Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, inspired related movements in music and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century; the term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris or near Paris during the 1910s and throughout the 1920s. The movement was pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, joined by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger. One primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne. A retrospective of Cézanne's paintings had been held at the Salon d'Automne of 1904, current works were displayed at the 1905 and 1906 Salon d'Automne, followed by two commemorative retrospectives after his death in 1907. In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from a single viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.

In France, offshoots of Cubism developed, including Orphism, Abstract art and Purism. The impact of Cubism was wide-ranging. In other countries Futurism, Dada, Constructivism, De Stijl and Art Deco developed in response to Cubism. Early Futurist paintings hold in common with Cubism the fusing of the past and the present, the representation of different views of the subject pictured at the same time called multiple perspective, simultaneity or multiplicity, while Constructivism was influenced by Picasso's technique of constructing sculpture from separate elements. Other common threads between these disparate movements include the faceting or simplification of geometric forms, the association of mechanization and modern life. Historians have divided the history of Cubism into phases. In one scheme, the first phase of Cubism, known as Analytic Cubism, a phrase coined by Juan Gris a posteriori, was both radical and influential as a short but significant art movement between 1910 and 1912 in France.

A second phase, Synthetic Cubism, remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity. English art historian Douglas Cooper proposed another scheme, describing three phases of Cubism in his book, The Cubist Epoch. According to Cooper there was "Early Cubism", when the movement was developed in the studios of Picasso and Braque. Douglas Cooper's restrictive use of these terms to distinguish the work of Braque, Gris and Léger implied an intentional value judgement. Cubism burgeoned between 1907 and 1911. Pablo Picasso's 1907 painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon has been considered a proto-Cubist work. In 1908, in his review of Georges Braque's exhibition at Kahnweiler's gallery, the critic Louis Vauxcelles called Braque a daring man who despises form, "reducing everything, places and a figures and houses, to geometric schemas, to cubes". Vauxcelles recounted how Matisse told him at the time, "Braque has just sent in a painting made of little cubes"; the critic Charles Morice spoke of Braque's little cubes.

The motif of the viaduct at l'Estaque had inspired Braque to produce three paintings marked by the simplification of form and deconstruction of perspective. Georges Braque's 1908 Houses at L’Estaque prompted Vauxcelles, in Gil Blas, 25 March 1909, to refer to bizarreries cubiques. Gertrude Stein referred to landscapes made by Picasso in 1909, such as Reservoir at Horta de Ebro, as the first Cubist paintings; the first organized group exhibition by Cubists took place at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris during the spring of 1911 in a room called'Salle 41'. By 1911 Picasso was recognized as the inventor of Cubism, while Braque's importance and precedence was argued with respect to his treatment of space and mass in the L’Estaque landscapes, but "this view of Cubism is associated with a distinctly restrictive definition of which artists are properly to be called Cubists," wrote the art historian Christopher Green: "Marginalizing the contribution of the artists who exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1911 "The assertion that the Cubist depiction of space, mass and volume supports the flatness of the canvas was made by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler as early as 1920, but it was subject to criticism in the 1950s and 1960s by Clement Greenberg.

Contemporary views of Cubism are complex, formed to some extent in response to the "Salle 41" Cubists, whose methods were too distinct from those of Picasso and Braque to be considered secondary to them. Alternative interpretations of Cubism have therefore developed. Wider views of Cubism include artists who were associated with the "Salle 41" artists, e.g. Francis Picabia.

John Amory Lowell

Hon. John Amory Lowell was an American businessman and philanthropist from Boston, he became the sole trustee of the Lowell Institute when his first cousin, John Lowell, Jr. the Institute's endower, died. John Amory, the second child of John Lowell, Jr and Rebecca Amory, was among the first generation of Lowells to be born in Boston, the fifth generation to be born in America, his father maintained a well-established law firm in the city, three years after John Amory's birth, retired for reasons of his failing health. After retiring in 1801, the elder Lowell spent much of his time and wealth patronizing the burgeoning horticultural society in Boston, so much so that he became known to his friends and family as "The Norfolk Farmer." John Amory Lowell's paternal grandfather named John Lowell but referred to as "The Old Judge," was a Federal Judge appointed by President George Washington and is considered to be the founding father of the Boston Lowells. Like his father and grandfathers before him, Lowell would be the fourth member in his family line to graduate from Harvard College in 1815, at the age of 17.

After spending an extended time traveling through Europe and establishing himself as a successful merchant in Boston, Lowell married his first wife, Susan Cabot Lowell, a daughter of his uncle, Francis Cabot Lowell. Together, they would have Susan Cabot and John. Lowell's wife died during childbirth in 1827, their son, would be appointed to the U. S. District Court in 1865 by President Abraham Lincoln, in 1878, appointed to the U. S. Circuit Court by President Rutherford B. Hayes. John Amory's grandson, James Arnold Lowell, would go on to become a Federal Judge. Lowell's wife, Susan Cabot, a great-granddaughter of Edward and Dorthy Jackson, would connect their children and their descendants to those of the Holmeses of Boston, a family that includes poet Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. and U. S. Supreme Court justice and Civil War hero, Hon. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. With his second wife, Elizabeth Cabot Putnam, Amory fathered three daughters. Augustus, Elizabeth Rebecca, Ellen Bancroft, Sara Putnam.

Augustus Lowell would become a successful business man and succeed Lowell as the second trustee of the Lowell Institute. John Amory's grandchildren, through Elizabeth Cabot, included author and astronomer Percival Lowell, Harvard President Abbott Lawrence Lowell, poet Amy Lowell. In 1835 and 1838, John Amory became the first Treasurer for both Merrimack Manufacturing Company and Boott Cotton Mill, textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts, and in 1857, he became Director of The Winnipiseogee Lake Woolen Manufacturing Company. All positions his son, would succeed to within the same companies. Lowell was a Fellow of Harvard College, a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the Linnean Society of London. In 1851, Harvard would honor John Amory with an LLD; the trust—or Lowell Institute, as it came to be known—had an unusual mode of governance: a single trustee, empowered to appoint his successor and who was, in the language of John Lowell, Jr.'s will, to "always choose in preference to all others some male descendant of my grandfather, John Lowell, provided there be one, competent to hold the office of trustee, of the name of Lowell."

Despite this odd restriction, the Institute proved to be an extraordinarily innovative philanthropic force. Under John Amory, its first trustee, the Institute flourished. Lowell was both a man of high intellect; the list of Lowell Lecturers during his tenure was a veritable pantheon of the most internationally celebrated figures in science, politics, economics and theology, including Britain's most celebrated geologist, Sir Charles Lyell, Swiss naturalist Louis Agassiz, novelists Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray. The lectures were so immensely popular that crowds crushed the windows of the Old Corner Bookstore where the tickets were distributed and certain series had to be repeated by popular demand. John Amory tirelessly led the Lowell Institute for more than 40 years before naming his son, Augustus, as his replacement. Lowell family First Families of Boston Lowell Institute Lowell, Massachusetts Kirk Boott

Jerusalem: The Three Roads to the Holy Land

Jerusalem: The Three Roads to the Holy Land is a 2002 historical adventure game. The game was developed by Arxel Tribe and Réunion des Musées Nationaux, published by Cryo Interactive, it is a sequel to the game Pompei: The Legend of Vesuvius. The game consists of a series of 75 interactive screens; the sets were validated with help from the Réunion des Musées Nationaux. The characters were made through photorealistic 3D modeling; when a Scottish cartographer by the name of Adrien Blake returns from an expedition he discovers that his fiancée, has disappeared. He must travel to Jerusalem to search for her; the story unfolds in the year 1552. Jihem of JeuxVideo noted that the game had inferior graphics, while expressing that it would appeal to intellectual history enthusiasts. Laura MacDonald of Just Adventure negatively compared the game to Syberia, suggested that Putt Putt Travels Through Time was a more sincere game than Jerusalem. 4 Players' Bodo Naser thought the game was too linear and had conversations that felt like the silent player hearing monologues from characters.

Slydos of Adventure-Archiv thought the game was short. Main page Jerusalem: The Three Roads to the Holy Land at Microïds Press article 1 Press article 2 Press article 3 PC Pointer review Games Flow review Tiscali review NQuest review Absolute Games review