Cuarenta Casas is an archaeological site in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. Construction of the site is attributed to the Mogollon culture. Located in Vallecito in the municipality of Casas Grandes, Forty Houses is believed to be the southernmost site related to the period of Mogollon influence; the site consists of a series of cliff dwellings built in natural caves in the cliffs of Huapoca Canyon. The best known is the Cueva de las Ventanas. Early Spanish explorers named the site Cuarenta Casas based on their speculation of the total number of structures; the area consists of five main cave communities: Cueva del Puente, Cueva de la Serpiente, Nido del Aguila and Cueva Grande. The zone is located 45 kilometers north of the Maderas Municipality, in the Sierra Madre Occidental and some 250 kilometers northwest of Chihuahua City. There are five Paquimé Culture archaeological sites in this area, accessible from the Madera municipality, are: Located 36 kilometers west of Madera, by a dirt road.
The Ancestral Pueblo caves consist of the Eagle Nest caves. They are considered the most impressive built on cliffs. Have complete structures. There are wonderful views of the Huapoca Canyon, it has 14 adobe houses, over 1,000 years old. It only has one house, built on the edge of a sheer cliff under a rocky overhang, provides a meaning to its name. Located 66 kilometers west of Madera, on a dirt road. Cueva Grande hides behind branches of trees; the mouth of the cave is obscured by a waterfall from the top of the cave to a stream. There are double-story houses that are good examples of the native construction techniques. There is a round grain storage area behind the structure. Cave complex, 50 kilometers south of Madera. Has an extended archaeological remain area at the base of the Sirupa canyon. 45 kilometers north of Madera During the early 16th century, explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca wrote, "And here by the side of the mountain, we forged our way inland more than 50 leagues and there found forty houses."
The current inhabitation of Chihuahua initiated throughout the Western Mountain Range, when native hunter-gatherer groups moved from the north looking for areas with abundant edible plants. One of those groups produced the first known evidences in the "Cueva de las Ventanas", when they still lacked the constructions we now see; as these settlers dominated agricultural techniques began occupying the margins of the rivers and originated the Paquimé culture, neighboring what today is known as Casas Grandes, Chihuahua. Cuarentas Casas construction occurred during the height of Paquimé, a period corresponding to the late Mogollon culture period. Cuarentas Casas was a refuge site, similar to others at the Mesa Bandelier sites; the buildings share the typical T-shaped doorways of their northern neighbors and are constructed from adobe and rock with pine logs beams. It is possible that Cuarenta Casas was a garrison that protected allied groups in the region, in addition to safekeeping commercial routes.
It settlers farmed maize and pumpkin, their nourishment was supplemented with hunting of small species and harvesting of eatable wild plants like acorns, yucca seeds and maguey leaves. This was confirmed by remains found in archaeological excavations; the Paquimé regional center must have had frequent problems with hostile neighboring groups, which explains the presence of many surveillance points in extensive areas. Besieged by those groups or by internal problems, the settlement decayed, was abandoned and some of its inhabitants emigrated. Constructions date back to that period; the routes to the Pacific followed the Piedras Verdes River to the south and connected with the rivers that flow to the Pacific by way of smaller arroyos and canyons. Among these is the Huapoca Canyon to the west of the town of Madera; the Huapoca Canyon is not among the deepest of the Sierra Tarahumara but it possesses the most archaeological interest. The reasons why the settlement decayed, at 1340 CE are not known.
At the Paquimé fall as social and cultural center, the commercial routes disappeared, the guardians left their posts and many settlements throughout the route were abandoned. "Cueva de las Ventanas" was occupied with ceremonial purposes. As of 1520, the caves still were inhabited by native groups, hence it was possible to obtain information about their way of life, the natives named themselves "Jovas" or Cáhitas, with that name they referred to a group or larger family; this ethnic group is now considered extinct. The latest occupation of Cuarenta Casas occurred during the Paquimé apogee. Of the cave complex, the only area restored is the "Cueva de las Ventanas", it is a small archaeological site constructed with strong walls of poured adobe, with small "T" doors, characterizing the region pre-Hispanic architecture. It is a two-story structure of which only the ground floor rooms can be visited, these are distributed such that space was maximized within the space available in the cave. All rooms had stuccoed floors and furnaces.
It is totally destroyed and was placed towards the cave slope. On its higher section, a watchtower was constructed, it was equipped with a small drain channel and a urinal, the only ones found at the site. It
The Regiment Huzaren van Boreel is an armoured regiment of the Royal Netherlands Army, named for Willem Francois Boreel. It serves in the armoured Intelligence, Target Acquisition, Reconnaissance role; the most important role of the regiment Huzaren van Boreel is armoured reconnaissance. To perform this task, the regiment has two brigade reconnaissance squadrons, one per mechanized brigade: 42 BVE for the 13th Mechanized Brigade, 43 BVE for the 43rd Mechanized Brigade; the current motto of these units is "See without being seen", as opposed to the cold-war-era "Find and Strike", where the units would find the enemy, engage them, deliver an artillery strike, speed off. With the new philosophy, the combat task of these units has faded away. Where the units were armed with tanks, AIFVs and their own artillery, nowadays they are equipped with the state-of-the-art Fennek reconnaissance vehicle. A BVE consists of three reconnaissance platoons with eight vehicles each, 24 people total, an anti-tank platoon equipped with four Fennek MRAT, a logistics platoon and a staff platoon.
The two armoured reconnaissance squadrons of 103 ISTAR battalion, 103 and 104 GGVE, are equipped, but instead of an anti-tank section, they have three Fenneks to support a Tactical Air Control Party in the forward air-control role. Media related to Regiment Huzaren van Boreel at Wikimedia Commons Dutch Cavalry Museum
The 2015–16 LNFA season was the 22nd season of American football in Spain. Teams were divided into three categories, named Serie A, B and C, with promotion and relegation between them. Badalona Dracs won a record for the tournament. Six teams entered the top-tier level of American football in Spain. Rivas Osos, Valencia Firebats, Valencia Giants and Badalona Dracs repeated from last year. Barberà Rookies and Reus Imperials were promoted from last year LNFA Serie B. On December 28, the three teams from the Community of Madrid were excluded from the competition as they did not have a junior team in the junior league. On June 12, the fifth placed team in Serie A, Valencia Giants, played against Serie B runner-up, L'Hospitalet Pioners. Giants won the game and will play in next year Serie A. Seven teams played the Serie B in 2016. L'Hospitalet Pioners and Mallorca Voltors were relegated from previous Serie A season. Gijón Mariners were promoted from Serie C in 2015; the nine original teams were reduced to seven on December 28, when the Spanish Federation of American Football excluded the two teams from the Community of Madrid arguing that they did not have junior teams in the junior league, one of the criteria to play the Serie A or B.
Murcia Cobras won the Serie B, promoted to next year Serie A Season. L'Hospitalet Pioners, as runner-up, played a promotion game against the last team in 2015–16 Serie A, Valencia Giants, but lost it and remained in Serie B; the Serie C was composed by interregional leagues. The top 8 teams could qualify to the promotion playoffs, but only two teams signed up for the playoffs; the three teams from the Community of Madrid that were excluded in December 2015 from the 2015–16 season took part in the promotion playoffs. Rivas Osos won the Serie C, promoted to next year Serie B Season; the top 8 teams could qualify to the promotion playoffs, but only two teams signed up for these. The three teams from the Community of Madrid that were excluded in December 2015 from the 2015–16 season will take part in the promotion playoffs; the champion of the Serie C will promote directly to Serie B, while the runner-up must play one more game against a Serie B team. The two teams were ranked based on these criteria: higher percentage of wins lower average of points allowed superior point difference average lower average of players sent off lucky draw FEFA American Football Spanish Federation Results and information of Spanish leagues