SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cultivar

A cultivar is an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are maintained during propagation. More a cultivar is the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Most cultivars arose in cultivation. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, daffodils and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form; the world's agricultural food crops are exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield and resistance to disease, few wild plants are now used as food sources. Trees used in forestry are special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber. Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader group, the cultigen, defined as a plant whose origin or selection is due to intentional human activity. A cultivar is not the same as a botanical variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies, there are differences in the rules for creating and using the names of botanical varieties and cultivars.

In recent times, the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory patents for plants and recognition of plant breeders' rights. The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants offers legal protection of plant cultivars to persons or organisations that introduce new cultivars to commerce. UPOV requires that a cultivar be "distinct, uniform", "stable". To be "distinct", it must have characters that distinguish it from any other known cultivar. To be "uniform" and "stable", the cultivar must retain these characters in repeated propagation; the naming of cultivars is an important aspect of cultivated plant taxonomy, the correct naming of a cultivar is prescribed by the Rules and Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. A cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet; the cultivar epithet is in a vernacular language. For example, the full cultivar name of the King Edward potato is Solanum tuberosum'King Edward'.'King Edward' is the cultivar epithet, according to the Rules of the Cultivated Plant Code, is bounded by single quotation marks.

The word cultivar originated from the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with characteristics that arose in cultivation, presently denominated cultigens. This distinction dates to the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, the "Father of Botany", keenly aware of this difference. Botanical historian Alan Morton noted that Theophrastus in his Historia Plantarum "had an inkling of the limits of culturally induced changes and of the importance of genetic constitution"; the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants uses as its starting point for modern botanical nomenclature the Latin names in Linnaeus' Species Plantarum and Genera Plantarum. In Species Plantarum, Linnaeus enumerated all plants known to him, either directly or from his extensive reading, he recognised the rank of varietas and he indicated these varieties with letters of the Greek alphabet, such as α, β, λ, before the varietal name, rather than using the abbreviation "var." as is the present convention. Most of the varieties that Linnaeus enumerated were of "garden" origin rather than being wild plants.

In time the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with variations, cultivated increased. In the nineteenth century many "garden-derived" plants were given horticultural names, sometimes in Latin and sometimes in a vernacular language. From circa the 1900s, cultivated plants in Europe were recognised in the Scandinavian and Slavic literature as stamm or sorte, but these words could not be used internationally because, by international agreement, any new denominations had to be in Latin. In the twentieth century an improved international nomenclature was proposed for cultivated plants. Liberty Hyde Bailey of Cornell University in New York, United States created the word cultivar in 1923 when he wrote that: The cultigen is a species, or its equivalent, that has appeared under domestication – the plant is cultigenous. I now propose another name, for a botanical variety, or for a race subordinate to species, that has originated under cultivation, it is the equivalent of the botanical variety except in respect to its origin.

In that essay, Bailey used only the rank of species for the cultigen, but it was obvious to him that many domesticated plants were more like botanical varieties than species, that realization appears to have motivated the suggestion of the new category of cultivar. Bailey created the word cultivar, assumed to be a portmanteau of cultivated and variety. Bailey never explicitly stated the etymology of cultivar, it has been suggested that it is instead a contraction of cultigen and variety, which seems correct; the neologism cultivar was promoted as "euphonious" and "free from ambiguity". The first Cultivated Plant Code of 1953 subsequently commended its use, by 1960 it had achieved common international acceptance; the words cultigen and cultivar may be confused with each o

KXSP

KXSP is a commercial AM radio station licensed to Omaha, Nebraska. The station is owned by SummitMedia and it airs a sports radio format. Most weekday afternoon and evening programming is from local hosts, while during mornings, late nights and weekends, KXSP carries the ESPN Radio Network. KXSP operates at 5000 watts, using a non-directional transmitter off Sorensen Parkway in North Omaha. Due to its location near the bottom of the AM dial, as well as Nebraska's flat land, its signal is heard in most of the eastern half of Nebraska, as well as parts of Iowa, Missouri and South Dakota, it provides grade B coverage as far south as Kansas City as far east as Des Moines, as far north as Sioux Falls. Offices and studios are located on Mockingbird Drive in South Omaha. KXSP programming is carried on the HD-2 subchannel of KEZO-FM. On April 2, 1923, the station first signed on, owned by the Woodmen of the World life insurance society, using the call sign WOAW. Management sought the call letters WOW but they were used by the steamship Henry J. Bibble.

A call sign beginning with "W" was possible in Nebraska because the dividing line between "K" and "W" stations followed the western border of Nebraska. WOAW's call sign was issued on November 27, 1922, shortly before the divide was moved to the Mississippi River in January 1923. Despite this, the station was able to claim the WOW call sign on December 16, 1926, upon retirement of the Bibble; the Woodmen society put the station up for sale in 1945 out of fear that it would jeopardize its tax-exempt status. That group added a television station in 1949 and an FM station in 1961. In 1951, Meredith Corporation bought the WOW stations; the AM station became a Top 40 station in the early 1970s, where former Shindig! Host Jimmy O'Neill worked for a time, a country station in the early 1980s. Meredith sold the station in 1983, Journal Broadcast Group bought it in 1999. On November 22, 1999, the WOW call letters were dropped in favor of KOMJ with adoption of a new format of adult standards, branded as "Magic 590".

On April 25, 2005, KOMJ and then-sister station KOSR swapped formats, with 590 adopting the sports format under new call letters KXSP, 1490 adopting the standards format and KOMJ calls. On February 1, 2011, KXSP swapped affiliations with 1620 KOZN. KOZN took the Fox Sports Radio affiliation and KXSP took ESPN. With the affiliation swap, KXSP became known as "AM 590 ESPN Radio" instead of "Big Sports 590". On August 23, 2012, KXSP aired The Front Stretch Radio Show on Sunday mornings. Hosted by Michael Grey, Buddy Ray Jones and Andrew Kosiski, the front stretch covered local dirt track racing and NASCAR. KXSP is simulcast on sister station 92.3 KEZO's HD2 digital audio subchannel. Journal Communications and the E. W. Scripps Company announced on July 30, 2014 that the two companies would merge to create a new broadcast company under the E. W. Scripps Company name that will own the two companies' broadcast properties, including KXSP; the transaction was completed in 2015. On February 10, 2015 Journal Broadcast Group and the IMG group announced they had signed a contract for Journal Broadcast Group in Omaha to be the broadcast partner for Nebraska Cornhuskers sports.

Effective July 1, 2015 KXSP became the primary station for Nebraska Cornhuskers sports broadcasts, sharing flagship status with Lincoln's KLIN. Co-owned KEZO will simulcast football games, while KKCD will air any volleyball, women's basketball and baseball games that conflict with other athletic events; this ended a nine-decade association between the Huskers and KFAB, the state's most powerful radio station. However, school officials had long felt chagrin at KFAB's unwillingness to air all major sports, wanted all games to air on a single, powerful station. KXSP's daytime broadcast range is as large as that of KFAB's; as mentioned above, this is due to Nebraska's flat land. Scripps exited radio in 2018. WOW received a 1946 Peabody Award for Outstanding Regional Public Service for its program series "Operation Big Muddy." AM 590 ESPN Radio Official Website History of WOW Query the FCC's AM station database for KXSP Radio-Locator Information on KXSP Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for KXSPFCC History Cards for KXSP

Ohana by Hawaiian

ʻOhana by Hawaiian is a regional subsidiary carrier of Hawaiian Airlines. The service is operated using four ATR 42 turboprop airplanes owned by Hawaiian and operated under contract by Empire Airlines; the new service was slated to begin in summer 2013 flying to Moloka'i and Lana'i, however the airline was unable to begin during that period due to Federal Aviation Administration delays in certifying ʻOhana's operation. ʻOhana by Hawaiian is integrated into the Hawaiian Airlines network. In February 2014, Hawaiian announced that ʻOhana would begin service on March 11. On June 12, 2014, ʻOhana by Hawaiian announced it would expand its route network to Maui offering daily flights between Kahului and Moloka'i. In July 2015, Hawaiian announced that Empire Airlines would begin all cargo freighter service on interisland routes in Hawaii with ATR 72 turboprop aircraft as part of the ʻOhana by Hawaiian service. Freighter operation began in March 2018 after the acquisition of ATR 72-200 aircraft. ʻOhana by Hawaiian serves the following destinations: List of airlines of Hawaii