Cumberland is a city in and the county seat of Allegany County, United States. It is the primary city of MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. At the 2010 census, the city had a population of 20,859, the metropolitan area had a population of 103,299. Located on the Potomac River, Cumberland is a regional business and commercial center for Western Maryland and the Potomac Highlands of West Virginia. Cumberland was known as the "Queen City", as it was once the second largest in the state; because of its strategic location on what became known as the Cumberland Road through the Appalachians, after the American Revolution it served as a historical outfitting and staging point for westward emigrant trail migrations throughout the first half of the 1800s. In this role, it supported the settlement of the Ohio Country and the lands in that latitude of the Louisiana Purchase, it became an industrial center, served by major roads and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, which connected Cumberland to Washington, D.
C. and is now a national park. Today, Interstate 68 bisects the town. Industry declined after World War II. Much of the urban and technological development in the state has been concentrated in eastern coastal cities. Today the Cumberland, MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area is one of the poorest in the United States, ranking 305th out of 318 metropolitan areas in per capita income. Cumberland was named by English colonists after the son of King George II, Prince William, the Duke of Cumberland, it is built on the site of the mid-18th century Fort Cumberland, the starting point for British General Edward Braddock's ill-fated attack on the French stronghold of Fort Duquesne during the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War between the French and the British. This area had long been settled for thousands of years by indigenous peoples; the fort was developed along the Great Indian Warpath. Cumberland served as an outpost of Colonel George Washington during the French and Indian War, his first military headquarters was built here.
Washington returned as President of the United States in 1794 to Cumberland to review troops assembled to thwart the Whiskey Rebellion. During the 19th century, Cumberland was a key road and canal junction, it became the second-largest city in Maryland after the port city of Baltimore. It was nicknamed "The Queen City". Cumberland was the terminus, namesake, of the Cumberland Road that extended westward to the Ohio River at Wheeling, West Virginia; this was the first portion of what would be constructed as the National Road, which reached Ohio and Illinois. In the 1850s, many black fugitives reached their final stop on the underground railroad beneath the floor of the Emmanuel Episcopal Church. A maze of tunnels beneath and an abolitionist pastor above provided refuge before the final five mile trip to freedom in Pennsylvania; the surrounding hillsides were mined for coal and iron ore, harvested for timber that helped supply the Industrial Revolution. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal had its western terminus here.
Construction of railroads superseded use of the canal, as trains were faster and could carry more freight. The city developed as a major manufacturing center, with industries in glass, fabrics and tinplate. With the restructuring of heavy industry in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states following World War II, the city lost many jobs; as a result, its population has declined by nearly half, from 39,483 in the 1940 census to fewer than 20,000 today. Cumberland is in the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains at 39°38′52″N 78°45′46″W, at the junction of the North Branch of the Potomac River and Wills Creek; the majority of the land within the city lies in a valley created by the junction of these two streams. Interstate 68 runs through the city in an east/west direction, as does Alternate U. S. 40, the Old National Road. U. S. Highway 220 runs north/south. Parts of Wills Mountain, Haystack Mountain, Shriver Ridge are within the city limits; the abandoned Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is now part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park.
The canal's towpath is maintained, allowing travel by foot, horse or bicycle between Cumberland and Washington, D. C. a distance of 185 miles. In recent years, a separate trail/path extension, called the Great Allegheny Passage, has been developed that leads to Pittsburgh as its western terminus. Cumberland is the only city of at least 20,000 residents, outside of the Pittsburgh and DC metro areas, that lies on this combined 300+ mile stretch. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.15 square miles, of which 10.08 square miles is land and 0.07 square miles is water. Cumberland is at the eastern entrance to the Cumberland Narrows, a water gap along Wills Creek that crosses the central ridge of the Wills Mountain Anticline at a low elevation between Wills Mountain to the north and Haystack Mountain to the south. Cliffs and talus of the two mountains' Tuscarora quartzite caprock are prominent within the Narrows; these geological features provide Cumberland a western backdrop of the two mountains and the narrow gap between them.
The Cumberland Narrows acts as a western gateway from Cumberland to the Appalachian Plateau and the Ohio River Valley beyond. The Old National Road, now Alternate U. S. 40, passes through the Narrows. The former Baltimore and Ohio Railro
Robert Bendiner was an American journalist and author who served as managing editor of The Nation and as a member of the editorial board of the New York Times. He contributed to The New Republic, The Nation, The New Yorker, Harper's. Bendiner wrote for the Daily Worker in the 1930s, he served as managing editor of The Nation magazine from 1937 to 1944. In 1942, he published a book expected to criticize the U. S. State Department. In 1943, he joined 250 liberals in supporting the continuation of the American Labor Party against a communist faction within, he returned to The Nation as an associate editor from 1946 to 1950. He wrote freelance from 1951 to 1968 and again from 1978 until his death, he was "associated" with the New York Times from 1969 to 1977. He chaired the Wellesley Summer Institute Social Progress from 1946 to 1953, he was faculty at the Salzburg Seminary in American Studies in 1956 and visiting lecturer in journalism at Wesleyan University in 1983. He died in February 2009. Guggenheim fellow The Riddle of the State Department White House Fever Obstacle Course on Capitol Hill Just Around The Corner - A Highly Selective History Of The Thirties The Strenuous Decade: A Social and Intellectual Record of the 1930s with Daniel Aaron The Politics of Schools - A Crisis in Self-Government The Fall of the Wild, the Rise of the Zoo Nation: "Wallace: The Incomplete Angler," "Rout of the Bourbons" "Politics and People: The Trial of Alger Hiss" "A Most Unusual Case": The Trial of Alger Hiss - III" (7/16/1949 "The Ordeal of Alger Hiss" "The Ordeal of Alger Hiss: II.
Psychiatry and Politics" New York Times: "Point Four – Still the Great Basic Hope" "The Undramatic Man of Drama" "To Stop Wasting Our Ex-Presidents" "Portrait of the Perfect Candidate" "Ghosts Behind The Speechmakers" "Battle of Filibuster" "How Much Has TV Changed Campaigning?" "If TV Moved Into the Classroom" "Current Quotations On Stockbrokers" Harper's: The man who reads corpses White House fever: Why candidates campaign Saturday Review: "When Culture Came to Main Street" Reporter: “Who Owns Outer Space?" American Heritage: "Two Cheers For Optimism" "The Law And Potter Stewart: An Interview With Justice Potter Stewart" "Explaining What You Are After Is The Secret Of Diplomacy" "What I Learned From The Pirates"
Brian Michael Jean is a Canadian politician, the Leader of the Opposition of Alberta and the last leader of the Wildrose Party. He was a federal Member of Parliament who represented the riding of Athabasca from 2004 to 2006 and Fort McMurray—Athabasca from 2006 to 2014 in the House of Commons. After resigning from the House in 2014, he returned to political life in February 2015 by announcing he would seek the leadership of the Wildrose Party, he was elected party leader on March 28, 2015. In the 2015 provincial election, Jean was elected in the provincial riding of Fort McMurray-Conklin and became Leader of the Opposition as the Wildrose Party formed the Official Opposition to the governing Alberta New Democratic Party. Jean ceased to lead the Wildrose Party with the merger into the United Conservative Party and ran to be leader of the new party, losing to Jason Kenney, he resigned his seat in the Alberta legislature on March 5, 2018. Jean was born in Kelowna, British Columbia, moved to Fort McMurray, Alberta when he was four years old in 1967.
Jean has a Bachelor of Science degree from Warner Pacific College in Portland and Master of Business Administration and Bachelor of Laws degrees from Bond University in Gold Coast, Australia. He attended the law school at the University of Calgary, where he received qualification to be admitted to the Law Society of Alberta; this allowed him to practice law for 11 years in Fort McMurray prior to his political career. Jean has worked as a farmhand, a printer's assistant, a businessperson, a lawyer, an inspirational speaker. In his community, Jean served as the chairman of the Children's Health Foundation in Northern Alberta, chair of the Alberta Summer Games, president of the Fort McMurray Downtown Business Association, director of the Fort McMurray Chamber of Commerce. Jean was first elected to the House of Commons as a Conservative Party of Canada candidate in the riding of Athabasca in 2004, sitting in the Official Opposition to Paul Martin's Liberal government, he was re-elected in the renamed riding of Fort McMurray—Athabasca in 2006, when the Conservatives formed government under Stephen Harper.
In February 2006, Jean was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to Minister of Transport and Communities Lawrence Cannon. Jean was re-elected again in 2008 and 2011. After the 2011 election, he declined reappointment as Parliamentary Secretary in order to focus on his constituency needs. In the House of Commons, Jean served on the Finance and Industry Committees. On January 10, 2014, Jean announced that he would be resigning his seat on January 17, 2014 to return to private life in Fort McMurray; the Wildrose Party was in disarray in late 2014 after leader Danielle Smith and eight other MLAs crossed the floor to the ruling Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta. A leadership election was organized to choose a new leader and Jean was encouraged to run. Jean entered the race on February 25, 2015, was elected party leader on March 28, 2015 with 55% of the vote, defeating Cypress-Medicine Hat MLA Drew Barnes and former Strathcona County Mayor Linda Osinchuk; the 2015 Alberta election was held on May 5, 2015, less than two months after Jean became Wildrose leader.
The party retained its standing as Official Opposition in the legislature, growing its caucus from 17 in 2012, 5 at dissolution, to 21. For the first time in Alberta history, the New Democratic Party formed government, with Rachel Notley becoming Premier; this marked the end of 43 years of government by the Progressive Conservatives. On August 30, 2016 Jean, responding to questions about the need for more seniors housing in the city he represents, told an audience he has been "beating this drum" for more than a decade. "I will continue to beat it, I promise," Jean said. "But it's against the law to beat Rachel Notley." He apologized for what he characterized as an "inappropriate attempt" at humour. Jean's former federal caucus colleague Jason Kenney became Progressive Conservative leader after winning that party's leadership election in early 2017. Kenney's platform called for uniting the Progressive Conservative and Wildrose parties to form a united right-of-centre alliance. On March 20, 2017, Jean met with Kenney to begin unity discussions.
On May 18, 2017, Jean and Kenney announced that their two parties had come to a merger agreement and on July 22, 2017 the merger was passed with 95% support from both the PCs and the Wildrose. The merger agreement formed the United Conservative Party, a leadership election occurred on October 28, 2017, in which Jean was defeated by Kenney, a founding convention to be held in 2018. Jean announced his resignation from the legislature on March 5, 2018, saying he wished to spend more time with his family and rebuild his house, destroyed in the 2016 Fort McMurray Wildfire. Brian Jean – Parliament of Canada biography