click links in text for more info

Cudahy, California

Cudahy is a city located in southeastern Los Angeles County, California. In area, Cudahy is the second smallest city in Los Angeles County after Hawaiian Gardens but with one of the highest population densities of any incorporated city in the United States, it is part of the Gateway Cities region and had a population of 23,805 as of the 2010 U. S. Census. Cudahy is named for its founder, meat-packing baron Michael Cudahy, who purchased the original 2,777 acres of Rancho San Antonio in 1908 to resell as 1-acre lots; these "Cudahy lots" were notable for their dimensions—in most cases, 50 to 100 feet in width and 600 to 800 feet in depth, a length equivalent to a city block or more in most American towns. Such parcels referred to as "railroad lots", were intended to allow the new town's residents to keep a large vegetable garden, a grove of fruit trees, a chicken coop or horse stable; this arrangement, popular in the towns along the lower Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers, proved attractive to the Southerners and Midwesterners who were leaving their struggling farms in droves in the 1910s and 1920s to start new lives in Southern California.

Sam Quinones of the Los Angeles Times said that the large, narrow parcels of land gave Cudahy Acres a "rural feel in an urban swath." As late as the 1950s, some Cudahy residents were still riding into the city's downtown areas on horseback. After World War II the city was a White American blue collar town with steel and automobile plants in the area. By the late 1970s, the factories closed down and the white residents of Cudahy left for jobs and housing in the San Gabriel and San Fernando Valleys. Stucco apartment complexes were built on former tracts of land; the population density increased. The city was subjected to a major political corruption incident when the former mayor and the one-time city manager were indicted on bribery and extortion charges for supporting the opening of a medical marijuana dispensary; as a result of these charges, on July 12, 2012, ex-mayor David Silva, councilman Osvaldo Conde, former City Manager Angel Perales, 43, each pleaded guilty to one count of bribery and extortion.

On January 14, 2020, Delta Air Lines Flight 89 dumped jet fuel onto Cudahy, while making an emergency landing at Los Angeles International Airport. Park Avenue Elementary School suffered the brunt of this dumping; this incident sparked outrage because of the city's previous history of environmental damage, including the construction of the same school on top of an old dump site that contained contaminated soil with toxic sludge, pollution from the Exide battery plant. The mayor, Elizabeth Alcantar, pushed for better compensation from Delta for the impact on residents and the city. Cudahy is located at 33°57′51″N 118°10′57″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.175 square kilometers, over 95% of it land. Cudahy is bordered by Bell on the north, Bell Gardens on the east, South Gate on the south and southwest, Huntington Park on the west. Frank Parrish II, American camera operatorIn 2007, of the 5,800 housing units, 5,000 were rentals; the 2010 United States Census reported that Cudahy had a population of 23,805.

The population density was 19,417.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Cudahy was 11,708 White, 333 African American, 246 Native American, 137 Asian, 24 Pacific Islander, 10,339 from other races, 1,018 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22,850 persons; the Census reported that 23,797 people lived in households, 8 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 5,607 households, out of which 3,712 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,941 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,362 had a female householder with no husband present, 686 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 589 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 42 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 399 households were made up of individuals and 176 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.24. There were 4,989 families; the population was spread out with 8,325 people under the age of 18, 2,858 people aged 18 to 24, 7,279 people aged 25 to 44, 4,121 people aged 45 to 64, 1,222 people who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 27.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.5 males. There were 5,770 housing units at an average density of 4,706.5 per square mile, of which 1,011 were owner-occupied, 4,596 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.3%. 4,355 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 19,442 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Cudahy had a median household income of $38,267, with 31.8% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 24,208 people, 5,419 households, 4,806 families residing in the city; the population density was 21,627.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,542 housing units at an average density of 4,951.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city wa

Orson and Olivia

Orson and Olivia is an Italian-French animated comedy-drama television series produced by Ellipse Entertainment and Collingwood O'Hare and aired on TF1. It features the trials of two orphans living in London under Queen Victoria's reign, it is based on the French comics series Basil et Victoria by Edith and Yann, which got a complete English-language book edition in 2014 under the title "Basil & Victoria: London Guttersnipes". The series aired in several countries around the world such as TVP3 in Poland, Sky One in the UK, ABC in Australia, MetroVision and TV3 in Malaysia, Channel 5 in Singapore, TVI in Portugal, SABC2 in South Africa, Showcase in Canada and RTÉ Two in Ireland. Orson and Olivia are two eleven-year-old orphans, they have to find food in order to catch rats to make money. They get into various situations with their friends; these include brushes with the law, encountering people from foreign countries and meeting Queen Victoria, Sherlock Holmes, Lewis Carroll and Charles Dickens.

Orson – Orson is a young bald orphan, who lives on a boat with his best-friend/girlfriend Olivia. He tries to earn money by catching rats. Calm and with a noble soul, he sees himself as someone, destined for great things, his favourite food is herring. Olivia – Olivia is a young redhead orphan, who lives on a boat with her best-friend/boyfriend Orson. Just like Orson, she makes a living catching rats. Hot-headed, but with a good heart, Olivia dreams that one day she will become an artist, known by everyone in London, her favourite food is sausages. She is prone to having vivid dreams or nightmares, which in most cases illustrate some of her biggest wishes or fears. Faltstaff – Orson and Olivia's faithful dog, called by his owners as the best rat-catcher in all of London. Fleabag – Fleabag is a young orphan who's friends with Orson and Olivia, he spends his time at the docks trying to find ways to earn money, while bragging about his false talents. He has a crush on Olivia though she treats him badly, insisting that she only likes Orson.

Teddy – Teddy is a young orphan, friends with Orson and Olivia. From the whole group, Teddy is the only one who can read and write, is the one who tells the others the news around town as he works as a newspaper boy. Ricky Dripnose – Ricky is a young orphan, a big fan of Sherlock Holmes, following all of his cases and wearing a deerstalker hat just like Sherlock himself, he is known for having a great singing voice, using it to earn money. Froggy – Froggy is a young blonde orphan who makes a living as a street artist, dealing in acrobatics, she lives with Fleabag. Pearface – Pearface is a chubby, bald orphan, who spends his time selling matches on the street, his favourite hobby is to eat all kinds of delicious foods pudding and cakes. Chief Inspector Lestrade – Lestrade is a bumbling and sometimes incompetent inspector for Scotland Yard. Whenever he crosses paths with Orson and Olivia, he does not pay attention to what they tell him, always saying that he has the investigation under control. Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson – Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson are a famous detective duo, who solve all kinds of mysteries, thanks to Holmes deductive reasoning method.

On more than one occasion and Watson did help Orson and Olivia, unlike Lestrade, the detectives tend to believe everything the orphans tell them. Queen Victoria – Queen Victoria is the ruler of the British Empire. Over the course of their adventures and Olivia cross paths with her more than once. Robex the Cut-Throat – Robex is a diabolical murderer, captured by Sherlock Holmes, with the help of Orson and Olivia. On, he is convicted of 7 homicides, but manages to escape and swears revenge on the detective and the orphans for putting him in prison, he is recaptured after trying to kill Orson and Olivia. Greg – Greg is the local poultier's son and leader of a rival gang who antagonise Orson and their friends

Polish heraldry

Polish heraldry refers to the study of coats of arms in the lands of historical Poland. It focuses on Polish traits of heraldry; the term is used to refer to the Polish heraldic system, as opposed to systems used elsewhere, notably in Western Europe. As such, it is an integral part of the history of the nobility of Poland. Due to the distinct manner in which feudal society evolved, the heraldic traditions of Poland differ from those in German lands, France or the British Isles. Unlike Western Europe, in Poland, the szlachta did not emerge from the feudal class of knights but stemmed in great part from earlier Slavic local rulers and free warriors and mercenaries. Rulers hired these free warriors and mercenaries to form military units and in the 11th century during the time of Casimir I the Restorer with the development of feudalism, armies paid by the Prince were replaced by knights that were paid in land. Much written evidence from the Middle Ages demonstrates how some elements of the Polish nobility did emerge from former Slavic rulers that were included in the ranks of the knightly class under the terms of the chivalric law and iure polonico.

Because Polish clans have different origins, only part of the szlachta can be traced all the way back to the traditional old clan system based on kinship. The clans that could show kinship belonged to a House, such as the House of Odrowąż; when different Houses created different surnames for each property, the House turned into the Clan Odrowąż. Other szlachta were not related and their unions were voluntary and based on fellowship and brotherhood rather than kinship, still being full members of the Clan, creating Clan politics like in Clan Ostoja or Clan Abdank, but forming a heraldic clan. Near the end of the history of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, due to adoptions and other circumstances, all Clans in Poland turned into Heraldic Clans. In the year 1244, Bolesław, Duke of Masovia, identified members of the knights' clan as members of a genealogia: "I received my good servitors from the land of Poland, from the clan called Jelito, with my well-disposed knowledge and the cry, the godło, I established them in the said land of mine, Masovia."

The documentation regarding Raciborz and Albert's tenure is the earliest surviving of the use of the clan name and cry defining the honorable status of Polish knights. The names of knightly genealogiae only came to be associated with heraldic devices in the Middle Ages and in the early modern period; the Polish clan name and cry ritualized the ius militare. According to Polish historian Tadeusz Manteuffel, a Polish clan consisted of people related by blood and descending from a common ancestor, giving the ród/clan a developed sense of solidarity; the starosta had judicial and military power over the ród/clan, although this power was exercised with an assembly of elders. Strongholds called gród were built where a unifying religious cult was powerful, where trials were conducted, where clans gathered in the face of danger; the opole was the territory occupied by a single tribe. Such clans used signs that during 13th century become Coat of Arms of the House or the Clan; the origin of those proto-CoAs is controversial.

Some, like Sulimirski, claim Sarmatian origin and some like Piekosiński claim that those signs are Runes of dynastic tribal rulers. Heraldic symbols began to be used in Poland in the 13th century; the generic Polish term for a coat of arms, was used for the first time in the year 1415 at the Royal Office with text et quatuor herbis, originating as a borrowing of the Czech erb, which in turn came from the German Erbe – heritage. During the Union of Horodło, 47 Prince and Boyar families of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were adopted into 47 Polish noble clans and began to use Polish coats of arms. Since there was no heraldic authority in Poland or in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, many old Polish coats of arms were changed over time by different publications, losing their original appearance; the Heraldic Commission was registered on 20 January 2010. Although many medieval Polish coats of arms were presented in Western European rolls of arms, there were no publications that presented original coats of arms in Poland until the 20th century, when Adam Heymowski began recovering old Polish coats of arms.

His work was continued by Professor Józef Szymański, who published an armorial of original Polish coats of arms. The ancient Pałuki family coat of arms was visually close to the Topór coat of arms, in time a similar coat was assumed by Clan Topór; as the Ostoja coat of arms evolved, the dragon was replaced by feathers and the cross by the sword, followed by other changes between ancient and modern versions. Many Polish coats of arms feature so-called variations. In many cases, variations are simple errors, sometimes the family wished to make a distinction within the clan and in other cases coats have been called variations of a particular family's coat just because they look similar, which all together create a unique heraldic clan organisation in Poland; this is presented in the second part of the gallery, which shows many different variations of the Ostoja coat of arms. None of the variations above have anything in common with Ostoja, they just look similar

Sand lizard

The sand lizard is a lacertid lizard distributed across most of Europe including England, Belgium, Denmark, southern Sweden, Austria, north-western Yugoslavia, Hungary Czechoslovakia, Western Russia and eastwards to Mongolia and northwest China. It does not occur in European Turkey, its distribution is patchy. The sand lizard is a sexually dimorphic legged lizard. In northwest Europe, both sexes are characterised by lateral and dorsal strips of ocellated markings, dark patches with pale centres. Colouration varies across their Russian range. Males have finer markings than females, their flanks turn bright green during the spring mating season, fading again in the late summer. Male adults may reach a total body length of 19.3 cm. It has several subspecies, the westernmost of, L. a. agilis. In this and the other main western subspecies, the dorsal stripe is thin and interrupted, or not present at all; this applies to the latter subspecies, which includes a plain red or brown-backed phase without any dorsal markings.

In these two subspecies, only the flanks of the males turn green in the mating season, but in the eastern subspecies, males can be wholly green outside the breeding season. Most of these lizards live in Eastern Europe, they are common in Poland, Czech Republic, countries around that area. They bask on rocks in the day and at night they go into their holes under ground. To protect themselves, they bite the predators. In the UK, the sand lizard is restricted to lowland heathlands and sand dunes in Southern England, to the coastal sand dunes of Northwest England and Wales, it occupies a range of man-made habitats within these areas, including railway lines, brownfield sites and field boundaries. It is regarded as threatened and is protected under UK law – as it is throughout most of Europe; this is in contrast to L. a. exigua, whose Russian name translates as the "common lizard". The UK Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Trust coordinates conservation action for the sand lizard, including a successful captive-breeding and reintroduction programme.

Sand Lizard is facing multiple threats including habitat destruction, habitat degradation, habitat fragmentation, lack of habitat management, inappropriate habitat management right now. Although UK has making the protection of sand lizard as a law, there are still actions needed to be taken, including habitat protection, habitat management, species protection, species management, distribution surveys and conservation status monitoring, scientific research, public awareness. Males reaches sexual maturity at a smaller size compared with females. Vitellogenesis happens. Both sexes tend to lose body fat during mating period, since their main energy resources come from body fat and from the liver and proximal at the tail. After a few weeks from the hibernation, male adults become aggressive towards each other, trying to mate as many as females as they can; the female sand lizard lays eggs in loose sand in a sunny location, leaving them to be incubated by the warmth of the ground. Sand Lizards are preyed by a large range of predators such as mustelids, badgers and snakes.

Besides of wild predators, domestic species, such as pheasants and cats. When a female sand lizard mates with two or more males, sperm competition within the female's reproductive tract may occur. Active selection of sperm by females appears to occur in a manner. On the basis of this selective process, the sperm of males that are more distantly related to the female are preferentially used for fertilization, rather than the sperm of close relatives; this preference may enhance the fitness of progeny by reducing inbreeding depression. Hesketh Golf Links, a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a UK habitat where sand lizards exist List of reptiles of Italy List of European Protected Species

Cardiothoracic surgery

Cardiothoracic surgery is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax —generally treatment of conditions of the heart and lungs. In most countries, cardiac surgery and general thoracic surgery are separate surgical specialties. A cardiac surgery residency comprises anywhere from 4 to 6 years of training to become a qualified surgeon. Cardiac surgery training may be combined with thoracic surgery and / or vascular surgery and called cardiovascular / cardiothoracic / cardiovascular thoracic surgery. Cardiac surgeons may enter a cardiac surgery residency directly from medical school, or first complete a general surgery residency followed by a fellowship. Cardiac surgeons may further sub-specialize cardiac surgery by doing a fellowship in a variety of topics including: pediatric cardiac surgery, cardiac transplantation, adult acquired heart disease, weak heart issues, many more problems in the heart; the competitive Surgical Education and Training program in Cardiothoracic Surgery is six years in duration commencing several years after completing medical school.

Training is supervised via a bi-national training program. Multiple examinations take place throughout the course of training, culminating in a final fellowship exam in the final year of training. Upon completion of training, surgeons are awarded a Fellowship of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, denoting that they are qualified specialists. Trainees having completed a training program in General Surgery and have obtained their FRACS will have the option to complete fellowship training in Cardiothoracic Surgery of four year in duration, subject to college approval, it takes around eight to ten years minimum of post-graduate training to qualify as a cardiothoracic surgeon. Competition for training places and for public hospital places is high leading to concerns regarding workforce planning in Australia. Cardiac surgeons in Canada completed general surgery followed by a fellowship in CV / CT / CVT. During the 1990s, the Canadian cardiac surgery training programs changed to six-year "direct-entry" programs following medical school.

The direct-entry format provides residents with experience related to cardiac surgery they would not receive in a general surgery program. This is followed by a fellowship in either Adult Cardiac Surgery, Heart Failure/Transplant, Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery, Aortic Surgery, Thoracic Surgery, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery or Cardiac ICU. Contemporary Canadian candidates completing general surgery and wishing to pursue cardiac surgery complete a cardiothoracic surgery fellowship in the United States; the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada provides a three-year cardiac surgery fellowship for qualified general surgeons, offered at several training sites including the University of Alberta, the University of British Columbia and the University of Toronto. Thoracic surgery is its own separate 2-3 year fellowship of cardiac surgery in Canada. Cardiac surgery programs in Canada: University of Alberta - 1 position University of British Columbia - 1 position University of Calgary - 1 position Dalhousie University - 1 position every other year Université Laval - 1 position every three years University of Manitoba - 1 position McGill University - 1 position every three years McMaster University - 1 position every other year Université de Montréal - 1 position every three years University of Ottawa - 1 position University of Toronto - 1 position Western University - 1 position In the United Kingdom, cardiac surgeons are trained by direct specialty training or through core surgical training.

Through the core surgical training route, trainees can apply on their third year for specific training in cardiothoracic surgery. Thereafter, they may choose to subspecialise in areas such as aortic surgery, adult cardiac surgery, thoracic surgery, paediatric cardiothoracic surgery, adult congenital surgery. Cardiac surgery training in the United States is combined with general thoracic surgery and called cardiothoracic surgery or thoracic surgery. A cardiothoracic surgeon in the U. S. is a physician who first completes a general surgery residency, followed by a cardiothoracic surgery fellowship. The cardiothoracic surgery fellowship spans two or three years, but certification is based on the number of surgeries performed as the operating surgeon, not the time spent in the program, in addition to passing rigorous board certification tests. However, options for an integrated 6-year cardiothoracic residency have been established at many programs. Applicants match into these I-6 programs directly out of medical school, the application process has been competitive for these positions as there were 160 applicants for 10 spots in the U.

S. in 2010. As of May 2013, there are now 20 approved programs, which include the following: Integrated 6 year Cardiothoracic Surgery programs in the United States: Medical College of Wisconsin Stanford University - 2 positions University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Virginia Columbia University - 2 positions University of Pennsylvania University of P

Radio transmitter design

A radio transmitter is an electronic device which, when connected to an antenna, produces an electromagnetic signal such as in radio and television broadcasting, two way communications or radar. Heating devices, such as a microwave oven, although of similar design, are not called transmitters, in that they use the electromagnetic energy locally rather than transmitting it to another location. A radio transmitter design has to meet certain requirements; these include the frequency of operation, the type of modulation, the stability and purity of the resulting signal, the efficiency of power use, the power level required to meet the system design objectives. High-power transmitters may have additional constraints with respect to radiation safety, generation of X-rays, protection from high voltages. A transmitter design includes generation of a carrier signal, sinusoidal, optionally one or more frequency multiplication stages, a modulator, a power amplifier, a filter and matching network to connect to an antenna.

A simple transmitter might contain only a continuously running oscillator coupled to some antenna system. More elaborate transmitters allow better control over the modulation of the emitted signal and improve the stability of the transmitted frequency. For example, the Master Oscillator-Power Amplifier configuration inserts an amplifier stage between the oscillator and the antenna; this prevents changes in the loading presented by the antenna from altering the frequency of the oscillator. For a fixed frequency transmitter one used method is to use a resonant quartz crystal in a Crystal oscillator to fix the frequency. Where the frequency has to be variable, several options can be used. An array of crystals – used to enable a transmitter to be used on several different frequencies. Variable-frequency oscillator Phase-locked loop frequency synthesiser Direct digital synthesis While modern frequency synthesizers can output a clean stable signal up through UHF, for many years at higher frequencies, it was not practical to operate the oscillator at the final output frequency.

For better frequency stability, it was common to multiply the frequency of the oscillator up to the final, required frequency. This was accommodated by allocating the short wave amateur and marine bands in harmonically related frequencies such as 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 MHz. Thus one crystal or VFO could cover several bands. In simple equipment this approach is still used occasionally. If the output of an amplifier stage is tuned to a multiple of the frequency with which the stage is driven, the stage will give a large harmonic output. Many transmitters have used this simple approach successfully; however these more complex circuits will do a better job. In a push-push stage, the output will only contain harmonics; this is because the currents which would generate the fundamental and the odd harmonics in this circuit are canceled by the second device. In a push-pull stage, the output will contain only odd harmonics because of the canceling effect; the task of a transmitter is to convey some form of information using a radio signal, modulated to carry the intelligence.

The RF generator in a microwave oven and induction heating are similar in design to transmitters, but not considered as such in that they do not intentionally produce a signal that will travel to a distant point. Such RF devices are required by law to operate in an ISM band where interference to radio communications will not occur. Where communications is the object, one or more of the following methods of incorporating the desired signal into the radio wave is used; when the amplitude of a radio frequency wave is varied in amplitude in a manner which follows the modulating signal voice, video or data, we have Amplitude modulation. In low level modulation a small audio stage is used to modulate a low power stage; the output of this stage is amplified using a linear RF amplifier. The great disadvantage of this system is that the amplifier chain is less efficient, because it has to be linear to preserve the modulation. Hence high efficiency class C amplifiers cannot be employed, unless a Doherty amplifier, EER or other methods of predistortion or negative feedback are used.

High level modulation uses class C amplifiers in a broadcast AM transmitter and only the final stage or final two stages are modulated, all the earlier stages can be driven at a constant level. When modulation is applied to the plate of the final tube, a large audio amplifier is needed for the modulation stage, equal to 1/2 of the DC input power of the modulated stage. Traditionally the modulation is applied using a large audio transformer; however many different circuits have been used for high level AM modulation. See Amplitude Modulation. A wide range of different circuits have been used for AM. While it is possible to create good designs using solid-state electronics, valved circuits are shown here. In general, valves are able to yield RF powers far in excess of what can be achieved using solid state. Most high-power broadcast stations below 3 MHz use solid state circuits, but higher power stations above 3 MHz still use valves. High level plate modulation consists of varying the voltage on the plate of the valve so that it swings from nearly zero to double the resting value.

This will produce 100% modulation and can be done by inserting a transformer in series with the high voltage supply to the anode so that the vector sum of the two sources, will be applied. A disadvantage is the si