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Cumberland County, Pennsylvania

Cumberland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 235,406, its county seat is Carlisle. Cumberland County is included in PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Cumberland County was first settled by a majority of Scots-Irish immigrants who arrived in this area about 1730. English and German settlers constituted about ten percent of the early population; the settlers mostly devoted the area to farming and developed other trades. These settlers built the Middle Spring Presbyterian Church, among the oldest houses of worship in central Pennsylvania, in 1738 near present-day Shippensburg, Pennsylvania; the General Assembly of the Pennsylvania colony on January 27, 1750, created Cumberland County from Lancaster County, naming it for Cumberland, England. Its county seat is Carlisle; the county lies within the Cumberland Valley adjoining the Susquehanna River at its eastern border, stretching 42 miles from the borough of Shippensburg on the west to the Susquehanna River in east Cumberland County.

The oldest towns in the county are Shippensburg and Carlisle, each with its unique history. Shippensburg is home to Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania, one of 14 universities of the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education. Carlisle is home to Dickinson College, established in 1773, the Penn State Dickinson School of Law; the United States Army War College is a United States Army school located in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 500 acre campus of the historic Carlisle Barracks, a military post dating back to the 1770s. It caters to high-level military personnel and civilians and prepares them for strategic leadership responsibilities, it is the U. S. Army's most senior military educational institution. During the Gettysburg campaign of the American Civil War in the summer of 1863, Confederate troops marched through the Cumberland Valley occupying much of Cumberland County. In the 20th century, the suburbs of Harrisburg, the state capital, expanded extensively into eastern Cumberland County.

Carlisle developed suburbs in adjoining townships. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 550 square miles, of which 545 square miles is land and 4.8 square miles is water. The area code is 717 with an overlay of 223. Blue Mountain forms Cumberland's northern natural boundary and Yellow Breeches Creek forms part of its SE natural boundary; the Susquehanna River forms its eastern natural boundary. A large portion of Cumberland is drained by the Conodoguinet Creek, which winds its way west-to-east across the county into the Susquehanna. Cumberland has a hot-summer humid continental climate and its hardiness zone is 6b except in much of the eastern portion where it is 7a. Average monthly temperatures in Lemoyne range from 29.9° F in January to 74.9° F in July, in Carlisle they range from 29.8° F in January to 75.2° F in July, in Shippensburg they range from 29.6° F in January to 74.6° F in July. Perry County Dauphin County York County Adams County Franklin County Colonel Denning State Park Kings Gap Environmental Education and Training Center Pine Grove Furnace State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 213,674 people, 83,015 households, 56,118 families residing in the county.

The population density was 388 people per square mile. There were 86,951 housing units at an average density of 158 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.40% White, 2.36% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 1.67% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. 1.35 % of the population were Latino of any race. 35.3 % were of 10.6 % American, 10.1 % Irish, 7.5 % English and 6.8 % Italian ancestry. 94.7 % spoke 1.4 % Spanish as their first language. There were 83,015 households out of which 29.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.00% under the age of 18, 10.60% from 18 to 24, 28.50% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.70 males. Its per capita income is $31,627, making it the wealthiest Pennsylvania county outside greater Philadelphia, fifth wealthiest overall; the United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Cumberland County as the Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census the metropolitan area ranked 6th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 96th most populous in the United States with a population of 549,475. Cumberland County is a part of the larger Harrisburg-York-Lebanon, PA Combined Statistical Area, which combines the populations of Cumberland County as well as Adams, Lebanon and York Counties in Pennsylvania; the Combined Statistical Area ranked 5th in the State of Pennsylvania and 43rd most populous in the United States with a population of 1,219,422. For most of its history, Cumberland County has been a Republican Party stronghold in presidential elections, with only seven Democratic Party candidates having managed to win the county from 1888 to the present

John Gossweiler

Johannes Gossweiler aka John Gossweiler or João Gossweiler, was state botanist to the Government of Angola from 1899 until his death. He made important collections in every district of Angola and created the first phytogeographic map of that country, his collections of African plant specimens were sent to Lisbon, the British Museum, the Royal Botanic Gardens and the University of Coimbra. Duplicates were kept at the Herbarium of the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica in Angola. Today, many herbaria contain specimens. Gossweiler studied horticulture in Zurich and Dresden spending four years in London at the Royal College of Science in South Kensington, 1897-98 at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, he was inspired by William Turner Thiselton-Dyer while at Kew, went on to work for the government of Angola in the country's botanical garden in Luanda, where he remained until his death in 1952. Arriving in Angola, Gossweiler found the garden far from complete, started collecting in the coastal area around Luanda and the Malanje Plateau.

In 1905 he studied the indigenous plant sources of rubber of the Ganguela and Bié Plateau regions and collected many novel plants along the Okavango River. The'Cazengo Colonial Garden', the botanical garden of which Gossweiler would be director, was ready by 1907. Located on the site of an abandoned plantation, Gossweiler stocked it with indigenous species and plants from Sri Lanka, Goa and Tropical America, his collection of pressed specimens grew. In 1915/16 he worked in Subliali, Pango Munga, the rainforest region of Mayombe, near the source of the Zanza River, where he was accompanied by his wife Martha. Following World War I Gossweiler worked for the'Fomento Geral de Angola' from 1919-1926, during which time he made substantial collections along the southern bank of the Congo River, in the Dembos region and at Quiçama. In 1927 Gossweiler rejoined the government service and worked at starting an experimental cotton station in Catete, travelling to Amboim in 1932 to investigate coffee plant diseases.

His collections grew with plants from the mist forest south of Cazengo. He spent some time in Portugal at the University of Coimbra and the Colonial Garden in Lisbon, working on his collections. Gossweiler embarked on two more collecting expeditions in Angola. In 1937-8 he joined a pair of Portuguese botanists, Luis Carrisso and F. A. Mendonça of Coimbra University, Arthur Wallis Exell of the British Museum, on an extensive expedition covering some 13,000 km. On this expedition Carrisso suffered a fatal heart attack. Despite his death, work carried on, the results adding to the'Conspectus Florae Angolensis' of which the first volume, consisting of 55 parts, was published between 1937 and 1951; the other expedition was in 1947 when he collected in the forests of Dundo in the far north-east of Angola. Gossweiler's collections amounted to some 14,000 specimens, are housed at some of the world's important herbaria. "J. Gossweiler 14685", a specimen of Anticharis aschersoniana, may be the last he collected, preserved.

In 1936 Gossweiler's services were recognised by the Portuguese government, which awarded him the'Comenda da Ordem do Imperio Colonial'. In 1950 he was elected a Foreign Member of the Linnean Society of London for his contributions to systematic botany. Gossweiler died 1952 in Lisbon. In 1960, the Portuguese government granted his widow Marthe Gossweiler a life pension in recognition of his service to the country and for ceding his works to the country. A statue of Gossweiler is located in the park next to the regional museum of Dundo. Two portraits of him were published in the 1950s. Specimens Gossweiler collected can be found in the following herbaria: The table includes the number of specimen viewable online, either directly or through JSTOR. Gossweiler, John. Contribuição para o estudo da flora do Maiombe português: apontamentos sôbre algumas madeiras comerciais. Luanda: Imprensa nacional de Angola. Gossweiler, John. Mr. John Gossweiler's Plants from Portuguese Congo. London: R. Hardwicke. Alston, Arthur Hugh Garfit.

Mr. John Gossweiler's Plants from Angola and Portuguese Congo: Pteridophyta. Gossweiler, John. A.. Carta fitogeográfica de Angola: Memória descritiva dos principais tipos de vegetação da colónia determinados pelos seus aspectos fisiográficos e caracteres ecológicos segundo a nomenclatura de Rübel. Ed. do Government Geral de Angola. Gossweiler, John. Flora exótica de Angola: nomes vulgares e origem das plantas cultivadas ou sub-espontâneas. Luanda: Imprensa nacional. Gossweiler, John. Nomes indígenas de plantas de Angola. Luanda: Impr. Nacional. Archive materials are held by: University of Coimbra: A few of his letters are available online in the digital library of the University of Coimbra Federal Archives of Switzerland Natural History Museum Archives, London Gossweilera S. Moore Gossweilerochloa Gossweilerodendron Harms. Mendonça, F. A.. "À memória de John Gossweiler 1873 - 1952: Homenagem da Sociedade Broteriana". Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana. II: 26. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Fernandes, Abílio.

"John Gossweiler". Vegetatio. 4: 334–335. Doi:10.1007/bf00301801. Exell, Arthur Wallis. Letter and biographical note on John Gossweiler, 1873-1952. Martins, E. S.. "John Gossweiler - Contribuição da sua obra para o conhecimento da flora angolana". Garcia

The Beloved Vagabond (1923 film)

The Beloved Vagabond is a 1923 British romantic drama film directed by Fred LeRoy Granville and starring Carlyle Blackwell, Madge Stuart, Jessie Matthews and Phyllis Titmuss. The film is based on the 1906 novel The Beloved Vagabond by William John Locke; the wealthy Gaston de Nerac decides to live as a tramp. Carlyle Blackwell - Gaston de Nerac / Paragot Madge Stuart - Blanquette Phyllis Titmuss - Joanna Rushworth Sydney Fairbrother - Mrs. Smith Albert Chase - Asticot Owen Roughwood - Comte de Verneuil Hubert Carter - DuBosc Cameron Carr - Bradshaw Irene Tripod - Madame Bain Ernest Hilliard - Major Walters Alfred Wood - Mr. Rashworth Emilie Nichol - Mrs. Rushworth Jessie Matthews - Pan The Beloved Vagabond at IMDB The Beloved Vagabond at SilentEra

Emma Cunningham

Emma Augusta Hempstead Cunningham was a young woman from New York City, embroiled in a scandalous relationship that ended in a crime of murder. She was arrested for murder and fraud, was sent to trial in one of the most famous cases in the Victorian-era. Emma Cunningham was a young woman in New York City when she married a widower, George Cunningham in 1835; when he died in 1852 his life insurance policy amounted to a tidy sum. As an attractive widow, she met Dr. Harvey Burdell, a prosperous dentist and rented a suite of rooms in his mansion as did other tenants, such as John J. Eckel, it was intimated. Dr. Burdell resided and practiced dentistry at his townhouse on 31 Bond Street in New York City, one of the most affluent blocks in pre-Civil War New York; this area declined in the mid-century and only a few traces of the thirty-five Greek Revival homes remain. Burdell, like his neighbors, was wealthy, although his reputation was far from sterling as he was accused of embezzlement, reneging on debts and causing a scandal on his wedding day by demanding money from the bride's father, enraged and canceled the wedding.

On the morning of January 31, 1857, Dr. Burdell's servants discovered his body in his office, at 31 Bond Street, covered with blood, brutally stabbed multiple times and strangled. Upon police interrogation, some of the servants testified that they heard angry words between the victim and his assailant the night before; the police determined that Dr. Burdell had been stabbed at least 15 times by an assailant, left-handed. Since Emma Cunningham was left-handed, she was an immediate suspect and was arrested for Burdell's murder and imprisoned for trial; the trial, at its time, was as notorious as the O. J. Simpson trial was accompanied by a media circus akin to such trials today. A reputed 8,000 people tried to cram into the church for the funeral and Cunningham threw herself on Burdell's casket. During the first evening of the Coroner's investigation, on January 31, 1857, Mrs. Cunningham produced a certificate of marriage revealing that she and Dr. Burdell had been married on October 28, 1856; this gave the prosecutor a suspected motive for murder, for as wife, she would inherit his fortune.

Dr. Burdell's estate was estimated at $100,000, which included the townhouse where he was murdered, various other real estate. All the members of the household, including servants and Emma Cunningham and her family were placed under house arrest by Coroner Edward Connery, as was custom at the time. After a fourteen-day coroner's investigation, which took place in the parlor of 31 Bond Street, the case was delivered to a grand jury, where Emma Cunningham was indicted for the murder of Dr. Burdell, she was placed in jail awaiting her trial. The top defense attorney, Henry Lauren Clinton, represented Emma Cunningham; the New York City District Attorney, Abraham Oakey Hall was the prosecutor. Hall became Mayor of New York City in 1869. At the murder trial, which began in May 1857, there was much testimony from all sides. Cunningham did not testify. One of Burdell's maids testified that she had called him a bad man, not fit to live. A man named John Eckels, a boarder at the home of Dr. Burdell, was labeled an accessory to the murder, but testimony to his actions was not heard during Cunningham's trial.

All testimony to the marriage certificate was not heard, as its validity was being tested in the Surrogate's Court. Burdell's known unsavory reputation made accusation against Cunningham difficult for the prosecutor to make credible. On May 9, 1857, the jury returned a verdict of not Cunningham was free to go. After Emma Cunningham's acquittal, she was permitted to return to the townhouse on 31 Bond Street, pending a hearing and decision of the Surrogate's Court to determine if in fact her marriage to Dr. Harvey Burdell was valid, if that entitled her to his house and other property. At the time, marriage was conducted by a clergyman, witnessed, but was not registered with any office of the state to make it legal and valid; the marriage certificate in question was signed by both parties and two witnesses. The clergyman recalled the event; the only way to invalidate the marriage was to prove that it was an imposter and not Dr. Burdell himself who appeared to be married; the Surrogate's decision on the matter of the marriage and the inheritance was scheduled for August 1857.

Prior to that decision, a scandal erupted involving Emma Cunningham. It was purported by District Attorney Oakey Hall that Cunningham had "procured" a baby by paying $1000 to declare a false heir, with the father as Dr. Burdell; this would entitle her to all of Dr. Burdell's fortune, instead of just her widow's share; the prosecutor and chief of police raided her home and removed Cunningham, delirious and under the influence of drugs. Present was a doctor and a baby, marked under the arms with acid, as it had been prepared by the district attorney prior to the sting; the "baby scam" had been engineered by the district attorney, the doctor who testified to the events was his close associate, Dr. de la Montagnie, the godfather of Hall's daughter. Emma Cunningham was taken to the Tombs, the New York City jail, where she had spent two months while awaiting the murder trial, her defense attorney, Henry Clinton, had the charges swiftly dismissed based on lack of evidence of a crime, due to entrapment.

Cunningham was again released. To this day it is unclear if the'baby scam' was fabricated and engineered by the district attorney or if Emma Cunningham was delusional and engaged in the act of attempting to buy an he

Stages of Cruelty

Stages of Cruelty is an oil-on-canvas painting by Ford Madox Brown. He worked on the painting over an extended period, from 1856 to 1890, it is held by the Manchester Art Gallery. The painting was entitled Stolen Pleasures are Sweet, but became Stages of Cruelty by about 1860; the composition was inspired by Arthur Hughes's 1856 painting April Love, which shows a woman turning away from her lover after an argument, by William Hogarth's series of engravings Four Stages of Cruelty. Like Hogarth's series, Brown's painting shows separate episodes in the life of the same character, although in this case on the same canvas, with a cruel child growing up to become a cruel adult. In Brown's painting, a girl in a red dress and a white bonnet is shown sitting at the bottom of a flight of stone steps, spitefully hitting her bloodhound with a stem of love-lies-bleeding while the dog raises a paw in protest. Behind her, sitting on a brick wall beside the stairs, a young woman is turning away from a man hidden in a lilac bush behind the wall.

The man – her lover – looks mournfully over a wall at the woman, grasping her right hand and arm, but she rejects him without remorse. She wears a white jacket, with lace collar and cuffs, a long blue skirt. To the right, bindweed climbs up the balustrade beside the stairs; the flowers are symbolic. The love-lies-bleeding stands for hopeless. One of the meanings of geraniums is deceit; the young girl was modelled on Brown's second daughter Catherine, on Catherine's own daughter Juliet. Brown started the work without a commission, it languished for many years, it was finished for the brewer, Henry Boddington. Watercolour versions of the painting are held by the Ashmolean Museum. Stages of Cruelty, Manchester Art Gallery Art of Ford Madox Brown, Kenneth Bendiner p.97-98 Chalk Drawing - Stages of Cruelty, Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery Watercolour - Stages of Cruelty, Tate Gallery Watercolour - Stages of Cruelty, Ashmolean Museum Stages of Cruelty by Ford Madox Brown, BBC Your Paintings


Ghanghauli is a village in Khair tehsil of Aligarh district of Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located about 60 km from its district i.e. Aligarh. Yamuna Express Way from Greater Noida to Agra of 165 km is passing through this village. Ghanghauli is a large village with total 546 families residing. According to Census of India 2011, Village has population of 3208 of which 1727 are males and 1481 are females as per Population Census of 2011. Village has higher literacy rate compared to Uttar Pradesh. In 2011, literacy rate of village was 72.32% compared to 67.68% of Uttar Pradesh. As per constitution of India & Panchayati Raj Act, Ghanghauli village is administrated by Pradhan, elected representative of village. Data source Schools which impart the education to all adjoining villages: Poorv Madhymik Vidhyalaya, Aligarh Shiksha Vikas Sabha, Aligarh Smt. Ganga Devi Public School, Aligarh slsm public school, aligarh sports name cricket kabbadi volleyball spacelist harendra attri race long jump & high jump Jaidpura: It is located 2.5 km from Ghanghauli.

Jaidpura is a village in Khair tehsil in Aligarh district of Uttar Pradesh state. Gaurola: It is located 2 km from Ghanghauli at Managarhi-Jatari road. Managarhi: It is located 1.5 km from Ghanghauli village. Managarhi is a village in Maant tehsil in Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh state. Chandpur Khurd: It is located 1 km from Ghanghauli. Chandpur Khurd is a village in Maant tehsil in Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh state. Kheriya Khurd: It is located 6 km from Ghanghauli. Kheriya Khurd is a village in Khair tehsil in Aligarh district of Uttar Pradesh state. Gaurola-Nagliya: It is located 4 km from Ghanghauli. Gaurola-Nagliya is a village in Khair Tehsil in Aligarh district of Uttar Pradesh State