United States military ration
The United States military ration refers to various preparations and packages of food provided to feed members of the armed forces. U. S. military rations are made for quick distribution and eating in the field and tend to have long storage times in adverse conditions due to being thickly packaged and/or shelf-stable. The current ration is Ready-to-Eat. From the Revolutionary War to the Spanish–American War, the United States army ration, as decreed by the Continental Congress, was the garrison ration, which consisted of meat or salt fish, bread or hardtack, vegetables. There was a spirit ration. In 1785, it was set at 4 oz. of rum, reduced to 2 oz. of whiskey, brandy, or rum in 1790. In 1794, troops about to enter combat or who were engaged in frontier service could receive a double ration of 4 oz. of rum or whiskey. It was discontinued in 1832 and replaced with a ration of coffee and sugar, increased in 1836. In 1846, a spirit ration was reinstated for issue to troops engaged in construction or surveying duties.
During the American Civil War, both armies struggled to keep their soldiers adequately fed. Difficulties with food logistics led to a multitude of rations. In World War I three types of rations came into usage by the American forces: the Reserve ration, the Trench ration, the Emergency ration; the first attempt to make an individual ration for issue to soldiers in the field was the "iron ration", first introduced in 1907. It consisted of three 3-ounce cakes, three 1-ounce bars of sweetened chocolate, packets of salt and pepper, issued in a sealed tin packet that weighed one pound, it was designed for emergency use. It was discontinued by the adoption of the "Reserve Ration" but its findings went into the development of the emergency D-ration; this ration was issued in the early part of the war to address a problem. Soldiers fighting in the front lines needed to be supplied with their daily rations, but cooked food prepared at field kitchens was sometimes spoiled by gas attacks; the trench ration was the answer.
It was a variety of canned meats that were commercially procured and sealed in a large tin box covered in canvas. It was bulky and heavy and the soldiers began to get weary of the limited menu and it was soon replaced by the Reserve Ration; the reserve ration was first issued during the latter part of World War I to feed troops who were away from a garrison or field kitchen. It consisted of 12 ounces of fresh bacon or one pound of canned meat known as the Meat Ration—usually, corned beef. Additionally, two 8-ounce cans of hard bread or hardtack biscuits, a packet of 1.16 ounces of pre-ground coffee, a packet of 2.4 ounces of granulated sugar, a packet of 0.16 ounces of salt were issued. There was a separate "tobacco ration" of 0.4 ounces of tobacco and 10 cigarette rolling papers replaced by brand-name machine-rolled cigarettes. After the war, there were attempts to improve the ration based on input from the field. In 1922, the Meat Ration was revised; this was supplemented by hard chocolate, 14 ounces of hard bread or hardtack biscuits and sugar.
In 1925, the Meat Ration was changed, deleting the dried beef in favor of canned pork and beans, reducing the bread component. The corned beef allowance was reduced in size. In 1936, menu planners attempted to introduce more variety by developing an alternate Meat Ration consisting of an "A"-menu and a "B"-menu; the A & B Reserve or combat ration was canceled after being superseded in 1938 by the Field Ration, Type C. After 1918, the army ration system went through several revisions leading to the: A-ration: Garrison Ration. Fresh, frozen food prepared in dining halls or field kitchens; the most valued of all rations. B-ration: Field Ration. Canned, packaged, or preserved foods prepared in field kitchens without refrigeration. C-ration: Individual Ration. A complete pre-cooked, ready-to-eat canned individual meal. K-ration: Individual Ration. Designed as a short duration individual "assault" ration for paratroopers and other specialized light infantry forces. Declared obsolete in 1948. D-ration: Emergency Ration.
Bars of concentrated chocolate combined with other ingredients to provide high calorie content. A-rations were whatever meat and produce could be obtained locally, so there could be great variety from one theatre of operations to the next. B-rations were used when there was inadequate refrigeration for perishable A-rations; the composition of the D-ration did not change much throughout the war but the C-ration developed many variations. A- and B-rations were only served at bases or established camps in rear areas as they require cooking. C-rations could be eaten hot or cold and required no special preparation or storage, so these could be served anywhere. During the war a new ration for assault troops, the 2,830 calories K-ration, was developed. K-rations were intended to be used as short duration rations for only 2–3 days, but cost concerns and standardization led to its overuse, contributing in some cases to vitamin deficiencies and malnourishment. There were various other special rations developed for specific circumstances, including: Type X Ration 5-in-1 ration 10-in-1 Ration Mountain
A pumpkin is a cultivar of a squash plant, most of Cucurbita pepo, round, with smooth ribbed skin, most deep yellow to orange in coloration. The thick shell contains pulp; some exceptionally large cultivars of squash with similar appearance have been derived from Cucurbita maxima. Specific cultivars of winter squash derived from other species, including C. argyrosperma, C. moschata, are sometimes called "pumpkin". Native to North America, pumpkins are one of the oldest domesticated plants, having been used as early as 7,500 to 5,000 BC. Pumpkins are grown for commercial use and are used both for food and recreation. Pumpkin pie, for instance, is a traditional part of Thanksgiving meals in Canada and the United States, pumpkins are carved as jack-o'-lanterns for decoration around Halloween, although commercially canned pumpkin puree and pumpkin pie fillings are made from different kinds of winter squash than the ones used for jack-o'-lanterns; the word pumpkin originates from the word pepon, Greek for "large melon", something round and large.
The French adapted this word to pompon, which the British changed to pumpion and to the American colonists became known as pumpkin. The term pumpkin has no agreed upon botanical or scientific meaning, is used interchangeably with "squash" and "winter squash". In North America and the United Kingdom, pumpkin traditionally refers to only certain round, orange varieties of winter squash, predominantly derived from Cucurbita pepo, while in Australian English, pumpkin can refer to winter squash of any appearance. In New Zealand and Australian English, the term pumpkin refers to the broader category called winter squash elsewhere. Pumpkins, like other squash, originated in southern United States; the oldest evidence were pumpkin fragments dated between 7,000 and 5,500 BC found in Mexico. Pumpkin fruits are a type of botanical berry known as a pepo. Traditional C. pepo pumpkins weigh between 3 and 8 kilograms, though the largest cultivars reach weights of over 34 kg. The color of pumpkins derives from orange carotenoid pigments, including beta-cryptoxanthin and beta carotene, all of which are provitamin A compounds converted to vitamin A in the body.
All pumpkins are winter squash: mature fruit of certain species in the genus Cucurbita. Characteristics used to define "pumpkin" include smooth and ribbed skin, deep yellow to orange color. Circa 2005, white pumpkins had become popular in the United States. Other colors, including dark green exist. Pumpkins are grown all around the world for a variety of reasons ranging from agricultural purposes to commercial and ornamental sales. Of the seven continents, only Antarctica is unable to produce pumpkins; the traditional American pumpkin used for jack-o-lanterns is the Connecticut Field variety. As one of the most popular crops in the United States, in 2017 over 680,000,000 kilograms of pumpkins were produced; the top pumpkin-producing states include Illinois, Ohio and California. According to the Illinois Department of Agriculture, 95% of the U. S. crop intended for processing is grown in Illinois. Nestlé, operating under the brand name Libby's, produces 85% of the processed pumpkin in the United States, at their plant in Morton, Illinois.
In the fall of 2009, rain in Illinois devastated the Nestlé crop, resulting in a shortage affecting the entire country during the Thanksgiving holiday season. Pumpkins are a warm-weather crop, planted in early July; the specific conditions necessary for growing pumpkins require that soil temperatures 8 centimetres deep are at least 15.5 °C and soil that holds water well. Pumpkin crops may suffer if there is a lack of water or because of cold temperatures, sandy soil with poor water retention or poorly drained soils that become waterlogged after heavy rain. Pumpkins are, rather hardy, if many leaves and portions of the vine are removed or damaged, the plant can quickly re-grow secondary vines to replace what was removed. Pumpkins produce both female flower. Pumpkins have been pollinated by the native squash bee Peponapis pruinosa, but this bee has declined at least in part to pesticide sensitivity, today most commercial plantings are pollinated by honeybees. One hive per acre is recommended by the U.
S. Department of Agriculture. If there are inadequate bees for pollination, gardeners have to hand pollinate. Inadequately pollinated pumpkins start growing but abort before full development. "Giant pumpkins" are a large squash. The variety arose from the large squash of South America through the efforts of botanical societies and enthusiast farmers. In a 100-gram amount, raw pumpkin provides 110 kilojoules of food energy and is an excellent source of provitamin A beta-carotene and vitamin A. Vitamin C is present in moderate content. Pumpkin is 92% water, 6.5% carbohydrate, 0.1% fat and 1% protein. Pumpkins are versatile in their uses for co
American cuisine reflects the history of the United States, blending the culinary contributions of various groups of people from around the world, including indigenous American Indians, African Americans, Europeans, Pacific Islanders, South Americans. Early Native Americans utilized a number of cooking methods in early American cuisine that have been blended with early European cooking methods to form the basis of what is now American cuisine; the European settlement of the Americas introduced a number of ingredients, spices and cooking styles to the continent. The various styles of cuisine continued expanding well into the 19th and 20th centuries, proportional to the influx of immigrants from many different nations; when the colonists came to the colonies, they farmed animals for clothing and meat in a similar fashion to what they had done in Europe. They had cuisine similar to their previous Dutch, Swedish and British cuisines; the American colonial diet varied depending on the region settled.
Hunted game included deer, bear and wild turkey. A number of fats and oils made from animals served to cook much of the colonial foods. Prior to the Revolution, New Englanders consumed large quantities of rum and beer, as maritime trade provided them easy access to the goods needed to produce these items: rum was the distilled spirit of choice, as the main ingredient, was available from trade with the West Indies. In comparison to the northern colonies, the southern colonies were quite diverse in their agricultural diet. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Americans developed many new foods. During the Progressive Era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, circa 1890s–1920s, food production and presentation became more industrialized. One characteristic of American cooking is the fusion of multiple ethnic or regional approaches into new cooking styles. A wave of celebrity chefs began with Julia Child and Graham Kerr in the 1970s, with many more following after the rise of cable channels such as the Food Network and Cooking Channel in the late 20th century.
Seafood in the United States originated with the American Indians in the United States, who ate cod, lemon sole, herring, sturgeon, drum on the East Coast, olachen and salmon on the West Coast. Whale was hunted by American Indians off the Northwest coast by the Makah, used for their meat and oil. Seal and walrus were eaten, in addition to eel from New York's Finger Lakes region. Catfish was popular among native people, including the Modocs. Crustaceans included shrimp, lobster and dungeness crabs in the Northwest and blue crabs in the East. Other shellfish include abalone and geoduck on the West Coast, while on the East Coast the surf clam and the soft-shell clam. Oysters were eaten on both shores, as were periwinkles. Early American Indians used a number of cooking methods in early American Cuisine that have been blended with early European cooking methods to form the basis of American Cuisine. Grilling meats was common. Spit roasting over a pit fire was common as well. Vegetables root vegetables were cooked directly in the ashes of the fire.
As early Native Americans lacked pottery that could be used directly over a fire, they developed a technique which has caused many anthropologists to call them "Stone Boilers". They would heat rocks directly in a fire and add the rocks to a pot filled with water until it came to a boil so that it would cook the meat or vegetables in the boiling water. In what is now the Southwestern United States, they created adobe ovens, dubbed hornos by the Spanish, to bake products such as cornmeal bread. Other parts of America dug pit ovens; when the colonists came to Virginia, Massachusetts, or any of the other English colonies on the eastern seaboard of North America, their initial attempts at survival included planting crops familiar to them from back home in England. In the same way, they farmed animals for meat in a similar fashion. Through hardships and eventual establishment of trade with Britain, the West Indies and other regions, the colonists were able to establish themselves in the American colonies with a cuisine similar to their previous British cuisine.
There were some exceptions to the diet, such as local vegetation and animals, but the colonists attempted to use these items in the same fashion as they had their equivalents or ignore them if they could. The manner of cooking for the American colonists followed along the line of British cookery up until the Revolution; the British sentiment followed in the cookbooks brought to the New World as well. In 1796, the first American cookbook was published, others followed. There was a general disdain for French cookery with the French Huguenots in South Carolina and French-Canadians. One of the cookbooks that proliferated in the colonies was The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy by Hannah Glasse, who referred to "the blind folly of this age that would rather be imposed on by a French booby, than give encouragement to a good English cook!" Of the French recipes given in the text, she speaks out flagrantly against the dishes as she "… think it an odd jumble of trash." Reinforcing the anti-French sentiment was the French and Indian War from 1754 to 1764.
This created a large anxiety against th
Cuisine of Philadelphia
The cuisine of Philadelphia was shaped by the city's mixture of ethnicities, available foodstuffs and history. Certain foods have become iconic to the city. Invented in Philadelphia in the 1930s, the cheesesteak is the most well known icon of the city, soft pretzels have become a part of Philadelphia culture; the late 19th century saw the creation of two Philadelphia landmarks, the Reading Terminal Market and Italian Market. After a dismal restaurant scene during the post-war era of the 20th century, the 1970s brought a restaurant renaissance that has continued into the 21st century. Many foods and drinks associated with Philadelphia can commonly be linked with the Pennsylvania Dutch. Philadelphia's large immigrant population has contributed to a large mixture of tastes to mingle and develop. Many types of foods have been created in or near Philadelphia or have strong associations with the city. In the 20th century, Philadelphia's most iconic foods were established as the cheesesteak, hoagie, soft pretzel, water ice and soda.
The cheesesteak is a sandwich traditionally made with sliced beef and melted cheese on an Italian roll. In the 1930s, the phenomenon as a steak sandwich began when hot dog vendor brothers Pat Olivieri and Harry Olivieri put grilled beef on a hot dog bun and gave it to a taxi driver. After Pat and Harry had started selling the sandwich on Italian rolls, the cheesesteak was affixed in the local culture when one of their cooks put melted cheese on the sandwich; the cheese was melted in a separate container to accommodate their large clientele who followed kosher rules. Today, cheese choices in Philadelphia eateries are limited to American, Provolone, or Cheez Whiz; the latter is popular in those places that prominently carry it. The hoagie is another sandwich, said to have been invented in Philadelphia, undoubtedly of origin in Italian-American cuisine, it has been asserted that Italians working at the World War I era shipyard in Philadelphia, known as Hog Island where emergency shipping was produced for the war effort, introduced the sandwich, by putting various sliced meats and lettuce between two slices of Italian bread.
This became known as the "Hog Island" sandwich. Declared the official sandwich of Philadelphia in 1992, the hoagie is a sandwich made of meat and cheese with lettuce and onions on an Italian roll. Another Italian roll sandwich popularized in Philadelphia by Italian immigrants is the roast pork Italian, or Italian roast pork sandwich, a variation of the Italian street food dish known as porchetta; the sandwich consists of sliced roast pork with provolone cheese. Philadelphia Pepper Pot, a soup of tripe, vegetables, is claimed to have been created during the American Revolutionary War and named after the home city of its creator. Snapper Soup, a thick brown turtle soup served with sherry, is a Philadelphia delicacy found in area bars and seafood restaurants. In many places, it is served with horseradish; the snack item associated with Philadelphia, but not invented there, is the soft pretzel. The soft pretzel dates back to 7th-century France and was brought over to the Philadelphia area by the Pennsylvania Dutch.
Pretzels became iconic with Philadelphia by the numerous vendors who would sell them on street corners. Federal Pretzel Baking Company defined the soft pretzel for most Philadelphian's during the 1900s by first applying mass production and distribution to a distinctive baked flavored family recipe. Another snack associated with Philadelphia is Irish potato candy; the candies have a coconut cream inside and are rolled in cinnamon on the outside, resulting in an appearance reminiscent of small potatoes. The treats are about the size of a large marble and are popular around St. Patrick's Day. Oh Ryan's of Boothwyn, claims to be the largest distributor of Irish Potatoes, shipping about 80,000 pounds to major chains and smaller candy stores in the Philadelphia area. Water ice, known as Italian ice in other Northeastern US cities, is associated with Philadelphia, brought to Philadelphia by Italian immigrants. Water ice derives from semi-frozen desserts originating in Italy granita; the Philadelphia metropolitan area is the only region of the United States to refer to the dessert as "water ice".
However, despite the overlap and near synonymity between the two terms, water ice has been described as a specific type of Italian ice originating in Philadelphia, or a "variation on the more broadly-accepted Italian ice."Certain stands like South Philadelphia's "Pop's" or "Italiano's" became similar products franchised into new markets like "Rita's Water Ice". As with New York City and Chicago, Philadelphia has its own regional variant of hot dog known as the Texas Tommy, originating right outside Philadelphia in Pottstown, Pennsylvania before spreading throughout the Delaware Valley region and South Jersey; the Texas Tommy hot dog is defined by its use of bacon as toppings. Some variations of the Texas Tommy use other forms of cheese, replacing the cheddar with the Cheez-Whiz found on cheesesteaks; the bacon and cheese are wrapped around the hot dog, the hot dog may be cooked using a variety of methods, such as deep frying, barbecuing, or grilling. Condiments such as mustard, ketchup, or relish may be u
Cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies
The cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies includes the foods, eating habits, cooking methods of the Colonial United States. In the period leading up to 1776, a number of events led to a drastic change in the diet of the American colonists; as they could no longer depend on British and West Indian imports, agricultural practices of the colonists began to focus on becoming self-sufficient. See Fischer for a detailed description of the various aspects of the regional cultures; the following sections are all based on the chapters in Fischer dealing with food and eating habits. In the early 17th century, the first wave of English immigrants began arriving in North America, settling around Chesapeake Bay in Virginia and Maryland; the Virginian settlers were dominated by English noblemen with their servants and poor peasants from southern England. The food situation was much more plentiful in the American South than in England. Meat was plentiful, everyone—rich and poor—ate several meat dishes a day. Poor white farmers and black slaves ate much more humble fare and were quicker to incorporate American and African foodstuffs and flavorings.
The food of poor whites in the 17th century was similar to soul food of the 20th century. Overall, both rich and poor southerners ate spicier and more pungent food than elsewhere in the early colonies, feasting was an important part of life for all social classes. Cooking in southern England was noted for a tendency toward frying and roasting, this became true for Virginian cooking. Wealthy households tended to vary cooking methods while poor households were confined to boiling and frying; the only form of cooking, slow to develop was baking. Typical dishes among the upper classes were fricassees of various meats with herbs, sometimes a good amount of claret. Common food among the lower classes was corn porridge or mush, hominy with greens and salt-cured meat, the traditional southern fried chicken and chitlins. New England was first settled beginning in 1620, it was dominated by East Anglian Calvinists, better known as the Puritans; the conservative religious views of the Puritans created a cuisine, austere, disdainful of feasting and with few embellishments.
Eating was seen as a practical matter. Age determined eating practices. Puritan society was more stratified than the southern colonies. New England had a great abundance of seafood. Traditional East Anglian fare was preferred if it had to be made with New World ingredients. Baked beans and pease porridge were everyday fare during the winter, eaten with coarse, dark bread. At first, it was made with a mixture of wheat and maize, but a disease struck in the 1660s called wheat rust, after which it was made of rye and maize, creating what was known as "rye an injun". Vegetables with meat boiled was a popular dish, they were cooked together rather than separately, unlike many other regions in North American colonies, without seasoning. Baking was a particular favorite of the New Englanders, New England was the origin of dishes today seen as quintessentially American, such as apple pie and the baked Thanksgiving turkey; the Quakers emigrated to the New World from the northern English Midlands during the 17th century, settled in the Delaware Valley.
They were similar to the Puritans in the strictness that they applied to everyday life, though their religious teachings were far different. Their food was simple. Excessive consumption was discouraged and failure to eat or drink moderately was punished with public acts of criticism. William Penn was the founder of Pennsylvania and an important figure in the development of the Quaker movement, he encouraged frugality in his followers with advice such as, "If thou rise with an appetite thou are sure never to sit down without one"; the Quakers, like the Puritans, encountered an abundance of food in the New World: forests rich with game and berries, streams teeming with fish, abundant flocks of birds. Still, the asceticism persevered. Many Quakers avoided eating butter as a form of self-mortification, the most eccentric followers would avoid tea and meat; the idealist and pacifist ideas of the Quakers encouraged many to boycott products that were considered to be tainted by sin. This included butter, due to its role in raising war taxes, coffee, because it was produced by slave labor.
Eating habits were more egalitarian than those of either the Virginian Anglicans. At meals, entire households would dine at the same table, including servants; the most typical cooking method of the Quakers was boiling, a method brought from ancestral northern England. Boiled breakfast and dinner were standard fares, as well as "pop-robbins", balls of batter made from flour and eggs boiled in milk. Boiled dumplings and puddings were so common in Quaker homes that they were referred to by outsiders as "Quaker food". Travelers noted apple dumplings as an daily dish in the Delaware Valley and cookbooks specialized in puddings and dumplings. Food was preserved through boiling, simmering or standing. A popular genre of dishes made from this favored method of food preparation was "cheese", a generic term for dishes prepared by slow boiling or pressing, they could be made from ingredients as varying as apples, plum
Cuisine of New England
New England cuisine is an American cuisine which originated in the New England region of the United States, traces its roots to English cuisine. It is characterized by extensive use of seafood and dairy products, which results from its historical reliance on its seaports and fishing industry, as well as extensive dairy farming in inland regions. Many of New England's earliest Puritan settlers were from eastern England, where baking foods was more common than frying, such as pies and turkey, as was the tradition elsewhere. Two prominent characteristic foodstuffs native to New England are cranberries; the traditional standard starch is potato, though rice has a somewhat increased popularity in modern cooking. New England cuisine is known for limited use of spices aside from ground black pepper, although parsley and sage are common, with a few Caribbean additions such as nutmeg. Use of cream is due to the reliance on dairy; the favored cooking techniques are stewing and baking. In 1620, the Pilgrims survived their first winter in Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts with the help of Native Americans.
The Wampanoag taught the newly arrived Pilgrims how to plant and fertilize the native maize plant, which the settlers called "Indian corn". Maize could be roasted, or turned into cornmeal. Cornmeal mush served with milk and butter was eaten hot or cold and became a staple of the early American diet. Early Americans adapted traditional English recipes by using this cornmeal as a substitute for hearth cakes. Johnny cakes and various puddings made with maize became part of the traditional American cuisine. Other Native American foods and cooking methods were adopted by early immigrants to New England, such as oysters and New England clam bakes, as were many staples of their diet, such as the nuts of the black walnut tree, the nuts of the shagbark hickory, blueberries and beach plums; these augmented more traditional English-style ingredients. In England during this period, carrying weapons was forbidden to any but the upper classes. Upon reaching the New World, these Englishmen found themselves in a land where they could feast on venison from the white tailed deer and the Eastern moose and shoot pigeons for their meat, some of which were featured at the first Thanksgiving feast in 1621.
Many of New England's earliest Puritan settlers were from eastern England and brought with them traditions of dairy products and baking pies and other foods common in England. Baked beans, apple pies, baked or roast turkey, pease porridge, steamed puddings became common Yankee dishes. Other foods which they would have prized included roast duck and roast goose and hams, all of these were brought to the New World as farmyard stock as soon as the colonies began to prosper. Molasses and rum were common in New England cuisine, due to New England's involvement in the Triangle Trade in the 18th century. Molasses from the Caribbean and honey were staple sweeteners for all but the upper class well into the 19th century; some of the finest rum distilleries were located in New England prior to Prohibition. Many herbs were uncommon Mediterranean herbs, which are not hardy in much of New England away from the coast; as a result, most savory New England dishes do not have much strong seasoning, aside from salt and ground black pepper, nor are there many spicy staple items.
Other dishes meant as desserts contain ingredients such as nutmeg, allspice and ground ginger which are a legacy of trade with the Caribbean Sea that began in the 17th Century and lasted well into the 19th. Today, traditional English cuisine remains a strong part of New England's identity; some of its plates are now enjoyed by the entire United States, including clam chowder, baked beans, homemade ice cream. In the past two centuries, New England cooking was influenced and transformed by Irish Americans, Portuguese Americans, Italian Americans; the oldest operating restaurant in the United States is the Union Oyster House located in Boston. Connecticut is known for its apizza and shadbakes, New Haven's claim as the birthplace of the hamburger sandwich at Louis' Lunch in 1900. Italian-inspired cuisine is dominant in the New Haven area, while southeastern Connecticut relies on the fishing industry. Irish American influences are common in the interior portions of the state, including the Hartford area.
Hasty pudding is sometimes found in rural communities around Thanksgiving. Maine is known for its lobster. Inexpensive lobster rolls—lobster meat mixed with mayonnaise and other ingredients, served in a grilled hot dog roll—are available in the summer on the coast. Northern Maine produces potato crops, second only to Idaho in the United States. Moxie was America's first mass-produced soft drink and is the official state soft drink, it is found throughout New England. Wax-wrapped salt water taffy is a popular item sold in tourist areas, although it is from New Jersey. Wild blueberries are a common ingredient or garnish, blueberry pie is the official state dessert. Red snappers are considered the most popular type of hot dog in Maine, natural casing frankfurters colored bright red; the whoopie pie, a staple in the Philadelphia/Pennsylvania Dutch cuisine, is the official state treat. The Italian sandwich is popular in Portland and southern Maine. Portland restaurant Amato's claims to have invented the Italian sandwich in 1902—specifically