Belle Glade to Palm Beach.
US 98 is a 671-mile-long route. From the Alabama state line to Apalachee Bay, it follows the coast of the Gulf of Mexico through Pensacola and Panama City Beach, it turns inland and passes through Perry and Chiefland before turning back towards the gulf coast north of Crystal River. The highway stairsteps its way across the peninsula through Dade City and Sebring. Near Lake Okeechobee, it follows the eastern shore toward Belle Glade, it heads east to its endpoint on the Atlantic seaboard in Palm Beach. US 98 enters Florida from Alabama via the Lillian Bridge; the two-lane highway lands on the state's western shore just west of Pensacola as Lillian Highway. At an intersection with SR 298 and County Road 297, Lillian Highway splits away from US 98 and continues along the state road. At SR 173, US 98 widens into a four-lane divided highway. SR 727 provides access to Pensacola's northwestern suburbs; as it enters West Pensacola, US 98 passes along the southern border of the Corry Station Naval Technical Training Center.
It turns north onto the two routes head north together for a short distance. Both SR 173 and SR 295 direct traffic to Naval Air Station Pensacola, which lies three miles south of the intersection of US 98 and SR 295. US 98 enters Pensacola after traversing a short bridge across Bayou Chico. A few blocks it turns onto Pace Boulevard, which takes US 98 north to West Cervantes Street, which carries US 90. Together, US 90 and US 98 run through the heart of Pensacola, they intersect US 29,a half diamond interchange with Interstate 110, the SR 291 one-way couplet of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive and Davis Highway. Shortly thereafter, US 98 turns south at SR 289 and splits away from US 90. US 98 and SR 289 are concurrent for a few blocks until the U. S. Highway's eastbound traffic turns onto E. Chase Street. After a short jaunt on the Bayfront Parkway, US 98 turns south to cross the 3-mile-long Pensacola Bay Bridge over the eponymous body of water; the highway lands on the Fairpoint Peninsula in Gulf Breeze.
It passes Gulf Breeze High School. On the opposite end of the eastward curve is a trumpet interchange with Pensacola Beach Boulevard, which heads south to Pensacola Beach. East of Gulf Breeze, US 98 goes through the Naval Live Oaks Reservation, it meets SR 281 in a populated, yet unincorporated part of Florida. US 98 continues on to Perry through Okaloosa, Bay, Franklin, Wakulla and Taylor counties, passing through different cities and towns, such as Fort Walton Beach, Santa Rosa Beach, Panama City, Port St. Joe, Apalachicola, along the beautiful and well-known Emerald Coast and the quieter, less developed Forgotten Coast. Within the city limits of Perry, US 98 and SR 30 makes a sharp
Cedar-Bank Works is group of Adena culture earthworks located in Ross County, Ohio in the United States. It is located five miles north of the town of Chillicothe, Ohio. Cedar-Bank is Adena in its design and style, is believed to have been built before the sites at Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, it remains unknown. The site was surveyed in 1845 by Edwin Hamilton Davis, they reported about their survey in their 1848 publication, Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. They describe the site as consisting of a "wall and an outer ditch, which constitute three sides of a parallelogram; the fourth side is protected by a natural bank or bluff, 70 feet high, so steep as to admit of no ascent, except at one point where it has been gullied by the flow of water." They surveyed the three walls as measuring at six feet high with 40 foot bases. The ditches were noted as being five feet by 40 feet wide; the eastern wall was reported as having a ditch. This ditch was measured at ranging from eight to ten feet deep.
The eastern wall itself was 1,400 feet long. The other built walls, the northern and southern walls, were both the same size, measuring in at 1,050 feet in length, they were placed on right angles. The south ended at the hill and the north stopped 25 feet from the southern wall. Squier and Davis believed that a fourth wall may have been built, only to have been destroyed by the natural elements. Two entrances were noted, one on the north side and the other on the south side, each placed in the center of each side, they describe a four foot tall "elevated square" as "covering the northern gateway and two hundred feet interior to it." The square is noted as being 250 feet by 150 feet wide. They compare the square to the pyramids located at the Marietta Earthworks. Squier and Davis described parallel walls, 300 feet away from the main site; the walls were measured at 870 feet in length and 70 feet apart from each other. The two walls lack ditches; the two men noted that the walls were destroyed by the Chillicothe Turnpike that passed through the site.
The undisturbed parts of the walls, which were in forested areas of the site, were two to three feet high. They surveyed, a third of a mile south of the main work, a truncated pyramid along with a small circle; the pyramid is measured at 120 feet square at the base and nine feet tall. The pyramid's location matches the cardinal directions, they excavated the pyramid, no remains were found. The circle is measured at 250 feet in diameter with a gateway on the south side of it; the gateway is 30 feet wide. There is a ditch inside the circle and an embankment, which matches the height of the circle wall on the side without the gateway. Squier and Davis note that they have seen this type of build in other works, but do not name which sites; this type of open circle would be described, by contemporary archaeologists as being a "C-form" earthwork. They compliment the location of the pyramid and circle as having a "fine view" of the river and being "well chosen," by the builders, they believed that the land that the square and circle works were built on was intentionally smoothed out by the builders.
They did note that they discovered "inconsiderable remains, consisting of small, low terraces, little mounds and circles." No additional major mounds were discovered on the site. Upon completion of their survey and Davis could not determine the use of the earthworks, they believed. However, the large gateways on the site were "hardly consistent with the hypothesis of military origin." The men reported that there must have been some type of significance in the placement of walls, suggesting that the space was used for "celebration of certain games" or religious ceremony. The Ohio Historical Society reported its findings on excavations at the site in the 1902 book, Archæological History of Ohio: The Mound Builders and Later Indians by Gerard Fowke. Fowke notes that when the site was built, the river most flowed high enough to be at the edge of the earthworks, he noted young white oak being found at the site and that, as of the time of publishing, no other excavations had taken place since Squier and Davis visited the site in 1845.
Based on casual observation, Fowke noted that the "south wall had been worn away," but it is unknown what happened. He suggested that the river washed away the loose soil and gravel that the wall was built upon, causing it to fall apart, he noted that the river was "much further away," than at the time Squier and Davis had visited. He theorizes that a ditch near "Prairie Run" may have been one source for the soil used to build the works, he cites cultivation as the source of the walls being destroyed in most areas, showing a considerable change from the time that Squier and Davis had been there in 1845. He states that the pyramid that Squier and Davis describe was described incorrectly by them. Fowke states that the grounds were not purposefully smoothed out by the builders, that the ground is like that and that the ground is no more special than the ground that surrounds it without works built upon it
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, United States. Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in 2001 to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or shut down; the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index". Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge."The name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the "WABAC machine", a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. In one of the animated cartoon's component segments, Peabody's Improbable History, the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, more than not, alter famous events in history.
The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in 1996, with the goal of making the service public five years later. From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database; when the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it contained over 10 billion archived pages. Today, the data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes, it archives new versions of websites on occasion. Sites can be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews bulletin board system, downloadable software; the information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible.
To overcome inconsistencies in cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, create digital archives. Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl; the "Worldwide Web Crawls" have capture the global Web. The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. A crawl can take months or years to complete depending on size. For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, completed on July 11, 2016. However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how a site is crawled varies widely.
As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month; the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that; the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month. A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011. In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, will continue to be updated regularly.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." In 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs. In October 2013, the company announced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL; this became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries. As of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, was growing at about 20 terabytes a week; as of July 2016, the Wayback Machine contained around 15 petabytes of data. As of September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained more than 25 petabytes of data. Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 to 208. In March 2019 the rank was at 244.
Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard in determining if a website would be crawled or not. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback M
In archaeology, earthworks are artificial changes in land level made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil. Earthworks can themselves be archaeological features. Earthworks of interest to archaeologists include hill forts, mounds, platform mounds, effigy mounds, long barrows, tumuli and furrow, round barrows, other tombs. Hill forts, a type of fort made out of earth and other natural materials including sand and water, were built as early as the late Stone Age and were built more during the Bronze Age and Iron Age as a means of protection. See Oppidum. Henge earthworks are those that consist of a flat area of earth in a circular shape that are encircled by a ditch, or several circular ditches, with a bank on the outside of the ditch built with the earth from inside the ditch, they are believed to have been used as monuments for spiritual ritual ceremonies. A mound is a substantial manmade pile of earth or rocks, created to mark burial sites Platform mounds are pyramid or rectangular-shaped mounds that are used to hold a building or temple on top.
An effigy mound is a pile of earth very large in scale, shaped into the image of a person or animal for symbolic or spiritual reasons An enclosure is a space, surrounded by an earthwork. Long barrows are oblong-shaped mounds. A tumulus or barrow is a mound of earth created over a tomb. A cross dyke or cross-ridge dyke is a bank and ditch, or sometimes a ditch between two banks, that crosses a ridge or spur of high ground. Found in Europe and belonging to the Bronze Age or Iron Age. Marked on Ordnance Survey maps in the UK. Ridge and furrows are sets of parallel depressions and ridges in the ground formed through historic farming techniques. Mottes are mound structures made of stone that once held castles, they are an important part of the motte-and-bailey castle, a castle design during early Norman times in which the castle is built on the motte, surrounded by a ditch and a bailey, an enclosure with a stone wall. A round barrow is a mound, in a rounded shape, used during Neolithic times as a burial mound.
Geoglyph, a large design or motif Earthworks can vary in height from a few centimetres to the size of Silbury Hill at 40 metres. They can date from the Neolithic to the present; the structures can stretch for many tens of kilometres. In area, they can cover many hectares. Shallow earthworks are more visible as cropmarks or in aerial photographs if taken when the sun is low in the sky and shadows are more pronounced. Earthworks may be more visible after a frost or a light dusting of snow. Earthworks plotted using Light Detection and Ranging; this technique is useful for mapping small variations in land height that would be difficult to detect by eye. It can be used for features hidden by other vegetation. LIDAR results can be input into a geographic information system to produce three-dimensional representations of the earthworks. An accurate survey of the earthworks can enable them to be interpreted without the need for excavation. For example, earthworks from deserted medieval villages can be used to determine the location and layout of lost settlements.
These earthworks can point to the purpose of such a settlement, as well the context in which it existed. Earthworks in North America include mounds built by Native Americans known as the Mound Builders. Ancient people who lived in the American Midwest built effigy mounds, which are mounds shaped like animals or people; the most famous of these effigy mounds is Serpent Mound. Located in the Ohio, this 411-meterlong earthen work is thought to memorialize alignments of the planets and stars that were of special significance to the Native Americans that constructed it. Cone-shaped or conical mounds are numerous, with thousands of them scattered across the American Midwest, some over 80 feet tall; these conical mounds appear to be marking the graves of one person or dozens of people. An example of a conical mound is the Miamisburg Mound in central Ohio, estimated to have been built by people of the Adena culture in the time range of 800 B. C. to 100 AD. The American Plains hold temple mounds, or platform mounds, which are giant pyramid-shaped mounds with flat tops that once held temples made of wood.
Examples of temple mounds include Monks Mound located at the Cahokia site in Collinsville and Mound H at the Crystal River site in Citrus County, Florida. The earthworks at Poverty Point occupy one of the largest-area sites in North America, as they cover some 920 acres of land in Louisiana. Military earthworks can result in subsequent archaeological earthworks. Examples include Roman marching forts. During the American Civil War, earthwork fortifications were built throughout the country, by both Confederate and Union sides; the largest earthwork fort built during the war was Fortress Rosecrans, which encompassed 255 acres. In northeastern Somalia, near the city of Bosaso at the end of the Baladi valley, lies an earthwork 2 km to 3 km long. Local tradition recounts, it is the largest such structure in the wider Horn region. Bigo is an extensive earthworks site located in the interlacustrine region of southwestern Uganda, Africa. Situated on the south shore of the Katonga river, the Big