A cultural landscape, as defined by the World Heritage Committee, is the "cultural properties represent the combined works of nature and of man". "a landscape designed and created intentionally by man" an "organically evolved landscape" which may be a "relict landscape" or a "continuing landscape" an "associative cultural landscape" which may be valued because of the "religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element." The concept of'cultural landscapes' can be found in the European tradition of landscape painting. From the 16th century onwards, many European artists painted landscapes in favor of people, diminishing the people in their paintings to figures subsumed within broader, regionally specific landscapes; the word "landscape" itself combines "land" with a verb of Germanic origin, "scapjan/schaffen" to mean "shaped lands". Lands were considered shaped by natural forces, the unique details of such landshaffen became themselves the subject of'landscape' paintings; the geographer Otto Schlüter is credited with having first formally used “cultural landscape” as an academic term in the early 20th century.
In 1908, Schlüter argued that by defining geography as a Landschaftskunde this would give geography a logical subject matter shared by no other discipline. He defined two forms of landscape: the Urlandschaft or landscape that existed before major human induced changes and the Kulturlandschaft a landscape created by human culture; the major task of geography was to trace the changes in these two landscapes. It was Carl O. Sauer, a human geographer, the most influential in promoting and developing the idea of cultural landscapes. Sauer was determined to stress the agency of culture as a force in shaping the visible features of the Earth's surface in delimited areas. Within his definition, the physical environment retains a central significance, as the medium with and through which human cultures act, his classic definition of a'cultural landscape' reads as follows: "The cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a cultural group. Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result" Since Schlüter's first formal use of the term, Sauer's effective promotion of the idea, the concept of'cultural landscapes has been variously used, debated and refined within academia.
In the 1950s, for instance, J. B. Jackson and his publication'Landscape' influenced a generation of American scholars, including architectural historians Denise Scott Brown, Gwendolyn Wright. By 1992, the World Heritage Committee elected to convene a meeting of the'specialists' to advise and assist redraft the Committee's Operational Guidelines to include'cultural landscapes' as an option for heritage listing properties that were neither purely natural nor purely cultural in form; the World Heritage Committee's adoption and use of the concept of'cultural landscapes' has seen multiple specialists around the world, many nations identifying'cultural landscapes', assessing'cultural landscapes', heritage listing'cultural landscapes', managing'cultural landscapes', making'cultural landscapes' known and visible to the world, with practical ramifications and challenges. A 2006 academic review of the combined efforts of the World Heritage Committee, multiple specialists around the world, nations to apply the concept of'cultural landscapes', observed and concluded that: "Although the concept of landscape has been unhooked for some time from its original art associations...
There is still a dominant view of landscapes as an inscribed surface, akin to a map or a text, from which cultural meaning and social forms can be read." Within academia, any system of interaction between human activity and natural habitat is regarded as a cultural landscape. In a sense this understanding is broader than the definition applied within UNESCO, including, as it does the whole of the world's occupied surface, plus all the uses, interactions, beliefs and traditions of people living within cultural landscapes. Following on this, geographer Xoán Paredes defines cultural landscape as: "... the environment modified by the human being in the course of time, the long-term combination between anthropic action on this environment and the physical constraints limiting or conditioning human activity. It is a geographical area – including natural and cultural resources – associated to historical evolution, which gives way to a recognizable landscape for a particular human group, up to the point of being identifiable as such by others."
Some universities now offer specialist degrees in the study of cultural landscapes, for instance, the Universities of Naples, St.-Étienne, Stuttgart who offer a Master of Cultural Landscapes diploma. The World Heritage Committee has identified and listed a number of areas or properties as cultural landscapes of universal value to humankind, including the following: "In 1993 Tongariro National Park, became the first property to be inscribed on the World Heritage List under the revised criteria describing cultural landscapes; the mountains at the heart of the park have cultural and religious significance for the Maori people and symbolize the spiritual links between this community and its environment. The park has active and extinct volcanoes, a diverse range of ecosystems and some spectacular landscapes." "This park called Uluru National Park, features spectacular geological formations that dominate the vast red sandy plain of central Australia. Uluru, an immense monolith, Kata Tjuta, the rock domes lo
Nexhmije Pagarusha was a Kosovar vocalist and actress from Republic of Kosovo referred to as the queen of Kosovan music. Pagarusha gained acclaim as a recording artist in Kosova and neighbouring countries for her distinct soprano vocal range, which she displayed performing various Kosovan folk songs during her career, which spanned 36 years, from 1948, in her debut in Radio Prishtina, to 1984, in her final concert in Sarajevo, her music style was not limited just to Albanian music, as she performed rock, funk, opera/classical, many more. Nexhmije Pagarusha was born in the small village of Pagarusha, near the town of Malisheve, in Republic of Kosovo, she finished the primary school in Malisheve and went to Belgrade, where she attended three years in the school of music, in the solo canto section. She began her music career as a singer for Radio Prishtina in 1948, her musical creative work lasted for 40 years, due to the contrast in genres she performed in, it's not easy to limit Pagarusha as a specific type of singer.
Her interpretations in folk music were as perfect as her interpretations in the classic music opera. Pagarusha is adored by the music admirers, she is called queen of Kosovan music, Madam Butterfly, etc.. She gained great popularity not just in her own country but in other European countries, such as Albania, Macedonia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria etc, she led several tours with the music ensemble Shota in these countries, in Israel. In Republic of Kosovo, she gained the title Këngëtare e shekullit; the song, Baresha, is one of her most popular songs. It was composed by her husband, Rexho Mulliqi and the text was written by Rifat Kukaj. Pagarusha played in many theatre stages and movies and as an actress she won many prizes, she ended her music career in 1984 after holding a huge concert in Sarajevo. In 2000 she sang, she worked as a senior adviser for music on Radio Kosova and in Radio Blue Sky, both located in Pristina. She was awarded the "Honor of the Nation" award from Albanian president Bujar Nishani in November 2012.
Nexhmije Pagarusha died on 7 February 2020 from an unknown disease. Her 40-year musical career is so vast, she is known for her excellent performances in folk opera. Nexhmije Pagarusha was a successful actress, both in theater, she attended solo canto music school in Belgrade, which she left in her third year and did not go on. She had her first musical appearance on stage. In 1948 she was accepted as a soloist on Radio Prishtina, she collaborated with singers from Albania and performed in Albania with the ensemble "Shota" on the occasion of a tour. "Baresha" is one of the masterpieces of its interpretation. This song was composed by her husband Rexhep Mulliqi with lyrics by the poet Rifat Kukaj. Nexhmije Pagarusha performed in a concert of classical music the Albanian translated works of Beethoven, Verdi, etc; this concert was the first of its kind. None of the technical organizers had remembered to record this concert! Not all concerts and repertoire of songs sung by her have been recorded, since, as she once said, only music was important to her.
She is thought to have performed over 150 songs. Nexhmije Pagarusha Kosovan music icon, was known as a woman who throughout her career has served her country with art and honor. /KultPlus.com Pagarusha interpreted more than 150 songs. Some of her most successful ones are: Makedonska krvava svadba, Albanian: Dasma e përgjakur, Bloody Wedding as Nedžmije Pagaruša Jugovizija, Albanian: Jugovizioni, Jugovision Gëzuar viti i ri, Happy New Year E kafshoja terrin, Biting the darkness I ikuri, Gone Tre vetë kapërcejnë malin, Three people overpass the mountain Lepuri me pesë këmbë, The Five-Legged Hare Fluturimi i Micakut, Micak's flight Daullet e të çmendurve, The drums of the crazy ones Rexha i nënës në grazhd të kalit, Mother's son Rexha in the stall Vrasësit bëjnë dasmë natën, The killers throw a wedding at nighttime Music of Kosovo Albanian music Nexhmije Pagarusha on IMDb Fan site in Albanian language
John Cliff was the first Assistant General Secretary of the Transport and General Workers' Union and a prominent London Transport board member. Cliff was born in the son of John Cliff and his wife Mary, he joined Leeds Corporation Transport Department on 18 July 1900 as a tram conductor and became a tram motorman. He married Sarah Ann Scott, 19 years his senior, in 1906, he joined the Amalgamated Association of Tramway and Vehicle Workers and became the Leeds branch chairman and a member of the National Executive Council. When the National Joint Industrial Council for the Tramways Industry was established in 1919 he became Joint Secretary. In 1922, the United Vehicle Workers, created in 1919 by amalgamation of the ATVW and the London and Provincial Union of Licensed Vehicle Workers, was one of the unions which merged to form the TGWU. Cliff was appointed National Secretary of the new union's Passenger Services' National Trade Group, overseeing members in the public transport sector throughout the country.
In 1924, he became the first Assistant General Secretary of the TGWU, acting as deputy to General Secretary Ernest Bevin. Cliff was appointed to the London and Home Counties Traffic Advisory Committee in 1924 and remained a member until July 1933, when he became a part-time member of the newly created London Passenger Transport Board. In 1935 he resigned from the TGWU to become a full-time member of the LPTB, with special responsibility for staff and medical services. In 1948, he became Deputy Chairman of the successor London Transport Executive, a post which he held until his retirement in 1955. Cliff was a member of London County Council for many years, being elected alderman in 1937 and Chairman in 1946, he was a Deputy Lieutenant of Middlesex from 1949. He was a founder member of the British Institute of Management. Cliff drove the last London tram into New Cross Depot in July 1952, he died at Eastbourne in 1977. Obituary, The Times
Odontosoria chinensis is a fern in the family Lindsaeaceae. Called lace fern, it is native from India to Hawai'i, south to Sumatra and the Philippines, as well as other parts of the tropics and sub-tropics, it is found in forest openings and disturbed areas such as landslides, along trails or roads. It grows in shady areas from sea level to an elevation of 4,000 feet; as of November 2019, two subspecies were recognized: Odontosoria chinensis ssp. chinensis Odontosoria chinensis ssp. tenuifolia Fraser-Jenk. & KandelOdontosoria biflora from the Philippines has been treated as a subspecies of this species. Hawaiians made red-brown dye from the old fronds. Pala'ā was used to treat "female ailments", it is made into a lei using the hili, or hilo technique - a braiding or plaiting method with only one type of plant material. It is made into haku with other plants using the wili or winding method and a backing. Diplazium esculentum Media related to Odontosoria chinensis at Wikimedia Commons Plants for Hawaiian Lei: Pala'ā
The St Lythans burial chamber is a single stone megalithic dolmen, built around 4,000 BC as part of a chambered long barrow, during the mid Neolithic period, in what is now known as the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales. It lies about half a mile to the west of the hamlet near Dyffryn Gardens, it lies around one mile south of Tinkinswood burial chamber, a more extensive cromlech that it may once have resembled, constructed during the same period. The site is on pasture land, but pedestrian access is allowed and is free, with roadside parking available for 2–3 cars about 50 yards from the site; the dolmen, which has never been excavated, is maintained by Cadw, the Welsh Historic Environment Agency. The burial chamber stands in a field, Maesyfelin shared by a herd of cows, to the south of St Lythans Road. Roadside parking is maintained by the Welsh Historic Environment Agency. Access to the field, which slopes downwards towards the north west, is permitted, is free, via a kissing gate. There is no wheelchair access, although there is an uninterrupted view of the site from the gate, about 50 yards away.
This chamber tomb is the most common form of megalithic structure in Europe. It stands at the eastern end of a flat topped, 27 metres long, 11 metres wide earthen mound, forming part of a chambered long barrow, it is one of the Severn-Cotswold type, consists of a cove of three upright stones, supporting a large, capstone. All the stones are mudstone, which, as with those used at Tinkinswood, were available locally; the capstone, which slopes downwards from south east to north west, measures four metres long, three metres wide, 0.7 metres thick. The insides of the two facing, uprights have been smoothed off and there is a port-hole at the top of the triangular, rear stone, similar to some other dolmens, such as at Trethevy Quoit, in Cornwall; the burial chamber has a minimum internal height of 1.8 metres and is in an east/west alignment, with the entrance facing east. As with most cromlechs, it is that the burial chamber would have had a forecourt outside the entrance to the chamber and the chamber would have been covered by a mound of earth and smaller stones.
This has either been eroded, or removed, over time, leaving only a much lower barrow behind the current structure. However, as the chamber is unusually tall, it is possible that the capstone was never covered. From the end of the last ice age, mesolithic hunter-gatherers from Central Europe began to migrate to Great Britain, they would have been able to walk between Continental Europe and Great Britain on dry land, prior to the post glacial rise in sea level, up until between 6,000 and 7,000 BP. As the area was wooded and movement would have been restricted, it is that people came to what was to become known as Wales by boat from the Iberian Peninsula; these neolithic colonists integrated with the indigenous people changing their lifestyles from a nomadic life of hunting and gathering, to become settled farmers. They cleared the forests to cultivate the land, they built the long barrow at St Lythans around 6,000 BP, about 1,500 years before either Stonehenge or The Egyptian Great Pyramid of Giza was completed.
There are over 150 other cromlechs all over Wales, such as Pentre Ifan in Pembrokeshire and Bryn Celli Ddu, on Anglesey, of the same period. As well as places to house and to honour the dead, these cromlechs may have been communal and ceremonial sites where, according to Dr Francis Pryor, people would meet "to socialise, to meet new partners, to acquire fresh livestock and to exchange ceremonial gifts"; the corpses of the dead were left exposed, before the bones were moved into the burial chamber. In common with the people living all over Great Britain, over the following centuries the people living around what is now known as St Lythans assimilated new immigrants and exchanged ideas of the Bronze Age and Iron Age Celtic cultures. Together with the approximate areas now known as Brecknockshire and the rest of Glamorgan, St Lythans was settled by a Celtic British tribe called the Silures. Although the Roman occupation left no physical impression on St Lythans, its people embraced the Roman religion of Christianity and dedicated a church to St Bleddian, sent to Britain to stamp out the Pelagian Heresy.
The current Church of St Bleddian, in St Lythans, a listed grade II* building, known locally as St Lythan's Church, was built about ⅔ mile to the east of this site and has an ancient yew tree in the churchyard. In the 16th century, the manor was acquired by the Button family, who built the first house about 500 yards north west of the tumulus; the Manor's name was changed to Dyffryn St Nicholas and the house rebuilt in the 18th century, when the estate was purchased by Thomas Pryce. Commenting on St Lythans in his'A Topographical Dictionary of The Dominion of Wales', London, 1811, Nicholas Carlisle, says "The Resident Population of this Parish, in 1801, was 72, it is 6m. W. S. W. from Caerdiff." and notes that "Here is a Druidical Altar." By 1831 the population had grown by over 50% and Dyffryn House was being used as "a school for all the poor children of this parish". By now, the dolmen had been identified: "There is a
Jill Priscilla Goolden is an English wine critic and television personality. For 18 years Goolden co-presented the popular BBC2 Food and Drink television series in Britain, with Chris Kelly, Michael Barry and her friend Oz Clarke, she is known for her descriptions of wine tasting appreciation referring to certain wines as reminiscent of pear drops and rubber. Goolden has presented two television series on antiques for BBC1, The Great Antiques Hunt and Going, Going and she has travelled extensively as a regular presenter on BBC1’s Holiday programme. During 2003, she was presenter on BBC1’s Holiday – You Call the Shots. In 2004, the Radio Times included Goolden in a list of the top 40 most eccentric TV presenters of all time. In 2005, she appeared in a new Channel 4 series Extreme Celebrity Detox, she has starred in a mini-drama written and directed by Pauline Quirke and has performed in The Vagina Monologues at the Royal Albert Hall. In November, 2005, Goolden appeared in ITV1's fifth series of I'm a Celebrity...
Get Me Out of Here!. During her time in the jungle Goolden, along with fellow celebrity Carol Thatcher, was voted to do a bushtucker trial; this involved eating some local delicacies. During the trial, Goolden failed to do so. In 2006 she appeared on the television series Celebrity MasterChef. Goolden has written books on food and palmistry, her books have appeared in the Sunday Times best-seller list. She has co-written books which include five volumes of Food and Drink, Entertaining with Food and Drink and The Big Food and Drink Book, she co-authored Your Hand – An Illustrated Guide To Palmistry in the early 1980s. In 2008, Goolden took part in a special of Wife Swap in the UK, swapping with Cynthia O'Neal, the wife of Alexander O'Neal, she was a judge on the ITV programme Britain's Best Dish for both series since 2007. Goolden is a vice president of the charity the Advance Centre for the Scotson Technique. Goolden is married to a former Department of Health civil servant, they have three children.