CubCrafters CC11-160 Carbon Cub SS
The CubCrafters CC11-160 Carbon Cub SS is an ASTM certified light-sport aircraft based on the Piper Cub manufactured by Cub Crafters. It is modernized, with a 180 hp engine. In January 2016 the Carbon Cub was named AVweb's "Airplane of the Year" for 2015; the Carbon Cub SS was named the "CubCrafters Super Sport Cub". In order to maintain certification under American Light Sport Aircraft limitations the maximum takeoff power is limited to five minutes; the Carbon Cub SS uses air-induction scoop. The Carbon Cub weighs 300 lbs less than a Piper Super Cub; the carbon cowling weighs six pounds. The fuselage is welded 4130 tube steel with fabric covering; the wings are fitted with vortex generators for low-speed flight control. Some models use a partial color on silver base coat paint job that weighs 11 lbs less than an all-color paint job; the CC340 engine is a Lycoming O-320 based engine developed with ECi using dual electronic ignition and ECi O-320 cylinders. The engine is rated at 5 gallons per hour at the 80 hp cruise setting.
CubCrafters CC11-100 Sport Cub S2 An O-200 powered LSA variant CubCrafters Carbon Cub EX An experimental kit variant of the Carbon Cub SS with a gross weight of 1,865 lb. Data from FlyingGeneral characteristics Capacity: 2 Length: 22.75 ft Wingspan: 34.25 ft Height: 9.25 ft Wing area: 171.9 sq ft Aspect ratio: 5.2-1 Airfoil: USA35 Empty weight: 896 lb Gross weight: 1,320 lb Fuel capacity: 24 gallons usable in 25 gallon tank Powerplant: 1 × CC340 Horizontally opposed piston engine, 180 hp for maximum of 5 minutes, 80 hp continuous. The short term increased output is suitable for short field takeoff and initial higher rate of climb. In level flight, 80 hp produces 76.3% of the speed produced by 180 hp, the cube root of 80/180. Propellers: 2-bladed CATTO composite propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 88 kn. Stall speed: 27 kn. Never exceed speed: 123 kn. Range: 391 nmi. Ferry range: 652 nmi. Service ceiling: 17,999 ft Rate of climb: 2,100 ft/min using 180 hp, no flaps, below gross weight. Wing loading: 7.37 lb/sq ft Thrust/weight: 7.33 per hp Media related to CubCrafters Carbon Cub at Wikimedia Commons
Piper PA-18 Super Cub
The Piper PA-18 Super Cub is a two-seat, single-engine monoplane. Introduced in 1949 by Piper Aircraft, it was developed from the Piper PA-11, traces its lineage back through the J-3 to the Taylor E-2 Cub of the 1930s. In close to 40 years of production, over 9,000 were built. Super Cubs are found in roles such as bush flying, banner towing and glider towing. While based on the design of the earlier Cubs, the addition of an electrical system, a more powerful engine, made it a different flying experience. Although the "standard" Super Cub was fitted with a 150-horsepower Lycoming engine, it is not uncommon to see them equipped with a 160-horsepower O-320-B2B, or 180 horsepower Lycoming O-360 powerplant; the high-lift wing and powerful engine made the Super Cub a prime candidate for conversion to either floatplane or skiplane. In addition, the PA-18A was produced for applying either dry chemical or liquid spray; the Super Cub retained the basic "tube" structure of the earlier J-3 Cub. The first true "Super" Cubs had flaps, dual fuel tanks, an O-235 Lycoming engine producing about 108 hp.
However, a 90 hp Continental variant without flaps and an optional second wing tank was available. Their empty weight was, on the average, 800–1000 pounds with a gross weight of 1,500 lb; these Cubs would land in about 300 feet. The Super Cub is renowned for its ability to take off and land in short distances; the first Super Cubs were going to be offered with a unique four-wheel tandem main landing gear designed for landing and takeoff from rough terrain, but this was replaced with conventional landing gear. The O-290 Lycoming powered Cubs would take off in about 200 feet; the landing distance remained the same at 300 feet using flaps. With the use of the Lycoming O-320 at 150–160 hp, the Cub's allowable gross weight increased to 1,750 lb while retaining the capability of a mere 200 feet required for takeoff; the PA-18 has developed a dedicated following in the bush-flying community, many modifications have been developed for it, to the point where it is quite rare to find an original stock Super Cub.
Modifications include extended baggage compartments, external luggage pods, fuel pods, lumber racks for carrying construction materials into unimproved bush runways. The removal of header tanks, larger 24 or 30 gallon wing fuel tanks, extended main landing gear for better ground clearance of the propeller, strengthened tailwheel springs, the addition of a small third passenger seat in the luggage area and lightweight generators and starters. Various different mount areas for the battery, various different tailfin shapes to increase surface area, lengthened flaps, various wingtip designs, vortex generators on the leading edge of the wings, movement of the electrical panel from the right wing root to the dashboard to reduce fire hazard during a crash, the addition of a constant-speed propeller. Above all, the most common modification is the addition of "bush wheels", soft, low pressure balloon-tires designed to absorb impacts from rocks and boulders, to not sink into sand or other soft surfaces, ideal for off-runway landings.
PA-18 Super Cub Prototype and production variant powered by a 95 hp Continental C-90-8F piston engine, sometimes known as the PA-18-95. PA-18-105 Super Cub Production variant fitted with a 105 hp Lycoming O-235-C1 piston engine and larger tailplane. PA-18-105 Special Special variant built in 1952 and 1953 for the Civil Air Patrol as a trainer with horn-balanced elevators and provision for seat parachutes. PA-18-125 Super Cub Variant to replace the PA-18-95 with flaps and horn-balanced elevators and a 125 hp Lycoming O-290-D piston engine and either wood or metal controllable-pitch propeller. PA-18-135 Super Cub Variant with a 135 hp Lycoming O-290-D piston engine and fitted with two wing tanks as standard. PA-18-150 Super Cub 1954 variant with a 150 hp Lycoming O-320. PA-18-180 Super Cub Experimental variant with a 180 hp Lycoming O-360 engine, one built in 1980 by Piper. Other aircraft have been re-engined under a Supplemental Type Certificate. PA-18A Designation for production agricultural aircraft, including cropdusters and sprayer variants and incorporating a different rear fuselage profile to allow fitting of a hopper-tank in the rear seat position.
PA-18S Designation for production aircraft fitted with floats. PA-18AS Designation of a small number of agricultural aircraft fitted with floats. PA-19 Super Cub Original designation of the military variant of the PA-18, only three built and all subsequent military production were designated as PA-18s. Aeromod Loadstar Model 100 Biplane conversion of Super Cub, powered by 135 hp O-290-D engine, designed for improved capability from high-altitude airfields. SAFAT 01 A Sudanese development / copy built by the SAFAT Aviation Complex at Khartoum. L-18C Super Cub Military designation of the PA-18 Super Cub for the United States Army, powered by a 95 hp Continental C90-8F piston engine, 838 delivered, at least 156 of which were delivered to other nations under MDAP. YL-21 Super Cub Two Super Cub 135s for evaluation by the United States Army. L-21A Super Cub Military designation of the Super Cub 125, powered by a 125 hp Avco Lycoming 0-290-II piston engine, 150 delivered. L-21B Super Cub Military designation of the S
Homebuilt aircraft known as amateur-built aircraft or kit planes, are constructed by persons for whom this is not a professional activity. These aircraft may be constructed from "scratch," from assembly kits. In the United States, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, homebuilt aircraft may be licensed Experimental under FAA or similar local regulations. With some limitations, the builder of the aircraft must have done it for their own education and recreation rather than for profit. In the U. S. the primary builder can apply for a repairman's certificate for that airframe. The repairman's certificate allows the holder to perform and sign off on most of the maintenance and inspections themselves. Alberto Santos-Dumont was the first to offer for free construction plans, publishing drawings of his Demoiselle in the June 1910 edition of Popular Mechanics; the first aircraft to be offered for sale as plans, rather than a completed airframe, was the Baby Ace in the late 1920s. Homebuilt aircraft gained in popularity in the U.
S. in 1924 with the start of the National Air Races, held in Ohio. These races required aircraft with useful loads of 150 lb and engines of 80 cubic inches or less and as a consequence of the class limitations most were amateur-built; the years after Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic flight brought a peak of interest between 1929 and 1933. During this period many aircraft designers and pilots were self-taught and the high accident rate brought public condemnation and increasing regulation to amateur building; the resulting federal standards on design, stress analysis, use of aircraft-quality hardware and testing of aircraft brought an end to amateur building except in some specialized areas, such as racing. In 1946 Goodyear restarted the National Air Races, including a class for aircraft powered by 200 cubic inch and smaller engines; the midget racer class spread nationally in the U. S. and this led to calls for acceptable standards to allow recreational use of amateur-built aircraft. By the mid-1950s both the U.
S. and Canada once again allowed amateur-built aircraft to specified limitations. Homebuilt aircraft are small, one to four-seat sportsplanes which employ simple methods of construction. Fabric-covered wood or metal frames and plywood are common in the aircraft structure, but fiberglass and other composites as well as full aluminum construction techniques are being used, techniques first pioneered by Hugo Junkers as far back as the late World War I era. Engines are most the same as, or similar to, the engines used in certified aircraft. A minority of homebuilts use converted automobile engines, with Volkswagen air-cooled flat-4s, Subaru-based liquid-cooled engines, Mazda Wankel and Chevrolet Corvair six-cylinder engines being most common; the use of automotive engines helps to reduce costs, but many builders prefer dedicated aircraft engines, which are perceived to have better performance and reliability. Other engines that have been used include motorcycle engines. A combination of cost and litigation in the mid-1980s era, discouraged general aviation manufacturers from introducing new designs and led to homebuilts outselling factory built aircraft by five to one.
In 2003, the number of homebuilts produced in the U. S. exceeded the number produced by any single certified manufacturer. The history of amateur-built aircraft can be traced to the beginning of aviation. If the Wright brothers, Clément Ader, their successors had commercial objectives in mind, the first aircraft were constructed by passionate enthusiasts whose goal was to fly. Aviation took a leap forward with the industrialization that accompanied World War I. In the post-war period, manufacturers needed to find new markets and introduced models designed for tourism. However, these machines were affordable only by the rich. Many U. S. aircraft designed and registered in the 1920s onward were considered "experimental" by the CAA, the same registration under which modern homebuilts are issued Special Airworthiness Certificates. Many of these were prototypes, but designs such as Bernard Pietenpol's first 1923 design were some of the first homebuilt aircraft. In 1928, Henri Mignet published plans for his HM-8 Pou-du-Ciel.
Pietenpol constructed a factory, in 1933 began creating and selling constructed aircraft kits. In 1936, an association of amateur aviation enthusiasts was created in France. Many types of amateur aircraft began to make an appearance, in 1938 legislation was amended to provide for a Certificat de navigabilité restreint d'aéronef. 1946 saw the birth of the Ultralight Aircraft Association which in 1952 became the Popular Flying Association in the United Kingdom, followed in 1953 by the Experimental Aircraft Association in the United States and the Sport Aircraft Association in Australia. The term "homebuilding" became popular in the mid-1950s when EAA founder Paul Poberezny wrote a series of articles for the magazine Mechanix Illustrated where he explained how a person could buy a set of plans and build their own aircraft at home; the articles gained the concept of aircraft homebuilding took off. Until the late 1950s, builders had kept to wood-and-cloth and steel tube-and-cloth design. Without the regulatory restrictions faced by production aircraft manufacturers, homebuilders introduced innovative designs and construction techniques.
Burt Rutan introduced the canard design to the homebuilding world and pioneered the use of composite construction. Metal construction in kitplanes was taken to a new level by Richard VanGrunsv
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, the protection of U. S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Created in August 1958, the FAA replaced the former Civil Aeronautics Administration and became an agency within the US Department of Transportation; the FAA's roles include: Regulating U. S. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometric and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote transportation safety in the United States through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation The FAA is divided into four "lines of business".
Each LOB has a specific role within the FAA. Airports: plans and develops projects involving airports, overseeing their construction and operations. Ensures compliance with federal regulations. Air Traffic Organization: primary duty is to safely and efficiently move air traffic within the National Airspace System. ATO employees manage air traffic facilities including Airport Traffic Control Towers and Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities. See Airway Operational Support. Aviation Safety: Responsible for aeronautical certification of personnel and aircraft, including pilots and mechanics. Commercial Space Transportation: ensures protection of U. S. assets during the launch or reentry of commercial space vehicles. The FAA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. as well as the William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City and its nine regional offices: Alaskan Region – Anchorage, Alaska Northwest Mountain – Seattle, Washington Western Pacific – Los Angeles, California Southwest – Fort Worth, Texas Central – Kansas City, Missouri Great Lakes – Chicago, Illinois Southern – Atlanta, Georgia Eastern – New York, New York New England – Boston, Massachusetts The Air Commerce Act of May 20, 1926, is the cornerstone of the federal government's regulation of civil aviation.
This landmark legislation was passed at the urging of the aviation industry, whose leaders believed the airplane could not reach its full commercial potential without federal action to improve and maintain safety standards. The Act charged the Secretary of Commerce with fostering air commerce and enforcing air traffic rules, licensing pilots, certifying aircraft, establishing airways, operating and maintaining aids to air navigation; the newly created Aeronautics Branch, operating under the Department of Commerce assumed primary responsibility for aviation oversight. In fulfilling its civil aviation responsibilities, the Department of Commerce concentrated on such functions as safety regulations and the certification of pilots and aircraft, it took over the building and operation of the nation's system of lighted airways, a task initiated by the Post Office Department. The Department of Commerce improved aeronautical radio communications—before the founding of the Federal Communications Commission in 1934, which handles most such matters today—and introduced radio beacons as an effective aid to air navigation.
The Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce in 1934 to reflect its enhanced status within the Department. As commercial flying increased, the Bureau encouraged a group of airlines to establish the first three centers for providing air traffic control along the airways. In 1936, the Bureau itself began to expand the ATC system; the pioneer air traffic controllers used maps and mental calculations to ensure the safe separation of aircraft traveling along designated routes between cities. In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act transferred the federal civil aviation responsibilities from the Commerce Department to a new independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority; the legislation expanded the government's role by giving the CAA the authority and the power to regulate airline fares and to determine the routes that air carriers would serve. President Franklin D. Roosevelt split the authority into two agencies in 1940: the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board.
CAA was responsible for ATC, airman and aircraft certification, safety enforcement, airway development. CAB was entrusted with safety regulation, accident investigation, economic regulation of the airlines; the CAA was part of the Department of Commerce. The CAB was an independent federal agency. On the eve of America's entry into World War II, CAA began to extend its ATC responsibilities to takeoff and landing operations at airports; this expanded role became permanent after the war. The application of radar to ATC helped controllers in their drive to keep abreast of the postwar boom in commercial air transportation. In 1946, Congress gave CAA the added task of administering the federal-aid airport program, the first peacetime program of financial assistance aimed exclusivel
Not to be confused with Canadian Transportation Agency. Transport Canada is the department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations and services of transportation in Canada, it is part of the Transportation and Communities portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Transport Canada is headquartered in Ontario; the Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time. It merged three departments: the former Department of Railways and Canals, the Department of Marine and Fisheries, the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence under C. D. Howe, who would use the portfolio to rationalize the governance and provision of all forms of transportation, he created Trans-Canada Air Lines. The Department of Transport Act came into force November 2, 1936. Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail.
Significant cuts to Transport Canada at that time resulted in CN Rail being privatized, the coast guard being transferred to Fisheries and Oceans, the seaway and various ports and airports being transferred to local operating authorities. Transport Canada emerged from this process as a department focused on policy and regulation rather than transportation operations. In 2004, Transport Canada introduced non-passenger screening to enhance both airport and civil aviation security. Transport Canada's headquarters are located in Ottawa at Place de Ville, Tower C. Transport Canada has regional headquarters in: Vancouver – Government of Canada Building on Burrard Street and Robson Street Edmonton – Canada Place, 9700 Jasper Avenue NW Winnipeg – Macdonald Building, 344 Edmonton Street Toronto – Government of Canada Building, 4900 Yonge Street Dorval – Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport, 700 Place Leigh-Capreol Moncton – Heritage Building, 95 Foundry Street Minister of Transport Marc GarneauDeputy Minister, Transport Canada Michael KeenanAssociate Deputy Minister, Thao Pham Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Kevin Brousseau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Aaron McCrombie Assistant Deputy Minister, Pierre-Marc Mongeau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Lead, Navigation Protection Act Review, Catherine Higgens Assistant Deputy Minister, Lawrence Hanson Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Services, André Lapointe Assistant Deputy Minister, Natasha Rascanin Director General, Corporate Secretariat, Tom Oommen Director General and Marketing, Dan Dugas Regional Director General, Atlantic Region, Ann Mowatt Regional Director General, Quebec Region, Albert Deschamps Regional Director General, Ontario Region, Tamara Rudge Regional Director General and Northern Region, Michele Taylor Regional Director General, Pacific Region, Robert Dick Departmental General Counsel, Henry K. Schultz Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive, Martin Rubenstein Transport Canada is responsible for enforcing several Canadian legislation, including the Aeronautics Act, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Canada Transportation Act, Railway Safety Act, Canada Shipping Act, 2001, Marine Transportation Security Act amongst others.
Each inspector with delegated power from the Minister of Transport receives official credentials to exercise their power, as shown on the right. These inspectors are public officers identified within the Criminal Code of Canada; the Motor Vehicle Safety Act was established in 1971 in order to create safety standards for cars in Canada. The department acts as the federal government's funding partner with provincial transport ministries on jointly-funded provincial transportation infrastructure projects for new highways. TC manage a database of traffic collisions in Canada. Transport Canada's role in railways include: railway safety surface and intermodal security strategies for rail travel accessibility safety of federally regulated railway bridges safety and security of international bridges and tunnels Inspecting and testing traffic control signals, grade crossing warning systems rail operating rules regulations and services for safe transport of dangerous goods Canadian Transport Emergency Centre to assist emergency response and handling dangerous goods emergenciesFollowing allegations by shippers of service level deterioration, on April 7, 2008, the federal government of Canada launched a review of railway freight service within the country.
Transport Canada, managing the review, plans to investigate the relationships between Canadian shippers and the rail industry with regards to the two largest railroad companies in the country, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. On June 26, 2013, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act became law, a response to the Rail Freight Service Review’s Final Report. Transport Canada is responsible for the waterways inside and surrounding Canada; these responsibilities include: responding and investigating marine accidents within Canadian waters enforcing marine acts and regulations establishing and enforcing marine personnel standards and pilotage Marine Safety Marine Security regulating the operation of marine vessels in Canadian watersAs of 2003 the Office of Boating Safety and the Navigable Waters Protection Program were transferred back to Transport Canada. As was certain regulatory aspects of Emergen
Yakima is a city in and the county seat of Yakima County and the state's eleventh-largest city by population. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 91,067 and a metropolitan population of 243,231; the unincorporated suburban areas of West Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima. Yakima is about 60 miles southeast of Mount Rainier in Washington, it is situated in the Yakima Valley, a productive agricultural region noted for apple and hop production. As of 2011, the Yakima Valley produces 77% of all hops grown in the United States; the name Yakima originates from the Yakama Nation Native American tribe, whose reservation is located south of the city. The Yakama people were the first known inhabitants of the Yakima Valley. In 1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition came to the area and discovered abundant wildlife and rich soil, prompting the settlement of homesteaders. A Catholic Mission was established in Ahtanum, southwest of present-day Yakima, in 1847.
The arrival of settlers and their conflicts with the natives resulted in the Yakima War. The U. S. Army established Fort Simcoe in 1856 near present-day White Swan as a response to the uprising; the Yakamas were forced to relocate to the Yakama Indian Reservation. Yakima County was created in 1865; when bypassed by the Northern Pacific Railroad in December 1884, over 100 buildings were moved with rollers and horse teams to the nearby site of the depot. The new city was dubbed North Yakima and was incorporated and named the county seat on January 27, 1886; the name was changed to Yakima in 1918. Union Gap was the new name given to the original site of Yakima. On May 18, 1980, the eruption of Mount St. Helens caused a large amount of volcanic ash to fall on the Yakima area. Visibility was reduced to near-zero conditions that afternoon, the ash overloaded the city's wastewater treatment plant. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 27.69 square miles, of which, 27.18 square miles is land and 0.51 square miles is water.
Yakima is 1095 feet above mean sea level. The city of Yakima is located in the Upper Valley of Yakima County; the county is geographically divided by Ahtanum Ridge and Rattlesnake Ridge into two regions: the Upper and Lower valleys. Yakima is located in the more urbanized Upper Valley, is the central city of the Yakima Metropolitan Statistical Area; the unincorporated suburban areas of West Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima. Other nearby cities include Moxee, Cowiche, Wiley City, Tampico and Naches in the Upper Valley, as well as Wapato, Zillah, White Swan, Buena, Granger, Mabton and Grandview in the Lower Valley; the primary irrigation source for the Yakima Valley, the Yakima River, runs through Yakima from its source at Lake Keechelus in the Cascade Range to the Columbia River at Richland. In Yakima, the river is used for both recreation. A 10-mile walking and cycling trail, a park, a wildlife sanctuary are located at the river's edge; the Naches River forms the northern border of the city.
Several small lakes flank the northern edge of the city, including Myron Lake, Lake Aspen, Bergland Lake and Rotary Lake. These lakes are popular with swimmers during the summer. Yakima has a semi-arid climate with a Mediterranean precipitation pattern. Winters are cold, with December the coolest month, with a mean temperature of 28.5 °F. Annual average snowfall is 21.7 inches or 0.55 metres, with most occurring in December and January, when the snow depth averages 2 to 3 inches or 0.051 to 0.076 metres. There are 22 afternoons per year in which the high does not surpass freezing, 2.3 mornings where the low is 0 °F or lower. Springtime warming is gradual, with the average last freeze of the season May 13. Summer days are hot, but the diurnal temperature variation is large, exceeding 35 °F, sometimes reaching as high as 50 °F during that season. Autumn cooling is rapid, with the average first freeze of the season occurring on September 30. Due to the city's location in a rain shadow, precipitation, at an average of 8.22 inches or 209 millimetres annually, is low year-round, but during summer.
Extreme temperatures have ranged from −25 °F on February 1, 1950, to 110 °F on August 10, 1971. As of the census of 2010, there were 91,067 people with 33,074 households, 21,411 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,350.5 people per square mile. There were 34,829 housing units at an average density of 1,281.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67.1% Caucasian, 1.7% African American, 2.0% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 23.3% from other races, 4.4% from two or more races. 41.3% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race. 19.1 % of the population had higher. There were 33,074 households of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.3% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.3.
28.3% of the population was under the age of 18 and 13.1% were 65 years or older. The median age was 33.9 years. 50.7% of the population was female. The median household income w
A fixed-wing aircraft is a flying machine, such as an airplane or aeroplane, capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the aircraft's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings. Fixed-wing aircraft are distinct from rotary-wing aircraft, ornithopters; the wings of a fixed-wing aircraft are not rigid. Gliding fixed-wing aircraft, including free-flying gliders of various kinds and tethered kites, can use moving air to gain altitude. Powered fixed-wing aircraft that gain forward thrust from an engine include powered paragliders, powered hang gliders and some ground effect vehicles. Most fixed-wing aircraft are flown by a pilot on board the craft, but some are designed to be unmanned and controlled either remotely or autonomously. Kites were used 2,800 years ago in China, where materials ideal for kite building were available; some authors hold that leaf kites were being flown much earlier in what is now Sulawesi, based on their interpretation of cave paintings on Muna Island off Sulawesi.
By at least 549 AD paper kites were being flown, as it was recorded in that year a paper kite was used as a message for a rescue mission. Ancient and medieval Chinese sources list other uses of kites for measuring distances, testing the wind, lifting men and communication for military operations. Stories of kites were brought to Europe by Marco Polo towards the end of the 13th century, kites were brought back by sailors from Japan and Malaysia in the 16th and 17th centuries. Although they were regarded as mere curiosities, by the 18th and 19th centuries kites were being used as vehicles for scientific research. Around 400 BC in Greece, Archytas was reputed to have designed and built the first artificial, self-propelled flying device, a bird-shaped model propelled by a jet of what was steam, said to have flown some 200 m; this machine may have been suspended for its flight. One of the earliest purported attempts with gliders was by the 11th-century monk Eilmer of Malmesbury, which ended in failure.
A 17th-century account states that the 9th-century poet Abbas Ibn Firnas made a similar attempt, though no earlier sources record this event. In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern aeroplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Cayley was building and flying models of fixed-wing aircraft as early as 1803, he built a successful passenger-carrying glider in 1853. In 1856, Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Bris made the first powered flight, by having his glider "L'Albatros artificiel" pulled by a horse on a beach. In 1884, the American John J. Montgomery made controlled flights in a glider as a part of a series of gliders built between 1883–1886. Other aviators who made similar flights at that time were Otto Lilienthal, Percy Pilcher, protégés of Octave Chanute. In the 1890s, Lawrence Hargrave conducted research on wing structures and developed a box kite that lifted the weight of a man, his box kite designs were adopted. Although he developed a type of rotary aircraft engine, he did not create and fly a powered fixed-wing aircraft.
Sir Hiram Maxim built a craft that weighed 3.5 tons, with a 110-foot wingspan, powered by two 360-horsepower steam engines driving two propellers. In 1894, his machine was tested with overhead rails to prevent it from rising; the test showed. The craft was uncontrollable, which Maxim, it is presumed, because he subsequently abandoned work on it; the Wright brothers' flights in 1903 with their Flyer I are recognized by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics, as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". By 1905, the Wright Flyer III was capable of controllable, stable flight for substantial periods. In 1906, Brazilian inventor Alberto Santos Dumont designed and piloted an aircraft that set the first world record recognized by the Aéro-Club de France by flying the 14 bis 220 metres in less than 22 seconds; the flight was certified by the FAI. This was the first controlled flight, to be recognised, by a plane able to take off under its own power alone without any auxiliary machine such as a catapult.
The Bleriot VIII design of 1908 was an early aircraft design that had the modern monoplane tractor configuration. It had movable tail surfaces controlling both yaw and pitch, a form of roll control supplied either by wing warping or by ailerons and controlled by its pilot with a joystick and rudder bar, it was an important predecessor of his Bleriot XI Channel-crossing aircraft of the summer of 1909. World War I served as a testbed for the use of the aircraft as a weapon. Aircraft demonstrated their potential as mobile observation platforms proved themselves to be machines of war capable of causing casualties to the enemy; the earliest known aerial victory with a synchronised machine gun-armed fighter aircraft occurred in 1915, by German Luftstreitkräfte Leutnant Kurt Wintgens. Fighter aces appeared. Following WWI, aircraft technology continued to develop. Alcock and Brown crossed the Atlantic non-stop for the first time in 1919; the first commercial flights took place between the United States and Canada in 1919.
The so-called Golden Age of Aviation occurred between the two World War