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A culvert is a structure that allows water to flow under a road, trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other. Embedded so as to be surrounded by soil, a culvert may be made from a pipe, reinforced concrete or other material. In the United Kingdom, the word can be used for a longer artificially buried watercourse. Culverts are used both as cross-drains to relieve drainage of ditches at the roadside, to pass water under a road at natural drainage and stream crossings. A culvert may be a bridge-like structure designed to allow vehicle or pedestrian traffic to cross over the waterway while allowing adequate passage for the water. Culverts come in many sizes and shapes including round, flat-bottomed, open-bottomed, pear-shaped, box-like constructions; the culvert type and shape selection is based on a number of factors including requirements for hydraulic performance, limitations on upstream water surface elevation, roadway embankment height. The process of removing culverts to restore an open-air watercourse is known as daylighting.

In the UK, the practice is known as deculverting. Culverts can be constructed of a variety of materials including cast-in-place or precast concrete, galvanized steel, aluminum, or plastic. Two or more materials may be combined to form composite structures. For example, open-bottom corrugated steel structures are built on concrete footings. Construction or installation at a culvert site results in disturbance of the site's soil, stream banks, or stream bed, can result in the occurrence of unwanted problems such as scour holes or slumping of banks adjacent to the culvert structure. Culverts must be properly sized and installed, protected from erosion and scour. Many U. S. agencies such as the Federal Highway Administration, Bureau of Land Management, Environmental Protection Agency, as well as state or local authorities, require that culverts be designed and engineered to meet specific federal, state, or local regulations and guidelines to ensure proper function and to protect against culvert failures.

Culverts are classified by standards for their load capacities, water flow capacities, life spans, installation requirements for bedding and backfill. Most agencies adhere to these standards when designing and specifying culverts. Culvert failures can occur for a wide variety of reasons including maintenance and installation-related failures, functional or process failures related to capacity and volume causing the erosion of the soil around or under them, structural or material failures that cause culverts to fail due to collapse or corrosion of the materials from which they are made. If the failure is sudden and catastrophic, it can result in loss of life. Sudden road collapses are the result of poorly designed and engineered culvert crossing sites or unexpected changes in the surrounding environment cause design parameters to be exceeded. Water passing through undersized culverts will scour away the surrounding soil over time; this can cause a sudden failure during medium-sized rain events.

Accidents from culvert failure can occur if a culvert has not been adequately sized and a flood event overwhelms the culvert, or disrupts the road or railway above it. Ongoing culvert function without failure depends on proper design and engineering considerations being given to load, hydraulic flow, surrounding soil analysis and bedding compaction, erosion protection. Improperly designed backfill support around culverts can result in material collapse or failure from inadequate load support. For existing culverts which have experienced degradation, loss of structural integrity or need to meet new codes or standards, rehabilitation using a reline pipe may be preferred versus replacement. Sizing of a reline culvert uses the same hydraulic flow design criteria as that of a new culvert however as the reline culvert is meant to be inserted into an existing culvert or host pipe, reline installation requires the grouting of the annular space between the host pipe and the surface of reline pipe so as to prevent or reduce seepage and soil migration.

Grouting serves as a means in establishing a structural connection between the liner, host pipe and soil. Depending on the size and annular space to be filled as well as the pipe elevation between the inlet and outlet, grouting maybe required to be performed in multiple stages or "lifts". If multiple lifts are required a grouting plan is required which defines the placement of grout feed tubes, air tubes, type of grout to be used and if injecting or pumping grout the required developed pressure for injection; as the diameter of the reline pipe will be smaller than the host pipe, the cross-sectional flow area will be smaller. By selecting a reline pipe with a smooth internal surface, with an approximate Hazen-Williams Friction Factor, C, value of between 140–150, the decreased flow area can be offset and hydraulic flow rates increased by way of reduced surface flow resistance. Examples of pipe materials with high C-factors are polyvinyl chloride. Safe and stable stream crossings can accommodate wildlife and protect stream health, while reducing expensive erosion and structural damage.

Undersized and poorly placed culverts can cause problems for aquatic organisms. Poorly designed culverts can degrade water quality via scour and erosion, as well as restrict the movement of aquatic organisms between upstream and downstream habitat. Fish are a common victim in the loss of habitat due to poorly designed crossing structures. Culverts that offer adequate aquatic organism

Clinical Dementia Rating

The Clinical Dementia Rating or CDR is a numeric scale used to quantify the severity of symptoms of dementia. Using a structured-interview protocol developed by Charles Hughes, Leonard Berg, John C. Morris and other colleagues at Washington University School of Medicine, a qualified health professional assesses a patient's cognitive and functional performance in six areas: memory, judgment & problem solving, community affairs, home & hobbies, personal care. Scores in each of these are combined to obtain a composite score ranging from 0 through 3. Clinical Dementia Rating Assignment Qualitative equivalences are as follows:NACC Clinical Dementia Rating CDR is credited with being able to discern mild impairments, but its weaknesses include the amount of time it takes to administer, its ultimate reliance on subjective assessment, relative inability to capture changes over time. While the assessment is subjective in nature, recent studies have suggested a high interrater reliability, thus the CDR appears to be a valid tool for assessing and staging dementia.

With increasing clinical focus on dementia, there is increasing interested in pharmacology in the development of drugs to halt, or slow the progression of dementia-related illness such as Alzheimer's Disease. Therefore early and accurate diagnosis of dementia and staging can be essential to proper clinical care. Without the ability to reliably assess dementia across the board, the misuse of anti-dementia compounds could have negative consequences, such as patients receiving the wrong medication, or not receiving treatment in the early stages of dementia when it is most needed

1991 African Youth Championship

The 1991 African Youth Championship was a football tournament for under-20 players. It was held in Egypt from 22 February until 8 March 1991; the two best teams qualified for the 1991 FIFA World Youth Championship. The first leg matches were played on either 10, 11 or 12 August 1990; the second leg matches were held on either 24, 25 or 26 August 1990. The winners advanced to the Second Round. Algeria, Mali received a bye and due to the withdrawal of Burkina Faso, Liberia and Mauritius. Guinea were disqualified; the first leg matches were played on either 27, 28 or 29 October 1990. The second leg matches were held on 11 November 1990; the winners advanced to the final tournament in Egypt. Gabon were disqualified. Algeria and Tunisia would not participate in the main tournament due to the Gulf War; the following teams qualified for the main tournament: Cameroon Ivory Coast Egypt Ethiopia Ghana Zambia

Tomislav Mohorić

Tomislav Mohorić was a Croatian swimmer and water polo player. After ending his playing career he became a water handball coach. Mohorić played for VK Primorje and during his playing career the club was in always in the top five of the Yugoslav Water Polo Championship, he played for the newly established handball team of Primorje. In 1956 he started his coaching. In 1958 Mohorić alongside Eduard Domazet and Dmitar Trbović founded the handball club Exportdrvo and Mohorić led the men's and women's senior team, his most biggest achievement was with the men's team when the club gained promotion to the Yugoslav Second League and finished in second in the league. During its time the club was the best handball club in Rijeka and a force to be reckoned with in Yugoslav handball; the club was disbanded in 1963. During the 1960s and 1970s he was the tehniko of VK Primorje most notably to the team, second in the LEN Cup Winners' Cup in 1976. During the 1980s he was a board member of VK Primorje. Rijeka League Winner: 1955-56 Rijeka League Winner: 1956-57 Croatian Championship Fourth place: 1956-57 Rijeka League Winner: 1957-58, 1960–61 Rijeka Zone League Winner: 1962-63 Yugoslav Second League Second place: 1961-62 Rijeka League Winner: 1959-60, 1960–61 Rijeka Zone League Winner: 1962-63 Petar Orgulić - 50 godina rukometa u Rijeci, Adria public

F-16 Combat Pilot

F-16 Combat Pilot is a 1988 F-16 fighter flight simulator created by British software company Digital Integration Ltd. for Commodore 64, Amstrad, DOS, Amiga and Atari ST. It is considered as one of the first combat flight simulators to have a dynamic campaign environment. While the graphics and audio are quite sparse and basic, the instruments and flight dynamics of a F-16C Fighting Falcon are featured and modeled; the airborne opposition is made up from MiGs: Mikoyan MIG-31 Foxhound, Mikoyan MIG-27 Flogger and Mikoyan MIG-29 Fulcrum. Most of the missions start with the player inside a hangar, from which the player enters an IFF code, initiate engine start up, taxi without over-speeding, getting on the runway and takeoff - which adds to the tension if the base is under attack. On the ground, there are tank battalions, radar & missiles installations and Triple-A guns around enemy airfields, it is possible to shoot down friendly aircraft by gunfire, but friendly aircraft can not be designated or tracked by player's radar.

The simulation keeps a flying log of all the player's time on F-16 and "callsign", which appears in the game when the player contacts the control tower at airfields. If the pilot "dies" in combat, this log is erased, a new "pilot" is created. Any training missions that were completed will have to be repeated because the player is now playing as new pilot; the weapons that can be used in the game include: AIM-120A AMRAAM, AIM-9M Sidewinder, Mk82, Mk83 slicks, Mk84 slicks, AGM-88A HARM, BLU-107 Durandal, AGM-65 Maverick, M61A1 20mm cannon, LANTIRN Targeting pod, ATARS pod, the external fuel tanks. The LANTIRN pod is the first to appear in a combat flight simulation. All weapons behave as as possible, missiles can miss if used incorrectly, fired at extreme angles in relation to the enemy fighter or the enemies used countermeasures. Dave Marshall of Digital Integration used to program real military flight simulators and had built up a huge library of the technical specifications for the F-16C and knew whom to ask for some of the less available information, this shows in the complexity and realism of F-16 Combat Pilot.

The flight dynamics is one of the most accurate for its time. The landing is difficult, the player has to master the AoA and vertical velocity during approach, unlike other combat simulations of its time For example, F-15 Strike Eagle II had unrealistic landings where all the player had to do is just aim the plane at the runway at any angle or speed. Being not properly lined up would cause Autoland to disengage if activated, hard landings beyond certain parameters would damage the landing gear, or cause a crash. Not following proper speed guidelines while taxiing or going too fast on the runway without lifting off would damage the aircraft. Unlike other simulations of its time, landing on the nose-wheel would result in a crash due to gear collapse as in real life. A crash is represented with a full screen showing mini explosions, after which the debriefing screen would show up indicating whether or not the player survived. Hard crashes are unsurvivable, but the player may walk away from nose-wheel collapses and other minor crashes.

The simulation allows the player to perform a wheels-up landing if the landing gear is damaged and not extendable, landing has to be precise and smooth with a low vertical velocity. The airframe has G-Force limitations depending on whether the aircraft was loaded as the real F-16 has stores configuration categories; when loaded, the player can only pull 5.5G's, instead of the 9G's a clean F-16 is capable of. Airspeed & Mach speed would be lower when laden as well; the player can jettison the fuel and weapons to enable the aircraft to pull higher G's, such as in the event of an emergency or in combat or an aborted mission. Spins and ground effect are not simulated, as is with other simulations of its time, although another rare feature, turbulence is a user selectable option at Briefing & Weather screen. Turbulence in the simulation causes random and slight variations in the aircraft's bank angle and heading, making it a little bit more difficult to land, but it never affects the altitude; the damage system is extensively modeled on F-16 Combat Pilot.

Each system on board the player's aircraft can be damaged in combat, from radar, landing gear, flaps to ASPJ, oxygen/cabin pressure systems, communications, navigation system or HUD etc... If the player returns to base with a damaged aircraft, the aircraft can be repaired and reused before the debrief screen, provided that given airfield has the necessary components and spare parts; this is indicated by color-coded status in radio communications. The aircraft can survive near enemy AAA fire at times, but not a direct hit; when there is an onboard fire, the aircraft will explode subsequently. It is not uncommon for players to have many "dead stick" landings with engine failure when returning damaged from combat, out of chaff and flare, out of fuel, being chased and fired upon by enemies. Players fly in a large battlefield. A typical flight from one end of the battlefield to the other end takes about forty minutes, depending on the traveling speed the player is flying to; the faster the player flies to his target has the effect of consuming mor

Noise (company)

NOISE Inc. is a video game development company that works in partnership with Nintendo, developing games for the Custom Robo series. Noise was founded with a staff of 10 people on September 2, 1996 for the original purpose of developing games for PCs. A short time after, Noise became a part of Marigul Management, a company created by Nintendo and the Japanese telecommunications company Recruit for the purpose of enlisting smaller developers to make original games for the Nintendo 64; the company’s first commercially published game, Custom Robo for the Nintendo 64, was released in Japan on December 9, 1999 and became a commercial success in Japan, prompting Nintendo to formally enter a publishing agreement with Noise. In 2006, Custom Robo was released in China for the iQue Player, making it the only Custom Robo title to be released there, its second released title was Custom Robo V2, released on November 10, 2000 and was met with commercial success in Japan. It released its first portable video game for the Game Boy Advance, Custom Robo GX, on July 26, 2002.

Despite the impressive sales of the previous games in the Custom Robo franchise, the series’s first localized appearance in North America is with Custom Robo: Battle Revolution for the GameCube, released in 2004. The company's first online multiplayer game is Custom Robo Arena, for the Nintendo DS title, its latest game, Custom Robo Arena was released in 2006. In 2007, Custom Robo Arena was released in PAL regions, making it the first title of the series released in those regions, as well as being released in more regions than every other title of the series; the company developed and released Go Go Cosmo Cops for the Nintendo DS in 2009, only for PAL regions. It was published by Namco Bandai. A planned Japan release as Shutsugeki! Acroknights was quietly canceled. Korogashi Puzzle Katamari Damacy, a falling block puzzle video game, was developed by them and released by Namco Bandai for the Nintendo DSi's DSiWare digital download service, it is a spin-off of the Katamari seriesKenkenba for iOS and Android was developed by Noise and released on November 28, 2011.

It developed Gyrozetter: Wings Of The Albatross with Square Enix and released it on the June 13, 2013 for the Nintendo 3DS Custom Robo Custom Robo V2 Custom Robo GX Custom Robo Battle Revolution Custom Robo Arena Go Go Cosmo Cops Korogashi Puzzle Katamari Damacy Gyrozetter: Wings Of The Albatross Kumamon*Bomber Puzzle de Kumamon taisou Kenkenpa Hoshi no Dragon Quest Hoshi no Dragon Quest Official website