Code of Federal Regulations
The Code of Federal Regulations is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States. The CFR is divided into 50 titles; the CFR annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published by the Office of the Federal Register and the Government Publishing Office. In addition to this annual edition, the CFR is published in an unofficial format online on the Electronic CFR website, updated daily. Under the nondelegation doctrine, federal agencies are authorized by "enabling legislation" to promulgate regulations; the process of rulemaking is governed by the Administrative Procedure Act: the APA requires a process that includes publication of the proposed rules in a notice of proposed rulemaking, a period for comments and participation in the decisionmaking, adoption and publication of the final rule, via the Federal Register. The rules and regulations are first published in the Federal Register.
The CFR is structured into 50 subject matter titles. Agencies are assigned chapters within these titles; the titles are broken down into chapters, parts and paragraphs. For example, 42 CFR 260.11 would be read as "title 42, part 260, section 11, paragraph." While new regulations are continually becoming effective, the printed volumes of the CFR are issued once each calendar year, on this schedule: Titles 1–16 are updated as of January 1 Titles 17–27 are updated as of April 1 Titles 28–41 are updated as of July 1 Titles 42–50 are updated as of October 1The Office of the Federal Register keeps an unofficial, online version of the CFR, the e-CFR, updated within two days after changes that have been published in the Federal Register become effective. The Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules lists rulemaking authority for regulations codified in the CFR; the CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad subject areas: Title 1: General Provisions Title 2: Grants and Agreements Title 3: The President Title 4: Accounts Title 5: Administrative Personnel Title 6: Domestic Security Title 7: Agriculture Title 8: Aliens and Nationality Title 9: Animals and Animal Products Title 10: Energy Title 11: Federal Elections Title 12: Banks and Banking Title 13: Business Credit and Assistance Title 14: Aeronautics and Space Title 15: Commerce and Foreign Trade Title 16: Commercial Practices Title 17: Commodity and Securities Exchanges Title 18: Conservation of Power and Water Resources Title 19: Customs Duties Title 20: Employees' Benefits Title 21: Food and Drugs Title 22: Foreign Relations Title 23: Highways Title 24: Housing and Urban Development Title 25: Indians Title 26: Internal Revenue Title 27: Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms Title 28: Judicial Administration Title 29: Labor Title 30: Mineral Resources Title 31: Money and Finance: Treasury Title 32: National Defense Title 33: Navigation and Navigable Waters Title 34: Education Title 35: Reserved Title 36: Parks and Public Property Title 37: Patents and Copyrights Title 38: Pensions and Veterans' Relief Title 39: Postal Service Title 40: Protection of Environment Title 41: Public Contracts and Property Management Title 42: Public Health Title 43: Public Lands: Interior Title 44: Emergency Management and Assistance Title 45: Public Welfare Title 46: Shipping Title 47: Telecommunication Title 48: Federal Acquisition Regulations System Title 49: Transportation Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries The Federal Register Act provided for a complete compilation of all existing regulations promulgated prior to the first publication of the Federal Register, but was amended in 1937 to provide a codification of all regulations every five years.
The first edition of the CFR was published in 1938. Beginning in 1963 for some titles and for all titles in 1967, the Office of the Federal Register began publishing yearly revisions, beginning in 1972 published revisions in staggered quarters. On March 11, 2014, Rep. Darrell Issa introduced the Federal Register Modernization Act, a bill that would revise requirements for the filing of documents with the Office of the Federal Register for inclusion in the Federal Register and for the publication of the Code of Federal Regulations to reflect the changed publication requirement in which they would be available online but would not be required to be printed; the American Association of Law Libraries opposed the bill, arguing that the bill undermines citizens' right to be informed by making it more difficult for citizens to find their government's regulations. According to AALL, a survey they conducted "revealed that members of the public, researchers, students and small business owners continue to rely on the print" version of the Federal Register.
AALL argued that the lack of print versions of the Federal Register and CFR would mean the 15 percent of Americans who don't use the internet would lose their access to that material. The House voted on July 14, 2014 to pass the bill 386–0. Regulations.gov United States Reports California Code of Regulations Florida Administrative Code Illinois Administrative Code Code of Massachusetts Regulations New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules New Jersey Administrative Code New York Codes and Regulations Oregon Administrative Rules Pennsylvania Code "About Code of Federal Regulations". Government Publishing Office. "A Res
European Americans are Americans of European ancestry. This term includes people who are descended from the first European settlers in America as well as people who are descended from more recent European arrivals. European Americans are the largest panethnic group in the United States, both and at present; the Spaniards are thought to be the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the contiguous United States, with Martín de Argüelles in St. Augustine a part of Spanish Florida. Virginia Dare, born August 18, 1587, was the first English child to be born in the Americas, she was born in Roanoke Colony, located in present-day North Carolina, the first attempt, made by Queen Elizabeth I, to establish a permanent English settlement in North America. In the 2016 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans, Italian Americans, Polish Americans were the five largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming over a third of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered by some to be under-counted, as the people in that demographic tend to identify themselves as Americans. In the 2000 census over 56 million or 19.9% of the United States population ignored the ancestry question and classified as "unspecified" and "not reported". In 1995, as part of a review of the Office of Management and Budget's Statistical Policy Directive No. 15, a survey was conducted of census recipients to determine their preferred terminology for the racial/ethnic groups defined in the Directive. For the White group, European American came third, preferred by 2.35% of panel interviewees. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with Caucasian American, White American, Anglo American in many places around the United States. However, the terms Caucasian and White are purely racial terms, not geographic, include some populations whose origin is outside of Europe; the term is used by some to emphasize the European cultural and geographical ancestral origins of Americans, in the same way as is done for African Americans and Asian Americans.
A European American awareness is still notable because 90% of the respondents classified as white in the U. S. Census knew their European ancestry; the concept of an American originated in the United States as a person of European ancestry, thus excluding African Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans. As a linguistic concern, the term is sometimes meant to discourage a dichotomous view of the racial landscape between the white category and everyone else. Margo Adair suggests that the recognition of specific European American ancestries allows certain Americans to become aware that they come from a variety of different cultures. Since 1607, some 57 million immigrants have come to the United States from other lands. 10 million passed through on their way to some other place or returned to their original homelands, leaving a net gain of some 47 million people. Between 1607 and 1776 most European settlements were British. Colonial stock of English, Scotch-Irish, Cornish or Welsh descent, may be found throughout the country but is dominant in New England and the South.
Some people of colonial stock in the Mid-Atlantic states, are of Dutch and Flemish descent. The vast majority of these are Protestants; the Pennsylvania Dutch population gave the state of Pennsylvania a high German cultural character. French descent, which can be found throughout the country, is most concentrated in Louisiana, while Spanish descent is dominant in the Southwest and Florida; these are Roman Catholic and were assimilated with the Louisiana Purchase and the aftermath of the Mexican–American War and Adams–Onís Treaty, respectively. The first large wave of European migration after the Revolutionary War came from Northern and Central-Western Europe between about 1820 and 1890. Most of these immigrants were from Ireland, Sweden and Britain, with large numbers of Irish and German Catholics immigrating, Roman Catholicism became an important minority religion. Polish Americans used to come as German or Austrian citizens, since Poland lost its independence in the period between 1772 and 1795.
Descendants of the first wave are dominant in the Midwest and West, although German descent is common in Pennsylvania, Irish descent is common in urban centers in the Northeast. The Irish and Germans held onto their ethnic identity throughout the 19th and early half of the 20th centuries, as well as other European ethnic groups. Most people of Polish origin live in the Midwest; the second wave of European Americans arrived from the mid-1890s to the 1920s from Southern and Eastern Europe, as well as Ireland. This wave included Irish, Greeks, Portuguese, Ukrainians, Russians and other Slavs. With large numbers of immigrants from Spain, Spanish Caribbean, South and Central America, White Hispanics have increased to 8% of the US population, Texas, New York, Florida are important centers for them. Before 1881, the vast majority of immigrants 86% of the total, arrived from northwest Europe, principally Great Britain, Ireland and Scandinavia; the years between 1881 and 1893 the pattern shifted, in the
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Land development is altering the landscape in any number of ways such as: Changing landforms from a natural or semi-natural state for a purpose such as agriculture or housing Subdividing real estate into lots for the purpose of building homes Real estate development or changing its purpose, for example by converting an unused factory complex into condominia. In an economics context, land development is sometimes advertised as land improvement or land amelioration, it refers to investments making land more usable by humans. For accounting purposes it refers to any variety of projects that increase the value of the property. Most are depreciable, but some land improvements are not able to be depreciated because a useful life cannot be determined. Home building and containment are two of the oldest types of development. In an urban context, land development furthermore includes: Road construction Access roads and parking lots Bridging Landscaping Clearing, terracing or land levelling Setup of fences and, to a lesser degree, hedges Service connections to municipal services and public utilities Drainage, canals External lighting Landowner or developers on any size of project will want to maximise profits, minimise risk and control cash flow.
This "profit enhancement" means identifying and developing the best scheme for the local marketplace, whilst satisfying the local planning process. Development Analysis puts development prospects and the development process itself under the microscope, identifying where enhancements and improvements can be introduced; these improvements aim to align with best design practice, political sensitivities, the inevitable social requirements of a project, with the overarching objective of increasing land values and profit margins on behalf of the landowner or developer. Development analysis can add to the value of land and development, as such is a crucial tool for landowners and developers, it is an essential step in Kevin A. Lynch's 1960 book The Image of the City, is considered to be essential to realizing the value potential of land; the landowner can share in additional planning gain via an awareness of the land's development potential. This is done via residual valuation; the residual appraisal calculates the sale value of the end product, hypothetically deducts costs, including planning and construction costs, finance costs and developer's profit.
The "residue", or leftover proportion, represents the land value. Therefore, in maximising the GDV, land value is concurrently enhanced. Land value is sensitive to supply and demand, build costs and affordable housing contributions, so on. Understanding the intricacies of the development system and the effect of "value drivers" can result in massive differences in the landowner's sale value. Land development puts more emphasis on the expected economic development as a result of the process. "Land improvement" in the economic sense can lead to land degradation from the ecological perspective. Land development and the change in land value does not take into account changes in the ecology of the developed area. While conversion of land with a vegetation carpet to building land may result in a rise in economic growth and rising land prices, the irreversibility of lost flora and fauna because of habitat destruction, the loss of ecosystem services and resulting decline in environmental value is only considered a priori in environmental full-cost accounting.
Conversion to building land is as a rule associated with road building, which in itself brings topsoil abrasion, soil compaction and modification of the soil's chemical composition through soil stabilization, creation of impervious surfaces and, surface runoff water. Construction activity effectively seals off a larger part of the soil from rainfall and the nutrient cycle, so that the soil below buildings and roads is "consumed" and made infertile. With the notable exception of attempts at rooftop gardening and hanging gardens in green buildings, vegetative cover of higher plants is lost to concrete and asphalt surfaces, complementary interspersed garden and park areas notwithstanding. New creation of farmland will rely on the conversion and development of previous forests, savannas or grassland. Recreation of farmland from wasteland, deserts or previous impervious surfaces is less frequent because of the degraded or missing fertile soil in the latter. Starting from forests, land is made arable by slash-and-burn.
Agricultural development furthermore includes: Hydrological measures Soil improvement. Road construction Because the newly created farmland is more prone to erosion than soil stabilized by tree roots, such a conversion may mean irreversible crossing of an ecological threshold; the resulting deforestation is not compensated for by reforestation or afforestation. This is because plantations of other trees as a means for water conservation and protection against wind erosion, as a rule, lack the biodiversity of the lost forest when realized as monocultures. Soil stabilization and erosion control measures may not be as effective in preserving topsoil as the previous intact vegetation. Massive land conversion withou
Temecula is a city in southwestern Riverside County, United States. The city is a tourist destination, with the Temecula Valley Wine Country, Old Town Temecula, the Temecula Valley Polo Club, the Temecula Valley Balloon & Wine Festival, the Temecula Valley International Film Festival, championship golf courses, resort accommodations for tourists which contribute to the city's economic profile; the City of Temecula, forming the southwestern anchor of the Inland Empire region, is 58 miles north of downtown San Diego and 85 miles southeast of downtown Los Angeles. Temecula is bordered by the city of Murrieta to the north and the Pechanga Indian Reservation and San Diego County to the south; the population was 100,097 during the 2010 census and an estimated 2018 population of 113,181. It was incorporated on December 1, 1989; the area was inhabited by the Temecula Native Americans for hundreds of years before their contact with the Spanish missionaries. The Pechanga Band of Luiseño believe their ancestors have lived in the Temecula area for more than 10,000 years.
In Pechanga history, life on earth began in the Temecula Valley. They call it, "Exva Temeeku", the place of the union of Sky-father, Earth-mother; the Temecula Indians lived at "Temeekunga" – "the place of the sun". Other popular interpretations of the name, include "The Sun That Shines Through The Mist" or "Where the sun breaks through the mist"; the first recorded Spanish visit occurred in October 1797, with a Franciscan padre, Father Juan Norberto de Santiago, Captain Pedro Lisalde. Father Santiago kept a journal in which he noted seeing "Temecula...an Indian village". The trip included the Temecula Valley. Today, over 1,000 Native Americans live in the Temecula Valley; the wine industry was founded by the Californios. The vineyards were adapted by Anglo-American settlers and European immigrants from Spain and France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1798, Spanish Missionaries established the Mission of San Luis Rey de Francia and designated the Indians living in the region "Sanluiseños", or shortened to "Luiseños".
In the 1820s, the Mission San Antonio de Pala was built. The Mexican land grants made in the Temecula area were Rancho Temecula granted to Felix Valdez and to the east Rancho Pauba granted to Vicente Moraga in 1844. Rancho Little Temecula was made in 1845 to Luiseño Pablo Apis, one of the few former mission converts to be given a land grant, it was fertile well watered land at the southern end of the valley, which included the village of Temecula. A fourth grant, known as Rancho Santa Rosa was made to Juan Moreno in 1846, was in the hills to the west of Temecula; the Luiseño and Cahuilla were involved in local battles not part of the Mexican–American War. In the Pauma Massacre in January 1847, Luiseños captured 11 Mexican soldiers, who had stolen some of the tribe's horses; the Californios in Los Angeles mounted a military retaliation directed by General Pio Pico. In the Temecula Massacre, a combined force of Mexican soldiers and Cahuilla Indians killed 33 to 100 Luiseños; as American settlers moved into the area after the war, conflict with the native tribes increased.
A treaty was signed in the Magee Store in Temecula in 1852, but was never ratified by the United States Senate. In addition, the Luiseños challenged the Mexican land grant claims, as under Mexican law, the land was held in trust to be distributed to the indigenous population after becoming subjects, they challenged the Apis claim to the Little Temecula Rancho by taking the case to the 1851 California Land Commission. On November 15, 1853, the commission rejected the Luiseño claim; the Luiseño of Temecula village remained on the south side of Temecula Creek when the Apis grant was acquired, in 1872, by Louis Wolf. A stagecoach line started a local route from Warner Ranch to Colton in 1857 that passed through Temecula Valley. Within a year, the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach line, with a route between St. Louis and San Francisco, stopped at Temecula's Magee Store. On April 22, 1859, the first inland Southern California post office was established in Temecula in the Magee Store and the city was incorporated.
This was the second post office in the first being located in San Francisco. The Temecula post office was moved in the ensuing years, its present locations are the eighth sites occupied. The American Civil War put an end to the Butterfield Overland Stage Service, but stage service continued on the route under other stage companies until the railroad reached Fort Yuma in 1877. In 1862, Louis Wolf, a Temecula merchant and postmaster, married Ramona Place, mixed-race and half Indian. Author Helen Hunt Jackson spent time with Louis and Ramona Wolf in 1882 and again in 1883. Wolf's store became an inspiration for Jackson's fictional "Hartsel's store" in her 1884 novel, Ramona. In 1882, the United States government established the Pechanga Indian Reservation of 4,000 acres some 8 miles from downtown Temecula. In 1882, the California Southern Railroad, a subsidiary of the Santa Fe Railroad completed construction of the section from National City to Temecula. In 1883, the line was extended to San Bernardino.
In the late 1880s
Moreno Valley, California
Moreno Valley is a city located in Riverside County, is part of the San Bernardino-Riverside Metropolitan Area. A young city, its rapid growth from the 1980s to the early 2000s made it the second-largest city in Riverside County by population, one of the Inland Empire's population centers; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 193,365. The city is tied to Riverside, the county seat and largest city in the county, which borders Moreno Valley directly to the west. Moreno Valley is part of the Greater Los Angeles area; the Moreno Valley area was first inhabited 2,300 years ago. There are at least 200 prehistoric archaeological locations within the city; the majority of the sites are milling stations - where chaparral seed was the dominant milling activity. Rock art, consisting of pictographs, petroglyphs are present - though most of the petroglyphs in Moreno Valley consist of boulders with "cupules", or cup-shaped holes pecked into them. Spanish scouts came across descendants of the Shoshone, Luiseño tribes.
The late prehistoric Luiseño and Cahuilla were semi-sedentary, meaning that they wintered in villages spread out in family groups during the spring and summer months to harvest seeds and acorns. Spanish scouts blazed a number of trails in the area, including the Anza Trail, which runs through the Edgemont area of present-day Moreno Valley; when California was admitted to the United States as a state in 1850, Americans began to move into the area. The Tucson-to-San Francisco route of John Butterfield's Overland Mail Company passed through it; some farmers began to occupy the area, relying upon water from Frank E. Brown's Bear Valley Land and Water Company. Beginning in 1883, the company collected and pumped water from Bear Valley, California in the San Bernardino Mountains to the north; the area first acquired Moreno Valley, at this time, referring to Frank Brown. In 1899, the city of Redlands won a lawsuit in which the city claimed eminent domain over the Bear Valley water; the resulting loss of service forced most of the area's inhabitants to move.
The revival of the Moreno Valley area began in 1918, when the United States Air Force constructed March Field on the outskirts of Riverside as part of its World War I expansion. March Field was used to train fighter pilots. Although it was closed in 1922, it was reopened in 1927 and became a full Air Force base; the presence of March caused the unincorporated communities of Sunnymead and Edgemont to develop and grow. In World War II, March again became a training ground for military pilots. On April 1, 1996, March Air Force Base became March Joint Air Reserve Base under Air Force Reserve Command. From 1957 to 1989, the Riverside International Raceway occupied the current site of the Moreno Valley Mall; the Riverside International Raceway race track was in operation from September 22, 1957, to July 3, 1989. Races held at the Riverside International Raceway included IMSA, NASCAR, Indycar, NHRA drag racing, Go Karts, AMA motorcycle racing; the area experienced explosive growth in the 1980s. By 1984, the population was 49,702.
The state economic boom fueled the construction of new businesses. This growth led to a push for incorporation. Although similar measures had failed in 1968 and 1983, a measure to form the city of Moreno Valley was approved by voters in 1984. On December 3, 1984, the communities of Edgemont and Moreno united with nearby areas to form the general law city of Moreno Valley; the first City Council was elected in 1984, composed of Bob Lynn, Judith A. Nieburger, Steven Webb, J. David Horspool, Marshall C. Scott; the City Seal and Motto were adopted the following year. By 1990, Moreno Valley had exploded in population growth to become the second largest city in Riverside County with a population of over 118,000. Growth continued until about 1992. In the 1990s, the robust Moreno Valley economy deteriorated due to the statewide economic downturn. Many people began to leave the city. March was downsized to its present status as March Air Reserve Base; the surplus land was given to the March Joint Powers Authority, made up of representatives of Riverside County and the cities of Riverside, Moreno Valley, Perris for development.
The dismal economic trend began to reverse in the late part of the decade, however. Companies such as Aurora Modular, U-Haul, Lowe's moved major operating facilities to the city or neighboring municipalities. By the early 21st century, the arrival of so many newcomers to Riverside County and the soaring cost of living in Los Angeles and Orange County combined to make the less-developed southern half of the Inland Empire a attractive place for industry. On the east end of the city off Moreno Beach Drive, a new Wal-Mart was opened in early 2006 next to the Moreno Valley Auto Mall; this is the site of the first Super Target in California and the first Best Buy store located within Moreno Valley city limits, which opened in July and October 2007, respectively. The exit off state route 60 is the main way to the Moreno Valley Ranch Golf Course, once included in Golf Magazine's Top 75 Golf Courses in the USA. Proposals to turn March Joint Air Reserve Base to a major commercial airport were debated in 2005, but the plan was rejected by the Riverside county board of supervisors.
However, the coming of quieter, more environmentally friendly aircraf
Pomona is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Pomona is located between the Inland Empire and the San Gabriel Valley; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 149,058. The area was occupied by the Tongva Native Americans; the city is named for the ancient Roman goddess of fruit. For horticulturist Solomon Gates, "Pomona" was the winning entry in a contest to name the city in 1875, before anyone had planted a fruit tree there; the city was first settled by Ricardo Vejar and Ygnacio Palomares in the 1830s, when California and much of the now-American Southwest were part of Mexico. The first Anglo-Americans arrived in prior to 1848 when the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo resulted in California becoming part of the United States. By the 1880s, the arrival of railroads and Coachella Valley water had made it the western anchor of the citrus-growing region. Pomona was incorporated on January 6, 1888. In the 1920s Pomona was known as the "Queen of the Citrus Belt", with one of the highest per-capita levels of income in the United States.
In the 1940s it was used as a movie-previewing location for major motion picture studios to see how their films would play to modally middle-class audiences around the country. Religious institutions are embedded in the history of Pomona. There are now more than 120 churches, representing most religions in today's society; the historical architectural styles of these churches provide glimpses of European church design and architecture from other eras. In 2005, Pomona citizens elected Norma Torres, the first woman of Guatemalan heritage to be elected to a mayoral post outside of Guatemala, she would become a U. S. congresswoman representing California's 35th congressional district in 2015. Pomona is 30 miles east of the Los Angeles area of Los Angeles County in the Pomona Valley, located at 34°3′39″N 117°45′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.964 square miles, over 99% of it land. Pomona is 30 miles east of downtown Los Angeles, 27 miles north of Santa Ana, 26 miles west of Riverside, 33 miles west of San Bernardino.
Pomona is bordered by the cities of San Dimas on the northwest, La Verne and Claremont on the north and Chino on the east, Chino Hills and Diamond Bar on the south, Walnut, South San Jose Hills, Industry on the southwest. The Los Angeles/San Bernardino county line forms most of the city's eastern boundaries. Pomona has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and mild, damp winters and a large amount of sunshine year-round. August is the warmest month with an average daytime high temperature of 92 °F. Summers are characterized by sunny days and little rainfall during the months of June through September. Fall brings cooler temperatures and occasional showers, as well as seasonal Santa Ana winds originating from the northeast. December is the coolest month with an average high temperature of 68 °F. Winter brings the majority of annual precipitation. Snowfall is unheard of, but frost can occur once or twice a year. Annual precipitation averages 17.32 inches. The 2010 United States Census reported that Pomona had a population of 149,058, a slight decline from the 2000 census population.
The population density was 6,491.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Pomona was 71,564 White, 10,924 African American, 1,763 Native American, 12,688 Asian, 282 Pacific Islander, 45,171 from other races, 6,666 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 105,135 persons; the Census reported that 144,920 people lived in households, 2,782 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 1,356 were institutionalized. There were 38,477 households, out of which 19,690 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 19,986 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,960 had a female householder with no husband present, 3,313 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,823 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 299 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 5,810 households were made up of individuals and 2,010 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.77. There were 30,259 families; the population was spread out with 43,853 people under the age of 18, 20,155 people aged 18 to 24, 42,311 people aged 25 to 44, 31,369 people aged 45 to 64, 11,370 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 29.5 years. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males. There were 39,620 housing units at an average density of 1,771.8 per square mile, of which 21,197 were owner-occupied, 17,280 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.0%. 80,968 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 63,952 people lived in rental housing units During 2009–2013, Pomona had a median household income of $49,474, with 21.6% of the population living below the federal poverty line. Since the 1980s, Pomona's newest neighborhood Phillips Ranch, experienced rapid growth with homes still being built in the hilly area between Downtown and Diamond Bar. Today, Phillips Ranch is nearly all residential. Northern