Roswell (TV series)
Roswell is an American science fiction television series developed, co-written by Jason Katims. The series moved to UPN for the third season. In the United Kingdom, the show aired as Roswell; the series is based on the Roswell High young adult book series, written by Melinda Metz and edited by Laura J. Burns, who became staff writers for the television series. Shiri Appleby as Liz Parker Jason Behr as Max Evans Katherine Heigl as Isabel Evans Majandra Delfino as Maria DeLuca Brendan Fehr as Michael Guerin Colin Hanks as Alex Whitman Nick Wechsler as Kyle Valenti William Sadler as Sheriff Jim Valenti Emilie de Ravin as Tess Harding Adam Rodríguez as Jesse Ramirez Garrett M. Brown as Philip Evans Mary Ellen Trainor as Diane Evans Diane Farr as Amy DeLuca John Doe as Jeff Parker Jo Anderson as Nancy Parker Nicholas Stratton as Young Michael Julie Benz as Kathleen Topolsky Jim Ortlieb as Nasedo Steve Hytner as Milton Ross Richard Schiff as Agent John Stevens David Conrad as Deputy David "Dave" Fisher/FBI Agent Daniel Pierce Devon Gummersall as Sean DeLuca Desmond Askew as Brody Davis/Larek Gretchen Egolf as Congresswoman Vanessa Whitaker Sara Downing as Courtney Banks Miko Hughes as Nicholas Crawford Daniel Hansen as Young Max Sebastian Siegel as Brad Carroll Baker as Grandma Claudia Jonathan Frakes as Himself Genie Francis as Queen Mother of Antar Erica Gimpel as Agent Susan Duff Howie Dorough as Alien Nelly Furtado as Herself Jason Dohring as Jerry Spence Decker as Kivar Morgan Fairchild as Maris Wheeler Joe Pantoliano as Kal Langley John Billingsley as Himself Roswell High was developed by 20th Century Fox Television and Regency Television for the Fox Network, though it landed on The WB thanks to the latter network's offer to extend a full 22-episode upfront commitment.
The pilot episode was filmed in 12 days with a budget of $2,000,000. "The Morning After," the second episode of the series, was the first episode with the full title sequence utilizing the theme song, "Here With Me" by Dido. Roswell was filmed in various locations around California. City Hall, Charter Oak High School, several other businesses and residences in Covina served as locations for the fictional locations in Roswell, New Mexico, as well as Vasquez Rocks, a 905-acre park in Los Angeles County; the series premiered on October 6, 1999, on The WB Television Network in the United States to favorable reviews, it gained an outspoken fanbase. In response to the problems the series had with ratings during its first season, the relationship-driven standalone episodes of the early first season were to be replaced with more science fiction themes and multi-episode plot arcs. Starting with the second season, after a fierce fan-driven campaign involving bottles of Tabasco sauce—a favorite condiment of the show's alien characters—being sent to the network's offices, veteran science fiction writer Ronald D. Moore was brought in to join Katims as an executive producer and showrunner and to further develop the science fiction elements of the show.
Not all fans responded favorably to the shift to more science fiction-driven storylines during the second season and the ratings continued to disappoint, causing the network to cancel the show on May 15, 2001, after the show's second-season finale, a move anticipated due to the sagging ratings. 20th Century Fox was able to persuade UPN to pick it up for a third season as a package deal when UPN outbid The WB for one of its popular flagship series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer. During the 2001 - 2002 television season, Roswell, in its third season, aired directly after Buffy on Tuesday nights on UPN, though it was unable to hold on to the audience Buffy provided as a lead-in; this resulted in the show's cancellation from UPN as well. The Pilot is set in 1999. We are introduced to Liz Parker, Maria DeLuca, Alex Whitman, high school students and best friends residing in the small town of Roswell, New Mexico, site of the famed Roswell UFO incident. Liz Parker's parents own the Crashdown Café. At the beginning of The Pilot, Liz is waitressing in her parents' restaurant when a disagreement between two customers breaks out.
A gun goes off, Liz is accidentally shot. We are now introduced to a character named Max Evans, a normal high school student, who rushes to Liz's aid and heals the gunshot wound by placing his hand over it, saving her life; the healing leaves a silver hand print on her stomach. In order to hide what he has done, Max pours ketchup on Liz before fleeing the scene with his friend Michael Guerin; the shooting acts as a catalyst for the rest of the series' action. Liz is presented as an insatiably curious character, obtaining a sample of Max's saliva, analyzes it, finds that his cells do not look like normal human cells; when she confronts him, Max admits that he, his sister Isabel and their friend Michael, are aliens whose spaceship crashed at Roswell in 1947. In dialogue between other characters we learn that Max and Michael had a pattern of isolating themselves from other students. A love triangle begins between Max and Kyle Valenti. Though sworn to tell no one, Liz does divulge Max's secret to Maria in the pilot.
A fandom is a subculture composed of fans characterized by a feeling of empathy and camaraderie with others who share a common interest. Fans are interested in minor details of the object of their fandom and spend a significant portion of their time and energy involved with their interest as a part of a social network with particular practices. A fandom can grow around any area of human activity; the subject of fan interest can be narrowly defined, focused on something like an individual celebrity, or more defined, encompassing entire hobbies, genres or fashions. While it is now used to apply to groups of people fascinated with any subject, the term has its roots in those with an enthusiastic appreciation for sports. Merriam-Webster's dictionary traces the usage of the term back as far as 1903. Fandom as a term can be used in a broad sense to refer to the interconnected social networks of individual fandoms, many of which overlap. There are a number of large conventions that cater to fandom in this broad sense, catering to interests in film, anime, television shows and the opportunity to buy and sell related merchandise.
Annual conventions such as Comic Con International, Dragon Con and New York Comic Con are some of the more well known and attended events that cater to overlapping fandoms. Fans of the literary detective Sherlock Holmes are considered to have comprised the first modern fandom, holding public demonstrations of mourning after Holmes was "killed off" in 1893, creating some of the first fan fiction as early as about 1897 to 1902. Outside the scope of media, railway enthusiasts are another early fandom with its roots in the late 19th century that began to gain in popularity and organize in the first decades of the early 20th century. A wide variety of Western modern organized fannish subcultures originated with science fiction fandom, the community of fans of the science fiction and fantasy genres. Science fiction fandom dates back to the 1930s and maintains organized clubs and associations in many cities around the world. Fans have held the annual World Science Fiction Convention since 1939, along with many other events each year, has created its own jargon, sometimes called "fanspeak".
In addition, the Society for Creative Anachronism, a medievalist re-creation group, has its roots in science fiction fandom. It was founded by members thereof. Media fandom split from science fiction fandom in the early 1970s with a focus on relationships between characters within TV and movie media franchises, such as Star Trek and The Man from U. N. C. L. E.. Fans of these franchises generated creative products like fan art and fan fiction at a time when typical science fiction fandom was focused on critical discussions; the MediaWest convention provided a video room and was instrumental in the emergence of fan vids, or analytic music videos based on a source, in the late 1970s. By the mid-1970s, it was possible to meet fans at science fiction conventions who did not read science fiction, but only viewed it on film or TV. Anime and manga fandom began in the 1970s in Japan. In America, the fandom began as an offshoot of science fiction fandom, with fans bringing imported copies of Japanese manga to conventions.
Before anime began to be licensed in the U. S. fans who wanted to get a hold of anime would leak copies of anime movies and subtitle them to exchange with friends in the community, thus marking the start of fansubs. Furry fandom refers to the fandom for fictional anthropomorphic animal characters with human personalities and characteristics; the concept of furry originated at a science fiction convention in 1980, when a drawing of a character from Steve Gallacci's Albedo Anthropomorphics initiated a discussion of anthropomorphic characters in science fiction novels, which in turn initiated a discussion group that met at science fiction and comics conventions. Additional subjects with significant fandoms include comics, music, pulp magazines, soap operas and videogames. Members of a fandom associate with one another attending fan conventions and publishing and exchanging fanzines and newsletters. Amateur press associations are another form of fan networking. Using print-based media, these sub-cultures have migrated much of their communications and interaction onto the Internet, which they use for the purpose of archiving detailed information pertinent to their given fanbase.
Fans congregate on forums and discussion boards to share their love for and criticism of a specific work. This congregation can lead to a high level of organization and community within the fandom, as well as infighting. Although there is some level of hierarchy among most of the discussion boards in which certain contributors are valued more than others, newcomers are most welcomed into the fold. Most these sorts of discussion boards can have an effect on the media itself as was the case in the television show Glee. Trends on the discussion boards have been known to influence the producers of the show; the media fandom for the TV series Firefly was able to generate enough corporate interest to create a movie after the series was canceled. Fan Some fans write fan fiction, stories based on the universe and characters of their chosen fandom; this fiction can take the form of video-making as well as writing. Fan fiction may not tie in with the story's canon.
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Game of Thrones
Game of Thrones is an American fantasy drama television series created by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss, it is an adaptation of A Song of Ice and Fire, George R. R. Martin's series of fantasy novels, the first of, A Game of Thrones; the show is filmed in Belfast and elsewhere in Northern Ireland, Croatia, Malta, Scotland and the United States. The series premiered on HBO in the United States on April 17, 2011, will conclude with its eighth season, which will premiere on April 14, 2019. Set on the fictional continents of Westeros and Essos, Game of Thrones has several plots and a large ensemble cast, but follows three story arcs; the first arc is about the Iron Throne of the Seven Kingdoms, follows a web of alliances and conflicts among the noble dynasties either vying to claim the throne or fighting for independence from it. The second story arc focuses on the last descendant of the realm's deposed ruling dynasty, exiled and is plotting a return to the throne; the third story arc follows the Night's Watch, a long-standing brotherhood charged with defending the realm against the ancient threats of the fierce peoples and legendary creatures that lie far north of The Wall, an impending winter that threatens the realm.
Game of Thrones has attracted record viewership on HBO and has a broad, international fan base. It has been acclaimed by critics for its acting, complex characters, story and production values, although its frequent use of nudity and violence has been criticized; the series has received 47 Primetime Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Drama Series in 2015, 2016, 2018, more than any other primetime scripted television series. Its other awards and nominations include three Hugo Awards for Best Dramatic Presentation, a 2011 Peabody Award, five nominations for the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Drama. Of the ensemble cast, Peter Dinklage has won three Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series and the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film for his performance as Tyrion Lannister. Lena Headey, Emilia Clarke, Kit Harington, Maisie Williams, Nikolaj Coster-Waldau, Diana Rigg, Max von Sydow have received Primetime Emmy Award nominations for their performances.
Game of Thrones is based on the storylines of A Song of Ice and Fire, set in the fictional Seven Kingdoms of Westeros and the continent of Essos. The series chronicles the violent dynastic struggles among the realm's noble families for the Iron Throne, while other families fight for independence from it, it opens with additional threats in the icy North and Essos in the east. Showrunner David Benioff jokingly suggested "The Sopranos in Middle-earth" as Game of Thrones' tagline, referring to its intrigue-filled plot and dark tone in a fantasy setting of magic and dragons. In a 2012 study, out of 40 recent TV drama shows, Game of Thrones ranked second in deaths per episode, averaging 14 deaths; the series is praised for what is perceived as a sort of medieval realism. George R. R. Martin set out to make the story feel more like historical fiction than contemporary fantasy, with less emphasis on magic and sorcery and more on battles, political intrigue, the characters, believing that magic should be used moderately in the epic fantasy genre.
Martin has stated that "the true horrors of human history derive not from orcs and Dark Lords, but from ourselves."A common theme in the fantasy genre is the battle between good and evil, which Martin says does not mirror the real world. Just like people's capacity for good and for evil in real life, Martin explores the questions of redemption and character change; the series allows the audience to view different characters from their perspective, unlike in many other fantasies, thus the supposed villains can provide their side of the story. Benioff said, "George brought a measure of harsh realism to high fantasy, he introduced gray tones into a black-and-white universe."In early seasons, under the influence of the A Song of Ice and Fire books, main characters were killed off, this was credited with developing tension among viewers. In seasons, critics pointed out that certain characters had developed "plot armor" to survive in unlikely circumstances, attributed this to Game of Thrones deviating from the novels to become more of a traditional television series.
The series reflects the substantial death rates in war. Although the first season follows the events of the first novel seasons have made significant changes. According to David Benioff, the series is "about adapting the series as a whole and following the map George laid out for us and hitting the major milestones, but not each of the stops along the way"; the novels and their adaptations base aspects of their settings and plot on events in European history. Most of Westeros is reminiscent of high medieval Europe, from lands and cultures, to the palace intrigue, feudal system and knightly tournaments. A principal inspiration for the novels is the English Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York, reflected in Martin's houses of Lannister and Stark; the scheming Cersei Lannister evokes Isabella, the "she-wolf of France". Holland further proposes that other historical antecedents of series elements include Hadrian's Wall, the Roman Empire, the legend of Atlantis, Byzantine Greek fire, Icelandi
Farscape is an Australian-American science fiction television series, produced for the Nine Network. The series was conceived by Rockne S. O'Bannon and produced by The Jim Henson Company and Hallmark Entertainment; the Jim Henson Company was responsible for the various alien make-up and prosthetics, two regular characters are Creature Shop creations. Although the series was planned for five seasons, it was abruptly cancelled after production had ended on its fourth season, ending the series on a cliffhanger. Co-producer Brian Henson secured the rights to Farscape, paving the way for a three-hour miniseries to wrap up the cliffhanger, titled Farscape: The Peacekeeper Wars, which Henson directed. In 2007, it was announced that the creator was returning for a web-series but production has been delayed. A comic book miniseries was released in December 2008, in continuity with both the series and the hoped-for webisodes. In February 2014 it was reported. Farscape features a diverse ensemble of characters who are escaping from corrupt authorities in the form of a militaristic organization called the Peacekeepers.
The protagonists live inside a large bio-mechanical ship called Moya, a living entity. In the first episode, they are joined by the main character, John Crichton, a modern-day American astronaut who accidentally flew into the entrance of a wormhole near Earth during an experimental space flight. On the same day, another stranger is picked up by Moya: a stranded Peacekeeper named Aeryn Sun. Despite his best intentions, John makes enemies. There are a few stand-alone plots but the show unfolds progressive arcs beginning with their recapture by the Peacekeepers, followed by John's search to find another wormhole back to Earth and an eventual arms race for wormhole technology weapons. Secondary arcs explore the way in which the characters change due to their influences and adventures together, most notably John over his obsession with wormhole technology, his relationship with Aeryn and the neural clone of Scorpius that haunts him in his brain; the series was conceived in the early 1990s by Rockne S. O'Bannon and Brian Henson under the title Space Chase.
The series is told in a serialized format, with each episode involving a self-contained story while contributing to a larger storyline. Nearly the entire cast originates from Australia and New Zealand, with the exception of Ben Browder, an American actor. Farscape's characters make use of slang such as "frell", "dren" and "hezmana" as a substitute for English expletives. Farscape first ran on the Australian TV Channel Nine Network and the Canadian YTV channel in the US on the Sci-Fi Channel and on BBC2 in the United Kingdom; the series' original broadcast on Sci-Fi was noted for its erratic scheduling, with hiatuses lasting months occurring mid-season. For example, the final four episodes of Season 1 aired beginning in January 2000, nearly four months after the broadcast of the preceding episode. Earth astronaut John Crichton is unexpectedly hurled to an unknown part of the Milky Way galaxy via a wormhole, he is dropped into the middle of an escape attempt by Moya, a living spaceship, from the militaristic Peacekeepers, using it as a prison transport.
In the chaos he has an accidental collision with a Peacekeeper fighter, resulting in the death of its pilot. Although the escape is successful, the Peacekeeper Captain, Bialar Crais, fixates on Crichton as the murderer of the pilot – his brother – and begins a campaign to chase Crichton down; the various crew have each only wishing to go home. To avoid Crais's pursuit they have to travel into the Uncharted Territories, thus have no idea how to get home; the other crew have little respect for Crichton, seeing him only as a "primitive hoo-man" who does not understand the basic tenets of life in space. Various episodes explore the characters' back stories. Aeryn begins to learn. Zhaan is forced to bring up the dark side. D'Argo has no idea where his child is. Rygel confronts torturer. A new character joins the crew -- a teenage thief on the run from her own repressive culture, and Moya herself becomes pregnant. Meanwhile, Crichton continues to research the wormhole, he is forced to sell what little progress he has made to an alien mechanic as payment for repairs on the Farscape module.
He is lured into a wormhole that seems to lead directly back to Earth, only to find the entire situation is a construct created by mysterious aliens called the Ancients who are testing to see if Earth is suitable for colonization. Towards the end of the season, Aeryn is injured and the crew is forced to go to a Peacekeeper base to seek medical help. Crichton disguises himself as a Peacekeeper to gain access, but the base's commander, Scorpius sees through the ruse and imprisons Crichton, calling Crais to come and get him. Under torture Crichton discovers that the Ancients placed specialized knowledge of wormholes in his subconscious mind – knowledge that Scorpius is eager to access; the other Moya crew launch a rescue attempt. Meanwhile Moya gives birth to her baby, discovering that the child – named Talyn – is a volatile hybrid warship designed by the Peacekeepers instead of th
A hippie is a member of the counterculture of the 1960s a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world. The word hippie came from hipster and used to describe beatniks who moved into New York City's Greenwich Village and San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district; the term hippie first found popularity in San Francisco with Herb Caen, a journalist for the San Francisco Chronicle. The origins of the terms hip and hep are uncertain. By the 1940s, both had meant "sophisticated; the Beats adopted the term hip, early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation. Hippies created their own communities, listened to psychedelic music, embraced the sexual revolution, many used drugs such as marijuana, LSD, psilocybin mushrooms to explore altered states of consciousness. In 1967, the Human Be-In in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, Monterey Pop Festival popularized hippie culture, leading to the Summer of Love on the West Coast of the United States, the 1969 Woodstock Festival on the East Coast.
Hippies in Mexico, known as jipitecas, formed La Onda and gathered at Avándaro, while in New Zealand, nomadic housetruckers practiced alternative lifestyles and promoted sustainable energy at Nambassa. In the United Kingdom in 1970, many gathered at the gigantic Isle of Wight Festival with a crowd of around 400,000 people. In years, mobile "peace convoys" of New Age travelers made summer pilgrimages to free music festivals at Stonehenge and elsewhere. In Australia, hippies gathered at Nimbin for the 1973 Aquarius Festival and the annual Cannabis Law Reform Rally or MardiGrass. "Piedra Roja Festival", a major hippie event in Chile, was held in 1970. Hippie and psychedelic culture influenced 1960s and early 1970s young culture in Iron Curtain countries in Eastern Europe. Hippie fashion and values had a major effect on culture, influencing popular music, film and the arts. Since the 1960s, mainstream society has assimilated many aspects of hippie culture; the religious and cultural diversity the hippies espoused has gained widespread acceptance, their pop versions of Eastern philosophy and Asian spiritual concepts have reached a larger audience.
Lexicographer Jesse Sheidlower, the principal American editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, argues that the terms hipster and hippie derive from the word hip, whose origins are unknown. The word hip in the sense of "aware, in the know" is first attested in a 1902 cartoon by Tad Dorgan, first appeared in prose in a 1904 novel by George Vere Hobart, Jim Hickey: A Story of the One-Night Stands, where an African-American character uses the slang phrase "Are you hip?" The term hipster was coined by Harry Gibson in 1944. By the 1940s, the terms hip and hepcat were popular in Harlem jazz slang, although hep came to denote an inferior status to hip. In Greenwich Village in the early 1960s, New York City, young counterculture advocates were named hips because they were considered "in the know" or "cool", as opposed to being square. In the April 27, 1961 issue of The Village Voice, "An open letter to JFK & Fidel Castro", Norman Mailer utilizes the term hippies, in questioning JFK's behavior. In a 1961 essay, Kenneth Rexroth used both the terms hipster and hippies to refer to young people participating in black American or Beatnik nightlife.
According to Malcolm X's 1964 autobiography, the word hippie in 1940s Harlem had been used to describe a specific type of white man who "acted more Negro than Negroes". Andrew Loog Oldham refers to "all the Chicago hippies," in reference to black blues/R&B musicians, in his rear sleeve notes to the 1965 LP The Rolling Stones, Now! The word hippie was used in reference to Philadelphia in at least two popular songs in 1963: South Street by The Orlons, You Can't Sit Down by The Dovells. In both songs, the term is applied to residents of Philadelphia's South Street. Although the word hippies made other isolated appearances in print during the early 1960s, the first use of the term on the West Coast appeared in the article "A New Paradise for Beatniks" by San Francisco journalist Michael Fallon. In that article, Fallon wrote about the Blue Unicorn Cafe, using the term hippie to refer to the new generation of beatniks who had moved from North Beach into the Haight-Ashbury district. New York Times editor and usage writer Theodore M. Bernstein said the paper changed the spelling from hippy to hippie to avoid the ambiguous description of clothing as hippy fashions.
A July 1968 Time magazine study on hippie philosophy credited the foundation of the hippie movement with historical precedent as far back as the sadhu of India, the spiritual seekers who had renounced the world by taking "Sannyas". The counterculture of the Ancient Greeks, espoused by philosophers like Diogenes of Sinope and the cynics were early forms of hippie culture, it named as notable influences the religious and spiritual teachings of Henry David Thoreau, Hillel the Elder, Buddha, St. Francis of Assisi, J. R. R. Tolkien; the first signs of modern "proto-hippies" emerged in fin de siècle Europe. Late 1890s to early 1900s, a German youth movement arose as a countercultural reaction to the organized social and cultural clubs that centered around "German folk music". Known as Der Wandervogel, the hippie movement opposed the formality of traditional German clubs, instead emphasizing folk music and singing, creative dress, outdoor
Twin Peaks is an American mystery horror drama television series created by Mark Frost and David Lynch that premiered on April 8, 1990, on ABC. It was one of the top-rated series of 1990, but declining ratings led to its cancellation after its second season in 1991, it nonetheless has been referenced in a wide variety of media. In subsequent years, Twin Peaks is listed among the greatest television series of all time; the series follows an investigation headed by FBI Special Agent Dale Cooper into the murder of homecoming queen Laura Palmer in the fictional suburban town of Twin Peaks, Washington. The show's narrative draws on elements of detective fiction, but its uncanny tone, supernatural elements, campy, melodramatic portrayal of eccentric characters draw on American soap opera and horror tropes. Like much of Lynch's work, it is distinguished by surrealism, offbeat humor, distinctive cinematography; the acclaimed score was composed by Angelo Badalamenti with Lynch. The success of the show sparked a media franchise, the series was followed by a 1992 feature film, Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me, that serves as a prequel to the series.
Additional tie-in books were released. Following a hiatus of over 25 years, the show returned in 2017 with a third season on Showtime, marketed as Twin Peaks: The Return; the season was directed by Lynch and written by Lynch and Frost, starred many original cast members, including MacLachlan. In 1989, the logger Pete Martell discovers a naked corpse wrapped in plastic on the bank of a river outside the town of Twin Peaks, Washington; when Sheriff Harry S. Truman, his deputies, Dr. Will Hayward arrive, the body is identified as homecoming queen Laura Palmer. A badly injured second girl, Ronette Pulaski, is discovered in a fugue state. FBI Special Agent Dale Cooper is called in to investigate. Cooper's initial examination of Laura's body reveals a tiny typed letter "R" inserted under her fingernail. Cooper informs the community that Laura's death matches the signature of a killer who murdered another girl in southwestern Washington the previous year, that evidence indicates the killer lives in Twin Peaks.
The authorities discover through Laura's diary. She was cheating on her boyfriend, football captain Bobby Briggs, with biker James Hurley, prostituting herself with the help of truck driver Leo Johnson and drug dealer Jacques Renault. Laura was addicted to cocaine, which she obtained by coercing Bobby into doing business with Jacques. Laura's father, attorney Leland Palmer, suffers a nervous breakdown, her best friend, Donna Hayward, begins a relationship with James. With the help of Laura's cousin Maddy Ferguson and James discover that Laura's psychiatrist, Dr. Lawrence Jacoby, was obsessed with Laura, but he is proven innocent of the murder. Hotelier Ben Horne, the richest man in Twin Peaks, plans to destroy the town's lumber mill along with its owner Josie Packard, murder his lover, Catherine Martell, so that he can purchase the land at a reduced price and complete a development project, Ghostwood. Horne's sultry, troubled daughter, becomes infatuated with Cooper and spies for clues in an effort to gain his affections.
Cooper has a dream in which he is approached by a one-armed otherworldly being who calls himself MIKE. MIKE says that Laura's murderer is a similar entity, Killer BOB, a feral, denim-clad man with long gray hair. Cooper finds himself decades older with Laura and a dwarf in a red business suit, who engages in coded dialogue with Cooper; the next morning, Cooper tells Truman that, if he can decipher the dream, he will know who killed Laura. Cooper and the sheriff's department find the one-armed man from Cooper's dream, a traveling shoe salesman named Phillip Gerard. Gerard knows the veterinarian who treats Renault's pet bird. Cooper interprets these events to mean that Renault is the murderer, with Truman's help, tracks Renault to One-Eyed Jack's, a brothel owned by Horne across the border in Canada, he lures Jacques Renault back onto U. S. soil to arrest him. Leland, learning that Renault has been arrested, sneaks into murders him; the same night, Horne orders Leo to burn down the lumber mill with Catherine trapped inside and has Leo gunned down by Hank Jennings to ensure Leo's silence.
Cooper is shot by a masked gunman. Lying hurt in his hotel room, Cooper has a vision in which a giant appears and reveals three clues: "There is a man in a smiling bag", he takes Cooper's gold ring and explains that when Cooper understands the three premonitions, his ring will be returned. Leo Johnson is brain-damaged. Catherine Martell disappears, presumed killed in the mill fire. Leland Palmer, whose hair has turned white overnight, behaves erratically. Cooper deduces. MIKE is inhabiting the body of Phillip Gerard, his personality surfaces. MIKE reveals that he and BOB once collaborated in killing humans and that BOB is inhabiting a man in the town. Cooper and the sheriff's department use MIKE, in control of Gerard's body, to help find BOB Donna befriends an agoraphobic orchid grower named Harold Smith whom Laura entrusted with a second, secret diary she kept. Harold hangs himself in despair. Cooper and the sheriff's department take possession of Laura's secret diary