Cullman County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 80,406, its county seat and largest city is Cullman. Its name is in honor of Colonel John G. Cullmann, it is a "moist" county in terms of availability of alcoholic beverages. Cullman County comprises the Cullman, AL Micropolitan Statistical Area, a component of the Birmingham-Hoover-Talladega, AL Combined Statistical Area. Cullman is served by FM radio stations from both Huntsville and Birmingham. Cullman County is a part of the designated market area, or "DMA," of Birmingham. Electricity in Cullman County is provided by the Tennessee Valley Authority and by the Alabama Power Company. For a long time, telephone service in this county was provided by the Southern Bell Company. There is no commercial air transportation service in Cullman County, this county is no longer served by intercity commercial buses; this area was inhabited for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples.
The historic Cherokee and Choctaw lived here at the time of European encounter, with the Cherokee moving in after the American Revolutionary War and in response to pressures from northern area. Their settlements in Alabama were known as the Lower Towns. People claiming descent from Cherokee who remained in the county after Indian Removal in the 1830s, organized as the "Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama" in the 1980s; the tribe is not federally recognized. It claims 22,000 members in the state in northern Alabama. Cullman County was organized in 1877 by German American immigrants who had moved down from Cincinnati, Ohio, they founded an agricultural community and sought to create an agricultural revolution in what had been a frontier area, in the best traditions of innovation in the New South. However, hard geographical and social realities clashed with the impractical vision of colonizer John G. Cullmann, his Germans, with their traditional work ethic and willingness to experiment with such new products as wine and strawberries, tried to make practical changes in southern farming.
The Germans were outnumbered by more traditional families from neighboring regions, who replicated the traditional southern cotton culture. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 755 square miles, of which 735 square miles is land and 20 square miles is water. Morgan County Marshall County Blount County Walker County Winston County Lawrence County CSX Transportation As of the census of 2000, there were 77,483 people, 30,706 households, 22,476 families living in the county; the population density was 105 people per square mile. There were 35,233 housing units at an average density of 48 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.81% White, 0.96% Black or African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.62% from other races, 1.03% from two or more races. 2.18% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 30,706 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.80% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.80% were non-families.
24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,256, the median income for a family was $39,341. Males had a median income of $30,444 versus $20,436 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,922. About 9.50% of families and 13.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.50% of those under age 18 and 16.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 80,406 people, 31,864 households, 22,487 families living in the county; the population density was 109 people per square mile.
There were 37,054 housing units at an average density of 49 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.7% White, 1.1% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. 4.3 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 31,864 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families. 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.9 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $38,567, the median income for a family was $47,771. Males had a median income of $36,952 versus $27,979 for females; the per capita income for the county was
Johann Sperling was a German physician and physicist, deacon and Rektor of the University of Wittenberg. He was among the first to practise zoology as a natural science, writing a first handbook about animals, Zoologia physica. Born in Zeuchfeld the son of the minister Paul Sperling and his wife Dorothea, he was educated from age 12 at Landesschule Schulpforta, graduating six years later. From 2 June 1621 he studied at the faculty of philosophy of the University of Wittenberg, reaching the degree of magister on 27 September 1625. From 2 October 1628, he had the right to lecture at universities, he studied theology, but turned to medical and physical studies, encouraged by Friedrich Balduin and Erasmus Schmidt. He studied with Daniel Sennert, took part in the dispute with Johann Freitag with the treatise physico-medicum de morbis totius substantiae & cognatis materiis pro Sennerto contra Freitagium. Sperling was appointed professor of physics on 2 February 1634, he served as a deacon of the faculty of philosophy four times, was twice Rektor of the university.
When he died, he was buried in the Schlosskirche on 15 August 1658. Sperling's major work was the zoological book Zoologia physica, published in 1661 after his death by Georg Kaspar Kirchmaier. Sperling was among the first to treat it as a natural science, his book deals first with general aspects common to animals with the different classes and species. He has been called an "early modern zoologist". Among Sperling's scientific publications are: De morbis totius substantie, Wittenberg 1633 De orIgine formarum, Wittenberg 1634 Institutiones physicae, Wittenberg 1639 and more De formatione hominis in utero matris, 1641 Meditationes in Jul. Cael. Scaligeri exercitationes de subtilitate, Wittenberg 1656 De principiis nobiscum natis, Wittenberg 1657 Carpologia physica, Wittenberg 1661 Synopsis anthropologiae physicae, Wittenberg 1659 Zoologia physica, Wittenberg 1661 Synopsis physica, Wittenberg 1661 Exercitationes physicae, Wittenberg 1663 Heinz Kathe: Die Wittenberger Philosophische Fakultät 1501–1817.
Böhlau, Köln 2002, ISBN 3-412-04402-4 Walter Friedensburg: Geschichte der Universität Wittenberg. Max Niemeyer, Halle 1917 Fritz Roth: Restlose Auswertungen von Leichenpredigten und Personalschriften für genealogische und kulturhistorische Zwecke. Vol. 10, p. 134, R 9189 Hans Theodor Koch: Die Wittenberger Medizinische Fakultät – Ein biobibliographischer Überblick. In: Stefan Oehmig: Medizin und Sozialwesen in Mitteldeutschland zur Reformationszeit. Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 2007, ISBN 978-3-374-02437-7 "Entry". Zedlers Universallexikon. 38. P. 771. Wilhelm Heß, "Sperling, Joh.", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 35, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, p. 136 Borgards, Roland, ed.. Tiere: Kulturwissenschaftliches Handbuch. Springer. ISBN 9783476053725. Zoology in Early Modern Culture: Intersections of Science, Theology and Political and Religious Education. Brill. 2014. ISBN 9789004279179. "Sperling, Johann, 1603–1658, Zeuchfeld/Laucha". Gso.gbv.de. 2016. Publications by or about Johann Sperling at VD 17
Centennial is a census-designated place in Albany County, United States. The population was 270 at the 2010 census; as the Union Pacific Railroad was pushing west to link up with the Central Pacific Railroad, as part of the First Transcontinental Railroad, they sent logging crews into the Snowy Range, in the Medicine Bow Mountains, to cut down timber for railroad ties. A work camp was built on the site of the town. After they had completed most of their work and the workers started having conflicts with area Indians, the crews left the area. After the area was opened to homesteaders a few ranchers returned to the area. Men working for I. P. Lambing of Golden and Colonel Stephen W. Downey of Laramie, discovered gold on what would become Centennial Ridge on Centennial Mountain in 1875; as miners and prospectors started coming to the area, to work the Centennial Mine, they reestablished a community on the old work camp site in 1876 and named the town Centennial in honor of the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence and founding of the United States.
Most of the gold was stripped from the mines by 1877, but the town was now established and merchants who came to serve the miners stayed to serve the nearby ranchers. On the west side of Centennial Ridge a copper claim was discovered by Jacob Schnitzler in 1896. Gold had people coming to the area again in 1902, again in 1923-1924, but no significant amount was found. Loggers returned to the area in 1905 to cut timber for a coal mine near Coalmont in Jackson County, Colorado. Acme Consolidated Gold & Mining Company, headed by Isaac Van Horn, bought up timber land around the town, the townsite, opened a sawmill, a planing mill and lumber yard, opened a newspaper, the Centennial Post; the partners in Acme Consolidated Gold & Mining Company, Van Horn, Fred A. Miller, Edward R. Miller formed the Laramie, Hahns Peak and Pacific Railway to transport the coal out to eastern markets; the railroad, originating in Laramie, reached Centennial on June 17, 1907. That same year a bank was founded. A. J. Hull, Jesse Northrop, B. F. Northrop located the Platinum Queen on September 23, 1923 2.3 miles southwest of Centennial, on Centennial Ridge.
Most activity around the mine area ceased after the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the advent of the Great Depression. Centennial is located at 41°17′53″N 106°8′15″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 16.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 191 people, 97 households, 57 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 19.1 people per square mile. There were 295 housing units at an average density of 29.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 95.29% White, 1.05% Native American, 1.05% Asian, 2.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.14% of the population. There were 97 households out of which 15.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 2.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.2% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.97 and the average family size was 2.44.
In the CDP, the population was spread out with 13.1% under the age of 18, 3.1% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 44.0% from 45 to 64, 16.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 130.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.6 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $32,292, the median income for a family was $45,417. Males had a median income of $57,292 versus $37,969 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $29,477. About 15.9% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 100.0% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. Public education in the community of Centennial is provided by Albany County School District #1. Centennial has a public library, a branch of the Albany County Public Library
John Smith D. D. was a British astronomer. His father was an attorney named his mother was Elizabeth Johnson, he was born in Coltishall and was educated at Norwich School and Eton. He was admitted to Caius College, Cambridge University in 1732, he received a B. A. in 1735/6 and an M. A. in 1739. He was successively dean and president of the college, he was Master of Caius from 1764 to 1795, Lowndean Professor of Astronomy from 1771 to 1795. He was ordained in 1739, he installed a transit telescope above his college ante-chapel. He did not seem to have given any lectures. Venn, John. Biographical history of Gonville and Caius College, 1349–1897. II. Cambridge University Press. P. 35. Retrieved 2011-03-04. Lynn, W. T.. "Lowndes and the Lowndean Professorship". The Observatory. 34: 405–407. Bibcode:1911Obs....34..405L. Stratton, F. J. M.. "Dr John Smith". The Observatory. 34: 449. Bibcode:1911Obs....34..449S
Irmgard Neumann was a member of the State Council of East Germany, the country's collective head of state. Neumann was born in Hamburg. After graduation from the Volksschule she worked as a housemaid. Following the Second World War and subsequent creation of the German Democratic Republic, Neumann became a farmer at a collective farm near Teterow. In 1955 Neumann joined the Democratic Farmers' Party of a bloc party of the National Front, she was a member of the legislature of the Bezirk Neubrandenburg from 1958. In 1960 she joined the executive committee of the Democratic Women's League of Germany. In September of the same year she was elected to the State Council, of which she remained a member until November 1963. Neumann attained a leading role in the DBD in 1963, which she held until 1977. Neumann was awarded the Patriotic Order of Merit in 1966, she died in 1989. Müller-Enbergs, Helmut. "Neumann, Irmgard". Bundesstiftung Aufarbeitung. Retrieved 25 November 2019. Baumgartner, Gabriele. Biographisches Handbuch Der SBZ/DDR.
Band 2. Munich: K. G. Saur. p. 595. ISBN 3-598-11177-0
Acanthodii or acanthodians is an extinct paraphyletic class of teleostome fish, sharing features with both bony fish and cartilaginous fish. In form they resembled sharks, but their epidermis was covered with tiny rhomboid platelets like the scales of holosteans, they represent several independent phylogenetic branches of fishes leading to the still extant Chondrichthyes. The popular name "spiny sharks" is a partial misnomer for these early jawed fishes; the name was coined because they were superficially shark-shaped, with a streamlined body, paired fins, a upturned tail. Fossilized spines and scales are all that remains of these fishes in ancient sedimentary rocks. Although not sharks or cartilaginous fish, acanthodians did, in fact, have a cartilaginous skeleton, but their fins had a wide, bony base and were reinforced on their anterior margin with a dentine spine; the earliest acanthodians were marine, but during the Devonian, freshwater species became predominant. There are three orders recognized: Ischnacanthiformes and Acanthodiformes.
Climatiiforma had shoulder armor and many small sharp spines, Ischnacanthiforma with teeth fused to the jaw, the Acanthodiforma were filter feeders, with no teeth in the jaw, but long gill rakers. Overall, the acanthodians' jaws are presumed to have evolved from the first gill arch of some ancestral jawless fishes that had a gill skeleton made of pieces of jointed cartilage. Paraphyletic groupings are problematic, as one can not talk about their phylogenic relationships, their characteristic traits and literal extinction; the scales of Acanthodii have distinctive ornamentation peculiar to each order. Because of this, the scales are used in determining relative age of sedimentary rock; the scales are tiny, with a bulbous base, a neck, a flat or curved diamond-shaped crown. Despite being called "spiny sharks," acanthodians predate sharks. Scales that have been tentatively identified as belonging to acanthodians, or "shark-like fishes" have been found in various Ordovician strata, they are ambiguous, may belong to jawless fishes such as thelodonts.
The earliest unequivocal acanthodian fossils date from the beginning of the Silurian Period, some 50 million years before the first sharks appeared. The acanthodians colonized fresh waters, throve in the rivers and lakes during the Devonian and in the coal swamps of Carboniferous. By this time bony fishes were showing their potential to dominate the waters of the world, their competition proved too much for the spiny sharks, which died out in Permian times. Many palaeontologists considered the acanthodians close to the ancestors of the bony fishes. Although their interior skeletons were made of cartilage, a bonelike material had developed in the skins of these fishes, in the form of fitting scales; some scales were enlarged and formed a bony covering on top of the head and over the lower shoulder girdle. Others developed a bony flap over the gill openings analogous to the operculum in bony fishes. However, most of these characteristics are considered homologous characteristics derived from common placoderm ancestors, present in basal cartilaginous fish.
In a study of early jawed vertebrate relationships, Davis et al. found acanthodians to be split among the two major clades Osteichthyes and Chondrichthyes. The well-known acanthodian Acanthodes was placed within Osteichthyes, despite the presence of many chondrichthyan characteristics in its braincase. However, a newly described Silurian placoderm, which has jaw anatomy shared with bony fish and tetrapods, has led to revisions of this phylogeny: acanthodians were considered to be a paraphyletic assemblage leading to cartilaginous fish, while bony fish evolved from placoderm ancestors. Burrow et al. 2016 provides vindication by finding chondrichthyans to be nested among Acanthodii, most related to Doliodus and Tamiobatis. A 2017 study of Doliodus morphology points out that it appears to display a mosaic of shark and acanthodian features, making it a transitional fossil and further reinforcing this idea. Beneš, Prehistoric Animals and Plants, New York: Hamlyn, ISBN 978-0-600-30341-1 Janvier, Early vertebrates, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 978-0-19-854047-2 Long, John A.
The Rise of Fishes: 500 Million Years of Evolution, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-4992-3 Palmer, Douglas, ed. The Simon & Schuster Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. A Visual Who's Who of Prehistoric Life, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0-684-86411-2 Acanthodii taxonomy †Ischnacanthiformes taxonomy †Climatiiformes taxonomy †Acanthodiformes taxonomy "PALAEOZOIC FISH UK". Archived from the original on 2012-10-11. Acanthodopsis wardi