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Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces

The Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces consist of ground forces, naval forces and air defence forces, other paramilitary bodies including the Territorial Troops Militia, Youth Labor Army, the Defense and Production Brigades, plus the Civil Defense Organization and the National Reserves Institution. The armed forces has long been the most powerful institution in Cuba; the military manages many enterprises in key economic sectors representing about 4% of the Cuban economy. The military has served as First Secretary Raúl Castro's base. In numerous speeches, Raúl Castro emphasized the military's role as a people's partner. From 1966 until the late 1980s, Soviet Government military assistance enabled Cuba to upgrade its military capabilities to number one in Latin America and project power abroad; the first Cuban military mission in Africa was established in Ghana in 1961. Cuba's military forces appeared in Algeria, in 1963, when a military medical brigade came over from Havana to support the regime.

Since the 1960s, Cuba sent military forces to African and Arab countries – Syria in 1973, Ethiopia in 1978, the Cuban intervention in Angola from 1975 to 1989, Nicaragua and El Salvador during the 1980s. The Soviet Union gave both financial aid to the Cubans; the tonnage of Soviet military deliveries to Cuba throughout most of the 1980s exceeded deliveries in any year since the military build-up during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. In 1989, the government instituted a clean-up of the armed forces and the Ministry of Interior, convicting army Major General and Hero of the Republic of Cuba Arnaldo Ochoa, Ministry of Interior Colonel Antonio de la Guardia, Ministry of Interior Brigadier General Patricio de la Guardia on charges of corruption and drug trafficking; this judgment is known in Cuba as "Causa 1". Ochoa and Antonio de la Guardia were executed. Following the executions, the Army was drastically downsized, the Ministry of Interior was moved under the informal control of Revolutionary Armed Forces chief General Raúl Castro, large numbers of army officers were moved into the Ministry of Interior.

Cuban military power has been reduced by the loss of Soviet subsidies. Today, the Revolutionary Armed Forces number 39,000 regular troops; the DIA reported in 1998 that the country's paramilitary organizations, the Territorial Militia Troops, the Youth Labor Army, the Naval Militia had suffered considerable morale and training degradation over the previous seven years but still retained the potential to "make an enemy invasion costly." Cuba adopted a "war of the people" strategy that highlights the defensive nature of its capabilities. On September 14, 2012, a Cuban senior general agreed to further deepen military cooperation with China during a visit to Beijing, he said that Cuba was willing to enhance exchanges with the Chinese military and strengthen bilateral cooperation in personnel training and other areas. The Cuban Army in its original form was first established in 1895 by Cuban revolutionaries during the Cuban War of Independence In 1984, according to Jane's Military Review, there were three major geographical commands, Western and Eastern.

There were a reported 130,000 all ranks, each command was garrisoned by an army comprising a single armoured division, a mechanised division, a corps of three infantry divisions, though the Eastern Command had two corps totalling six divisions. There was an independent military region, with a single infantry division, which garrisoned the Isle of Youth. A U. S. Defense Intelligence Agency assessment in the first half of 1998 said that the army's armour and artillery units were at low readiness levels due to'severely reduced' training incapable of mounting effective operations above the battalion level, that equipment was in storage and unavailable at short notice; the same report said that Cuban special operations forces continue to train but on a smaller scale than beforehand, that while the lack of replacement parts for its existing equipment and the current severe shortage of fuel were affecting operational capabilities, Cuba remained able to offer considerable resistance to any regional power.

In 1999 the Revolutionary Army represented 70 percent of Cuba's regular military manpower. According to the IISS, the army's estimated 45,000 troops including 6,000 active and 39,000 members of the Ready Reserves who were completing the forty-five days of annual active-duty service necessary for maintaining their status, as well as conscripts who were fulfilling their military service requirement; the IISS reported in 1999 that the army's troop formations consisted of four to five armored brigades. In addition, there is a surface-to-air missile brigade; each of the three territorial armies is believed to be assigned at least one armored brigade-usually attached to the army's headquarters-as well as a mechanized infantry brigade. As well, it is known that the Border Brigade in Guantanamo and at least one ground artillery regiment, based in Las Tunas, are under the Eastern Army's command. In 1996, according to Jane's Information Group, the army was organized into three Territorial Military Commands with three Armies, one army for each command.

At the time, there were an estimated 38,000 army personnel. Revolutionary Army C

William Constantine

Sir William Constantine was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons of England from 1640 to 1643. He supported the Royalist side in the English Civil War Constantine was of an ancient and respectable family of Poole, Dorset, he was educated at the Middle Temple. He settled at Merly, about five miles from Poole and was admitted a burgess of Poole on 16 September 1631, he was appointed recorder of the borough on 10 December 1639. In April 1640, Constantine was elected Member of Parliament for Poole in the Short Parliament, he was re-elected in November 1640 for the Long Parliament but was disabled in September 1643 for his support of the king. Constantine was charged with intending to deliver the town of Poole to the king and was discharged from the recordership of Poole, his estate was sequestered by the house and he was sent to London for imprisonment in the King's Bench prison. After the Restoration, Constantine was restored to his position as recorder on 26 July 1660, he stood for parliament at Poole in 1661 for the Cavalier Parliament where he was the choice of resident freemen but they were outvoted by no-resident voters.

He was displaced from his position as recorder by the commissioners under the corporation act on 17 October 1662. Constantine was knighted in 1668 and died two years at the age of 58

Secularism in India

With the Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India enacted in 1976, the Preamble to the Constitution asserted that India is a secular nation. Secularism has always inspired modern India. In practice, unlike Western notions of secularism, India's secularism does not separate religion and state; the Indian Constitution has allowed extensive interference of the state in religious affairs. India does separate religion and state. For example, it does not have an official state religion and state-owned educational institutions cannot impart religious instructions. In matters of law in modern India, the applicable code of law is unequal, India's personal laws – on matters such as marriage, inheritance, alimony – varies with an individual's religion. Muslim Indians have Sharia-based Muslim Personal Law, while Hindu and Sikh Indians live under common law; the Indian Constitution permits partial financial support for religious schools, as well as the financing of religious buildings and infrastructure by the state.

The Islamic Central Wakf Council and many Hindu temples of great religious significance are administered and managed by the Indian government. The attempt to respect unequal, religious law has created a number of issues in India such as acceptability of child marriage, unequal inheritance rights, extra judicial unilateral divorce rights favorable to some males, conflicting interpretations of religious books. Secularism as practiced in India, with its marked differences with Western practice of secularism, is a controversial topic in India. Supporters of the Indian concept of secularism claim it respects "minorities and pluralism". Critics claim the Indian form of secularism as "pseudo-secularism". Supporters state that any attempt to introduce a uniform civil code, equal laws for every citizen irrespective of his or her religion, would impose majoritarian Hindu sensibilities and ideals. Critics state that India's acceptance of Sharia and religious laws violates the principle of Equality before the law.

Ashoka about 2200 years ago, Harsha about 1400 years ago accepted and patronised different religions. The people in ancient India had freedom of religion, the state granted citizenship to each individual regardless of whether someone's religion was Hinduism, Jainism or any other. Ellora cave temples built next to each other between 5th and 10th centuries, for example, shows a coexistence of religions and a spirit of acceptance of different faiths. There should not be condemnation of others without any grounds; this approach to interfaith relations changed with the arrival of Islam and establishment of Delhi Sultanate in North India by the 12th century, followed by Deccan Sultanate in Central India. The political doctrines of Islam, as well as its religious views were at odds with doctrines of Hinduism, Sikhism and other Indian religions. New temples and monasteries were not allowed; as with Levant, Southeast Europe and Spain, Islamic rulers in India treated Hindus as dhimmis in exchange of annual payment of jizya taxes, in a sharia-based state jurisprudence.

With the arrival of Mughal era, Sharia was imposed with continued zeal, with Akbar – the Mughal Emperor – as the first significant exception. Akbar sought to fuse ideas, professed equality between Islam and other religions of India, forbade forced conversions to Islam, abolished religion-based discriminatory jizya taxes, welcomed building of Hindu temples. However, the descendants of Akbar Aurangzeb, reverted to treating Islam as the primary state religion, destruction of temples, reimposed religion-based discriminatory jizya taxes. After Aurangzeb, India came into control of the British Raj; the colonial administrators did not separate religion from state, but marked the end of equal hierarchy between Islam and Hinduism, reintroduced the notion of equality before the law for Hindus and Muslims. The British Empire sought commerce and trade, with a policy of neutrality to all of India's diverse religions. Before 1858, the Britishers followed the policy of patronizing and supporting the native religions as the earlier rulers had done.

By the mid-19th century, the British Raj administered India, in matters related to marriage, inheritance of property and divorces, according to personal laws based on each Indian subject's religion, according to interpretations of respective religious documents by Islamic jurists, Hindu pundits and other religious scholars. In 1864, the Raj eliminated all religious jurists and scholars because the interpretations of the same verse or religious document varied, the scholars and jurists disagreed with each other, the process of justice had become inconsistent and suspiciously corrupt; the late 19th century marked the arrival of Anglo-Hindu and Anglo-Muslim personal laws to divide adjacent communities by British, where the governance did not separate the state and religion, but continued to differentiate and administer people based on their personal religion. The British Raj provided the Indian Christians, Indian Zoroastrians and others with their own personal laws, such as the Indian Succession Act of 1850, Special Marriage Act of 1872 and other laws that were similar to Common Laws in Europe.

Although the British administration provided India with a common law, its divide and rule policy contributed to promoting discord between communities. The Morley-Minto reforms provided separate electorate to Muslims, justifying the demands of the Muslim league. In the first half of 20th century, the British Raj faced increasing amounts of social activism for self-rule by a disparate groups such as those led by Hindu Gandhi and Muslim Jinnah.

A. R. Whatmore

A. R. Whatmore was a British actor and producer of plays. Arthur Reginald Whatmore was born on 30 May 1889 at Much Marcle in Herefordshire, the son of Charles Arthur Whatmore and his wife Emma, he received his education at Wyggeston Grammar School and worked for three years as a bank clerk after that. His first appearance on stage was as Lord Monkhurst in Milestones at the Kennington Theatre, London in 1913, he played under Vedrenne and Eadie management for two tours of Milestones and the first tour of The Man Who Stayed at Home. He toured with Lewis Waller in The Three Musketeers, Monsieur Beaucaire etc. During the War he served in France, 1915 – 1919. After leaving the army Whatmore spent some time in producing for Amateur Operatic Societies. Following a visit to the Hull Operatic Society in December 1923 he recognised the city's potential for repertory and the following year founded the Hull Repertory Theatre, he booked the Lecture Hall, from Morton's Limited. He opened on 13 September 1924 for a four-week season of modern plays, having gathered a core of professional actors supplemented by local amateurs.

The rooms soon became known as the Little Theatre. He produced eighty-one plays there over the next 6 years. In 1929 the theatre was reopened in September; the following January, there was a serious fire and it had to close. After significant repairs, it reopened two months later. Returning to London in July 1930 he produced The Macropulos Secret at the Arts Theatre, he was director of the Embassy Theatre in Swiss Cottage, London, in partnership with Alec L Rea, from September 1930 to March 1932. At the Embassy he produced over thirty plays, including The Liar, The Witch, Precious Bane, Daddy's Gone A-Hunting, Britannia of Billingsgate and Romeo and Juliet. During the rest of the 1930s he directed or acted in numerous plays in the West End, including a production of his own play Mother Knows Best, he appeared in the film Eliza Comes to Stay and in the TV films The White Chateau, Charley's Aunt and Rake's Progress. In 1940 Whatmore did a season at His Majesty's Theatre in Aberdeen, where he directed "A. R. Whatmore's London Players" in a set of eight plays.

In 1942 he became director of the Dundee Repertory Theatre. After the war he wrote several more plays, namely She Wanted a Cream Front Door, Rehearsal 1030, The Sun and I and Count Your Blessings. From 1951 to 1953 he was the director of the Ipswich Repertory Theatre. In the 1950s, the name The Whatmore Players was revived, with Dennis Ramsden as producer, it ran until the late 1960s, one of the said players being Mollie Sugden. He married Hilda Mary Loverock in 1918, they had one child, a son, born in 1929. Hilda died in 1945 and Arthur remarried, to Barbara Mary Fowle in 1951, he died on 15 October 1960 at Bletchley. A. R. Whatmore on IMDb


Neptunea is a genus of large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Buccinidae, the true whelks. According to the World Register of Marine Species, the following species with valid names are included within the genus Neptunea: Species brought into synonymy Neptunea: synonym of Trophonopsis Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882 Neptunea lasia Dall, 1919: synonym of Scabrotrophon lasius Neptunea apolyonis Dall, 1919: synonym of Boreotrophon apolyonis Neptunea arthritica: synonym of Barbitonia arthritica Neptunea beringi: synonym of Boreotrophon clathratus Neptunea berniciensis: synonym of Troschelia berniciensis Neptunea bonaespei Barnard, 1963: synonym of Buccipagoda bonaespei Neptunea brevicauda: synonym of Aulacofusus brevicauda Neptunea caelata Verrill, 1880: synonym of Retimohnia caelata Neptunea callicerata Dall, 1919: synonym of Boreotrophon avalonensis Dall, 1902 Neptunea cincta Link, 1807: synonym of Filifusus filamentosus Neptunea dalli Friele, 1882: synonym of Granulifusus dalli Neptunea danielsseni: synonym of Mohnia danielsseni Neptunea denselirata Brögger, 1901: synonym of Neptunea despecta Neptunea doliata Röding, 1798: synonym of Gelagna succincta Neptunea ecaudata Link, 1807: synonym of Latirus gibbulus Neptunea ecaudis Locard, 1897: synonym of Turrisipho fenestratus Neptunea elegantula Dall, 1907: synonym of Boreotrophon elegantulus Neptunea fasciata Jaeckel, 1952: synonym of Neptunea despecta Neptunea hanseni Friele, 1879: synonym of Colus sabini Neptunea ithitoma Dall, 1919: synonym of Boreotrophon alaskanus Dall, 1902 Neptunea kotakamaruae Ito & Habe, 1965: synonym of Neptunea elegantula Ito & Habe, 1965 Neptunea lachesis: synonym of Turrisipho lachesis Neptunea laevigata Link, 1807: synonym of Fasciolaria tulipa Neptunea lurida A. Adams, 1863: synonym of Barbitonia arthritica Neptunea magellanicus Röding, 1798: synonym of Fusitriton magellanicus Neptunea middendorffiana MacGinitie, 1959: synonym of Neptunea heros Gray, 1850 Neptunea minor: synonym of Neptunea kuroshio Oyama in Kira, 1959 Neptunea oncoda: synonym of Neptunea onchodes Neptunea ossiania Friele, 1879: synonym of Beringius ossianius Neptunea peregra Locard, 1897: synonym of Turrisipho fenestratus Neptunea pertenuis Sykes, 1911: synonym of Retifusus latericeus Neptunea pusilla Röding, 1798: synonym of Nassaria pusilla Neptunea satura: synonym of Neptunea ventricosa Neptunea soluta: synonym of Buccinum undatum Linnaeus, 1758 Neptunea staphylina Dall, 1919: synonym of Boreotrophon bentleyi Dall, 1908 Neptunea taeniata: synonym of Neptunea cumingii Crosse, 1862 Neptunea terebralis Gould, 1860: synonym of Aulacofusus brevicauda Neptunea tolomia Dall, 1919: synonym of Boreotrophon tolomius Neptunea virgata Friele, 1879: synonym of Anomalisipho verkruezeni Extinct species Neptunea angulata Vaught, K.

C.. A classification of the living Mollusca. American Malacologists: Melbourne, FL. ISBN 0-915826-22-4. XII, 195 pp Gofas, S.. Mollusca, in: Costello, M. J. et al.. European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180–213

InaD-like protein

InaD-like protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PATJ gene. This gene encodes a protein with multiple PDZ domains. PDZ domains mediate protein-protein interactions, proteins with multiple PDZ domains organize multimeric complexes at the plasma membrane; this protein localizes to the apical membrane of epithelial cells. A similar protein in Drosophila is a scaffolding protein which tethers several members of a multimeric signaling complex in photoreceptors. INADL has been shown to interact with MPP5. INADL human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. INADL human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser. Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q8NI35 at the PDBe-KB