click links in text for more info


A cuirass is a piece of armor, formed of a single or multiple pieces of metal or other rigid material which covers the torso. The use of the term "cuirass" refers to both the chest plate and the back piece together. Whereas a chest plate only protects the front and a back plate only protects the back, a cuirass protects both the front and the back. In Hellenistic and Roman times, the musculature of the male torso was idealized in the form of the muscle cuirass or "heroic cuirass" sometimes further embellished with symbolic representation in relief, familiar in the Augustus of Prima Porta and other heroic representations in official Roman sculpture; as parts of the actual military equipment of classic antiquity and corsets of bronze, iron, or some other rigid substance were used. Secondary protection for the breast was worn in earlier times by men-at-arms in addition to mail hauberks and reinforced coats, it was not until the 14th century. The Roman emperor Galba donned a cuirass. Suetonius records in 12 Caesars that, "As was offering sacrifice on the morning before he was killed, a soothsayer warned him again and again to look out for danger, since assassins were not far off.

Not long after this he learned that Otho held possession of the camp, when several advised him to proceed thither as soon as possible – for they said that he could win the day by his presence and prestige – he decided to do no more than hold his present position and strengthen it by getting together a guard of the legionaries, who were encamped in many different quarters of the city. He did however put on a linen cuirass, though he declared that it would afford little protection against so many swords." The latter portion of the 14th century saw the cuirass come into general use in connection with plate armor for the limbs until, at the close of the century, mail was phased out among the nobles except in the camail of the bascinet and at the edge of the hauberk. The cuirass was universally worn throughout its lifespan as a form of armor. Thus, the globule form of the breast-armor of the Black Prince, in his effigy in Canterbury Cathedral, 1376, intimates that a cuirass is to be considered to have been covered by the royalty-emblazoned jupon of the Prince.

Historical cuirass, contrary to many modern reproductions, did not rest on the hips. Historical cuirass stopped somewhere around the midriff or bellybutton in order to allow a proper range of movement to the wearer. A cuirass ending at the waist would limit the ability of the wearer to lean forward, backward or sideways. Thus, to protect the rest of the torso, mail or fauld were used depending on the time period. Early in the 15th century, plate armor, including the cuirass, began to be worn without any surcoat. While the surcoat was being phased out, small plates of various forms and sizes were attached to the armor in front of the shoulders, to defend the otherwise vulnerable points where the plate defenses left a gap. About the middle of the century, the breastplate of the cuirass was made in two parts. In the second half of the 15th century, the cuirass was superseded by the brigandine jacket, the medieval forerunner of the flak jacket. In essence, the brigandine jacket was constructed of metal plates sewn into a fabric jacket.

The fabric was a rich material, was lined throughout with overlapping scales of metal which were attached to the jacket by rivets, having their heads, like studs, visible on the outside. About 1550, the breast-piece of the cuirass was characterized by a vertical central ridge, called the tapul, having near its center a projecting point. Somewhat the tapul was moved lower on the breast; the profile of the plate began to resemble a pea pod and, as such, was referred to as the peascod cuirass. During the English Civil War, only the wealthiest and physically strongest of men could afford this form of munition armour. Corslets provided with both breast and back pieces were worn by foot-soldiers in the 17th century, while their mounted comrades were equipped in heavier and stronger cuirasses; these defenses continued in use longer than any other single piece of armor. Their use never altogether ceased and in modern armies mounted cuirassiers, armed as in earlier days with breast and back plates, have in some degree emulated the martial splendour of the body armor of the era of medieval chivalry.

Both the French and German heavy cavalry wore cuirasses in parade leading up to World War I. In the early part of that conflict, they painted their cuirasses black and wore canvas protection covers over the neo-Roman style helmets; some years after Waterloo, certain historical cuirasses were taken from their repose in the Tower of London and adapted for service by the Life Guards and the Horse Guards. For parade purposes, the Prussian Gardes du Corps and other corps wore cuirasses of richly decorated leather; the Pontifical Swiss Guard still wear cuirasses for swearing in ceremonies and Easter. Cuirasses were manufactured in Japan as early as the 4th century. Tankō, worn by foot soldiers and keikō, worn by horsemen were both pre-samurai types of early Japanese

The Rock 'n' Roll Years

The Rock'n' Roll Years was a BBC television programme aired between 1985 and 1994. In a half-hour time slot the programme focused on a different year each week, starting with the year 1956 and ending with 1989; the format of the programme, based on the BBC Radio 1 series 25 Years of Rock, was of news clips with narrative subtitles set to music of the time with no presenters or voice-overs. Archive footage of performers from BBC programmes such as Top of the Pops, was featured. For instance, the programme on 1960 featured the Sharpeville massacre, the Russians shooting down two US spy planes, the advent of stiletto heels and the election of John Kennedy to the White House, set to music by Adam Faith, Duane Eddy and the Rebels, Cliff Richard and the Shadows, the Everly Brothers and Roy Orbison; the theme tune to The Rock'n' Roll Years was a medley containing riffs from a number of popular songs, including for example " Satisfaction" by The Rolling Stones and "Layla" by Derek and the Dominos. The first set of episodes covered the years 1956–63, was aired over July and August 1985.

The second set covered 1964–71, aired between June and August 1986. The years 1972–80 were over the same period in 1987. For the 1994 series, which covered 1981–89, a similar medley was created using extracts from 1980s hits such as "Like a Virgin" by Madonna, "Radio Ga Ga" by Queen, "Every Breath You Take" by the Police, "Do They Know It's Christmas?" by Band Aid and "The Look of Love" by ABC. These episodes were aired between April. Other programmes with similar formats are: History Rocks on The History Channel Pop-up Video on VH1 Reeling in the Years on RTÉ "Siar sna" on TG4 "Pop Goes Northern Ireland" on BBC Northern Ireland "Alba" on BBC Alba "That's So..." on Channel 5 "Rewind 1990s" on BBC Scotland As part of his 1987 Christmas Special, Lenny Henry performed a spoof version of the show. He lampooned various artists including Tina Turner and Michael Jackson. Another version of the show appeared online only on the BBC's Doctor Who website in 2004, covering the adventures of the Doctor from the 1960s to the 1980s, using footage from the sci-fi series and accompanying music from each of the decades as per the regular format of the show.

The Rock'n' Roll Years on IMDb The Rock'n' Roll Years at

Franklin Road Academy

Franklin Road Academy is a private, college preparatory, co-educational, Christian school for students in grades Pre-K3-12 located in Nashville, Tennessee. FRA was founded in 1971 after a court ordered Nashville public schools to expanded desegregation busing and, like other schools established in that period, has been described as segregation academy; the school was affiliated with the First Christian Church, but became a separate organization in 1982. Franklin Road Academy was founded in 1971 as a segregation academy in response to the court ordered racial integration of public schools. FRA's leaders claimed the school was established to provide a sound, education in a safer environment, but the sociologist Jennifer Dyer has argued that the school's stated objectives were a "guise" for the school's actual objective of allowing parents to avoid enrolling their children in racially integrated public schools. FRA's first mascot was the Rebels and the school prominently flew the confederate flag.

In a 1980 retrospective interview and headmaster Bill Bradshaw recalled that in the early 1970s, "escape from busing was definitely a factor" in the school's initial growth, but he denied that the school was established to avoid desegregation. Bradshaw, pictured in the 1979 yearbook in a Confederate Army uniform, acknowledged that the school's Confederate iconography meant that blacks "may have thought" that they were unwelcome at the school, but he expressed hope "in time, that will change." Bradshaw argued that the private school's tuition costs were the main reason few black students enrolled. Bradshaw noted that blacks "have been inclined to stay in their own groups", referring to the integration of a black elementary school in Nashville, opposed by some African-Americans. Inquiries from parents to FRA tripled in 1980 after court rulings expanded desegregation busing in Nashville. At the time, only one of Franklin Road's 745 students was black. In March 1981, the entire board of directors and headmaster Bill Bradshaw resigned in a dispute with First Christian Church, which owned the building used by the school.

Football coach Gene Andrews was appointed interim headmaster. On June 3, 1982, Franklin Road Academy became an independent organization styled Franklin Road Academy, Inc. Following its incorporation, FRA received accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. In 1983, an anonymous donor provided funds to add a second floor to the high school for the creation of a middle school. Four years FRA raised $3 million through a capital campaign for the construction of a separate lower school. In 1988, the new lower school was dedicated as Danner Hall; the school stopped flying the Confederate flag in 1991. Headmaster Bill Campbell said the flag was removed to ensure all students and visiting sports teams felt welcome and comfortable at the school. In a guest editorial in The Tennessean, former FRA football coach and interim headmaster Gene Andrews criticized the change, accusing FRA of "turning its back on its heritage" and ignoring the sacrifices made in support of the "just cause" of southern independence.

In 1997, FRA became the Big Blue. The school had begun to tone down use of the mascot in the early 1990s to make the school more welcoming to minorities. Assistant principal Gary Clarke stated that "We felt, of course, there was a lot of tradition at the school with the Rebels, but we have to realize that the Rebel flag may be offensive to some." School official stated that the final move was to attract a more diverse study body". The FRA football coach, George Weicker, told The Tennessean that the retirement of the mascot was because of the unease the Confederate imagery caused to Dennis Harrison, a former NFL player, the first black assistant coach at the school. Weicker said that he asked Harrison how he felt about the mascot and what it's symbolism meant to him. Weicker said that Harrison told him the mascott made him feel "uncomfortable". In 1994, the George A. Volkert Athletic Complex was completed. Referred to as "The Hill" by students and faculty, the complex houses a football stadium, baseball stadium, tennis courts, a track, a softball field.

During the 1990s, FRA partnered with IBM to give middle school students laptop computers. This early introduction of technology to middle school students turned out to be burdensome and was discontinued. In 1999, FRA completed fine arts building; the three-story building houses 300 students in the fifth through eighth grades in one building. The same building features a theatre as well as two art rooms, a band room, a choir room, four practice rooms with pianos, a dance studio. By 2016, enrollment had increased to 716 students. Six percent were black and three percent identified as hispanic. In February 2014, Sean Casey became the next Head of School for Franklin Road Academy. In 2006 -- 2007, the school improved its campus in a $12 million project, it acquired 12 acres of First Christian Church property. It built a new math and science building of 26,300 square feet and a library and technology center of14,500 square feet; the main school building was renovated to serve humanities. The new and renovated buildings form a central quadrangle.

The school's original classrooms in the former church property were renovated for foreign language classes. Moving the books into the new Library and Technology Center from the old library took a total of 4 days and the involvement of 600 students. Franklin Road Academy opened a new innovation science lab that n

The Fourth Network

The Fourth Network: How Fox Broke the Rules and Reinvented Television is a non-fiction book about the history of the Fox television network. It was written by Daniel M. Kimmel and published in 2004; the Fourth Network details the history of Fox up until the 1999-2000 broadcast season, with events happening afterward included in an epilogue. Many times throughout the book Kimmel makes a point of how Fox, during its first 20 years of existence, radically changed the standards by which network television stations in America operate, such as putting an emphasis on looking at demographics in show ratings as opposed to overall viewership, working with cable television suppliers in order to attain a broader audience. While much of the book, laden with interviews of former network executives, deals with the network's prime time programming, some material is left to the network's other endeavors, both successful and unsuccessful, such as Fox's stunning acquisition of the rights to NFL games, the start-up of the Fox Kids Saturday morning cartoon block, as well Fox's failed attempts at a morning show and late-night talk shows.

In 2005, the book won the Goddard Book Award from the Cable Center for best book of 2004. Publishers Weekly called the book "a solid but rather dry account of the birth of a network and its impact on TV". Fourth television network

Tim Pierce

Tim Pierce is an American session guitarist. He has worked for artists, such as Crowded House, Goo Goo Dolls, Michael Jackson, Roger Waters, Alice Cooper, Johnny Hallyday, Phil Collins and The Cheetah Girls. Pierce's parents were not musicians, although his father used to play the trumpet in his youth, which Pierce did not know, he first tasted mainstream success in the early 1980s, when he began recording with Rick Springfield, experiencing a resurgence in popularity due to his hit "Jessie's Girl". In addition to playing on the studio recordings that followed, he joined Springfield's touring band throughout the 80s and appears in several of Springfield's music videos from the era. Tim has played on many hit songs including contributing second guitar parts on Crowded House's "Don't Dream It's Over", mandolins and slide guitar on Goo Goo Dolls' "Iris", a heavy metal rhythm guitar part during the bridge of Michael Jackson's "Black or White", inspired by the work of Mötley Crüe. Pierce has recorded Guitarland in 1995, by PRA Records.

He had started a YouTube channel where he offers tips he gained from his years in the music industry. Official website Youtube channel Tim Pierce in Interview in

Otto Torgersen

Otto Torgersen was a Norwegian architect and advertising executive. Torgersen was born in Norway, he studied architecture at Goldsmiths, University of London. In 1947, he founded an advertisement and architectural firm, Pran og Torgersen AS, which he operated jointly in partnership with Christian Pran, who died in 1961. Among his architectural designs were the Norwegian Museum of Science and Technology at Etterstad from 1960 and the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences at Sognsvann on Kringsjå in Oslo from 1971. Torgersen was responsible for designing the exhibitions at Norway's Resistance Museum at Akershus Fortress, he contributed to the Kon Tiki Museum and the Fram Museum, both at Bygdøy. He was awarded the advertisers prize Gullblyanten in 1969 for his association with Norway's participation at the Expo 67 at Montreal in 1967, as well as exhibitions at Barcelona in 1957 and at Ekeberg in 1959, he died in December 2000 and was buried at Vestre gravlund