The Labrador Sea is an arm of the North Atlantic Ocean between the Labrador Peninsula and Greenland. The sea is flanked by continental shelves to the southwest and northeast, it connects to the north with Baffin Bay through the Davis Strait. It has been described as a marginal sea of the Atlantic; the sea formed upon separation of the North American Plate and Greenland Plate that started about 60 million years ago and stopped about 40 million years ago. It contains one of the world's largest turbidity current channel systems, the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel, that runs for thousands of kilometers along the sea bottom toward the Atlantic Ocean; the Labrador Sea is a major source of the North Atlantic Deep Water, a cold water mass that flows at great depth along the western edge of the North Atlantic, spreading out to form the largest identifiable water mass in the World Ocean. The Labrador Sea formed upon separation of the North American Plate and Greenland Plate that started about 60 million years ago and stopped about 40 million years ago.
A sedimentary basin, now buried under the continental shelves, formed during the Cretaceous. Onset of magmatic sea-floor spreading was accompanied by volcanic eruptions of picrites and basalts in the Paleocene at the Davis Strait and Baffin Bay. Between about 500 BC and 1300 AD, the southern coast of the sea contained Dorset and Inuit settlements; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Labrador Sea as follows: On the North: the South limit of Davis Strait. On the East: a line from Cape St. Francis 47°45′N 52°27′W to Cape Farewell. On the West: the East Coast of Labrador and Newfoundland and the Northeast limit of the Gulf of St. Lawrence – a line running from Cape Bauld to the East extreme of Belle Isle and on to the Northeast Ledge. Thence a line joining this ledge with the East extreme of Cape St. Charles in Labrador; the Labrador Sea is 1,000 km wide where it joins the Atlantic Ocean. It becomes shallower, to less than 700 m towards Baffin Bay and passes into the 300 km wide Davis Strait.
A 100–200 m deep turbidity current channel system, about 2–5 km wide and 3,800 km long, runs on the bottom of the sea, near its center from the Hudson Strait into the Atlantic. It is called the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel and is one of the world's longest drainage systems of Pleistocene age, it appears as a submarine river bed with numerous tributaries and is maintained by high-density turbidity currents flowing within the levees. The water temperature varies between − 1 °C in 5 -- 6 °C in summer; the salinity is low, at 31–34.9 parts per thousand. Two-thirds of the sea is covered in ice in winter. Tides are semi-diurnal. There is an anticlockwise water circulation in the sea, it is initiated by the East Greenland Current and continued by the West Greenland Current, which brings warmer, more saline waters northwards, along the Greenland coasts up to the Baffin Bay. The Baffin Island Current and Labrador Current transport cold and less saline water southward along the Canadian coast; these currents carry numerous icebergs and therefore hinder navigation and exploration of the gas fields beneath the sea bed.
The speed of the Labrador current is 0.3–0.5 m/s, but can reach 1 m/s in some areas, whereas the Baffin Current is somewhat slower at about 0.2 m/s. The Labrador Current maintains the water temperature at 0 °C and salinity between 30 and 34 parts per thousand; the sea provides a significant part of the North Atlantic Deep Water – a cold water mass that flows at great depth along the western edge of the North Atlantic, spreading out to form the largest identifiable water mass in the World Ocean. The NADW consists of three parts of different origin and salinity, the top one, the Labrador Sea Water, is formed in the Labrador Sea; this part occurs at a medium depth and has a low salinity, low temperature and high oxygen content compared to the layers above and below it. LSW has a low vorticity, i.e. the tendency to form vortices, than any other water in North Atlantic that reflects its high homogeneity. It has a potential density of 27.76–27.78 mg/cm3 to the surface layers, meaning it is denser, thus sinks under the surface and remains homogeneous and unaffected by the surface fluctuations.
The northern and western parts of the Labrador Sea are covered in ice between June. The drift ice serves as a breeding ground for seals in early spring; the sea is a feeding ground for Atlantic salmon and several marine mammal species. Shrimp fisheries intensified toward 2000, as well as cod fishing. However, the cod fishing depleted the fish population in the 1990s near the Labrador and West Greenland banks and was therefore halted in 1992. Other fishery targets include haddock, Atlantic herring and several species of flatfish and pelagic fish such as sand lance and capelin, they are most abundant in the southern parts of the sea. Beluga whales, while abundant to the north, in the Baffin Bay, where their population reaches 20,000, are rare in the Labrador Sea s
Auyuittuq National Park
Auyuittuq National Park is a national park located on Baffin Island's Cumberland Peninsula, in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, the largest political subdivision of Canada. The park was known as Baffin Island National Park when it was established in 1972, but the name was changed in 1976 to its current name to better reflect the region and its history, it features many terrains of Arctic wilderness, such as fjords and ice fields. Although Auyuittuq was established in 1972 as a national park reserve, it was upgraded to a full national park in 2000. Auyuittuq National Park is located on the Cumberland Peninsula of Baffin Island in Nunavut; the park is located within the Arctic Circle. The park covers 21,470 square kilometres and is located within the Penny Highlands and contains the 6,000 km2 Penny Ice Cap; the Penny Ice Cap, made of ice sitting on Precambrian granite, creates a series of glaciers, among them the Coronation Glacier. The land reflects the geological history of the area, with deep valleys between the peaks, which include Mount Asgard with an 800 m face, Mount Thor with a 1,250 m face.
Along the coast are deep, narrow fjords. In Akshayuk Pass, the winds can reach 175 km/h; the nearest towns are Pangnirtung. Visitors wishing to enter the park are required by Parks Canada to register at the park office in Pangnirtung or Qikiqtarjuaq, attend an orientation session. Park user fees apply. First established in 1972 as Baffin Island National Park, in 1975, Parks Canada chose to rename the park in order to better reflect the landscape and the Inuit history within the region. After some debate, the name was changed to Auyuittuq National Park, an Inuktitut word meaning "the place that does not melt". Little vegetation can be found in Auyuittuq Park, although the plants found there range from flowers such as mountain avens, campion and saxifrage to shrubs like dwarf birch, Arctic willow, heather. Many of the plants in Auyuittuq Park grow in clumps to create their own warmer "microclimate" to survive the harsh Arctic conditions; because of the exceptionally low vegetation supply on land, wildlife is scarce.
However, the park is bordered on three sides by sea and marine life is found within the park's boundaries. Species that live in Auyuittuq Park include lemmings, red foxes, snowy owls, peregrine falcons, rough-legged hawks, beluga whales, snow geese, polar bears, narwhals, Canada geese, Arctic foxes, Arctic hares, some barren-ground caribou; the most common backpacking route in the park is known as Akshayuk Pass, follows the Weasel and Owl rivers via Summit Lake. In 2008, heavy rain and warm weather caused Summit Lake to burst through its banks, flooding the Weasel River and washing away the Windy Lake bridge; as a result, the hiking routes in the pass are limited to either side of the Weasel River. National Parks of Canada List of National Parks of Canada List of Nunavut parks Arctic Cordillera Parks Canada official site Mount Thor Peak climbing info Information and pictures - from The Tulugak Hotel Auyuittuq National Park Information Newspaper article about Auyuittuq National Park by Dallas Morning News reporter Dave Levinthal
Murchison Promontory is a peninsula in northern Canada, the northernmost point on mainland Canada and on the mainland of North America. The distance to the North Pole is 1,087 nautical miles, or 64 km closer than the distance from Point Barrow, Alaska to the Pole. Murchison Promontory is situated in Nunavut on the northern part of the Boothia Peninsula in the northern Canadian Arctic; the northernmost point on the promontory is Zenith Point with coordinates 72°00′00″N 94°38′59″W. The cape is located on the south side of the 48 by 3 km, Bellot Strait which separates it from Somerset Island and about 250 km north of the hamlet of Taloyoak. Murchison Promontory is part of the Kitikmeot Region; the area was first explored in April 1852 by Canadian Captain William Kennedy and French explorer Joseph René Bellot while searching for traces of John Franklin's lost Arctic expedition. The strait was named after Bellot. Irish born Francis Leopold McClintock wintered in the area with his ship Fox in the winter of 1858 - 1859 in his search for the Franklin expedition.
In 1937 Scot E. J. "Scotty" Gall passed the promontory on his ship "Aklavik" on the first crossing of the Bellot Strait travelling from the western shore to the eastern for the Hudson's Bay Company. About Murchison Promontory Map of Murchison Promontory Image of Murchison Promontory
The Kivalliq Region is an administrative region of Nunavut, Canada. It consists of the portion of the mainland to the west of Hudson Bay together with Southampton Island and Coats Island; the regional seat is Rankin Inlet. The population was 10,413 in an increase of 16.3 % from the 2011 Census. Before 1999, Kivalliq Region existed under different boundaries as Keewatin Region, Northwest Territories. Although the Kivalliq name became official in 1999, Statistics Canada has continued to refer to the area as Keewatin Region, Nunavut in publications such as the Census. Most references to the area as "Keewatin" have been phased out by Nunavut-based bodies, as that name was rooted in a region of northwestern Ontario derived from a Cree dialect, only saw application onto Inuit-inhabited lands because of the boundaries of the now-defunct District of Keewatin; the Kivalliq Region is experiencing the world's highest rate of post-glacial rebound. The remainder of the region is referred to as Unorganized by Statistics Canada.
Canada 2016 Census Population: 10,413 Population change: +6.3% Private dwellings: 3,007 Area: 444,621.71 km2 Density: 0.02/km2 National rank in terms of population: 279th out of 283 Territorial rank in terms of population: 2nd out of 3 Kivalliq Region information at Explore Nunavut kivalliq.com - photos, links from Rankin Inlet Nunavut
Bache Peninsula is a geological formation in Canada, on Ellesmere Island in Nunavut. The peninsula is considered a cape, meaning that it is a headland that affects the ocean currents, it is known for being the site of the world's northernmost permanent settlement from 1926 to 1933, a Royal Canadian Mounted Police post. The peninsula is adjacent to water on three sides: Peary Bay to the north, named after American explorer Robert Peary, Bartlett Bay to the east, Buchanan Bay to the south. A narrow land bridge connects the peninsula to the rest of Ellesmere Island to the west; the peninsula is thought to have been inhabited 4,200 years ago by hunting bands originating in northeast Asia and Alaska. Stone tools and artistic carvings have been found. Researchers have found Thule hunting artifacts at strategic locations for hunting sea mammals
Brodeur Peninsula is an uninhabited headland on Baffin Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada. It is located on the northwestern part of the island and is bounded by Prince Regent Inlet, Lancaster Sound, Admiralty Inlet; the peninsula is connected to the rest of Baffin Island by a narrow isthmus. The habitat is characterized by coastal cliffs, as well as barrens and rocky flats. Northwestern Brodeur Peninsula, 475 km2 in size, is a Canadian Important Bird Area, it is home to the ivory gull, but researchers have been witnessing a dramatic decrease in breeding populations in the region in recent times. The western side of the Brodeur Peninsula is known as a polar bear mating ground. Serious efforts are underway to find minerals in the area. Twin Mining owns diamond property on the peninsula. Brodeur Peninsula at the Atlas of Canada
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium; the majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century settling across the island. Greenland is the world's largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated territory in the world. About a third of the population live in the capital and largest city; the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited at intervals over at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada.
Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, having settled Iceland to escape persecution from the King of Norway and his central government. These Norsemen would set sail from Greenland and Iceland, with Leif Erikson becoming the first known European to reach North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached the Caribbean islands. Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262; the Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century when Norway was hit by the Black Death and entered a severe decline. Soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Danish explorers reached Greenland again. To strengthen trading and power, Denmark–Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island; because of Norway's weak status, it lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved.
Greenland became Danish in 1814, was integrated in the Danish state in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark. In 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC, effected in 1985. Greenland contains the world's largest and most northerly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Established in 1974, expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,001 square kilometres of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world. Greenland is divided into five municipalities – Sermersooq, Qeqertalik and Avannaata. Greenland does not have an independent seat at the United Nations. In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favor of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government. Under the new structure, in effect since 21 June 2009, Greenland can assume responsibility for policing, judicial system, company law and auditing.
It retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK 3.4 billion, planned to diminish over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources; the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world coming from hydropower; the early Norse settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it Grœnland in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers; the Saga of Erik the Red states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language is Kalaallit Nunaat.
The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people. In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today through archaeological finds; the earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named. From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture existed in northern Greenland, it was a part of the Arctic small tool tradition. Towns, including Deltaterrassern