Caney Fork River
The Caney Fork River is a river that flows through central Tennessee in the United States, draining a substantial portion of the southwestern Cumberland Plateau and southeastern Highland Rim regions. It is a tributary of the Cumberland River, and is part of the Cumberland, Ohio. The river is 143 miles long, and its watershed covers 1,771 square miles in eleven counties, Baxter, Smithville, McMinnville, Altamont and Gordonsville are among the towns that are at least partially drained by the river. The Caney Fork flows through two impoundments— Center Hill Lake and Great Falls Lake— both of which create sizeable artificial lakes, the rivers basin is home to numerous protected lands and recreational areas, including five state wilderness areas, six interpretive areas, and a wildlife management area. The river is a stream for canoeing and kayaking. The name Caney Fork comes from the dense cane breaks that grew along the banks when European explorers first arrived in the area. The river is a major feature of the Cumberland Plateau.
The Caney Fork rises in Cumberland County about 6 miles west-northwest of Crossville before flowing southwest, in southeastern White County it descends off the Cumberland Plateau through a deep, steep gorge known as Scotts Gulf in a remote area west of Scott Pinnacle, a locally-known mountain. Farther downstream, near the Dodson community, the stream becomes the line between White County and Van Buren County and it receives the flow of the Calfkiller River and several minor tributaries. At the confluence of the Caney Fork, the Collins River and this dam impounds a very small but very deep lake due to the depth of the gorges carved by the rivers it impounds. The dam is named for the Great Falls of the Caney Fork, here is Rock Island State Park, developed on the site of former woolen mills in the 19th century well predating the electrical development. Unlike Great Falls Dam, this project flooded thousands of acres of land devoted to agriculture. It is crossed by a scenic bridge on State Route 56.
Along its shores is Edgar Evins State Park, named for the father of the areas former Congressman, Joe L. Evins and this area is in DeKalb County. Below Center Hill Dam, the stream crosses into Smith County and is bridged by Interstate 40 no less than five times. This downstream section is annually stocked with Rainbow, Brown, a final bridge is on U. S. Scotts Gulf Rock Island State Park Center Hill Lake List of rivers of Tennessee Caney Fork River Water Quality Management Plan Caney Fork Watershed Association
Southern United States
The Southern United States, commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries, while the states of Delaware and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union. However, the United States Census Bureau puts them in the South, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, the Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European and some Native American components.
Since the late 1960s, black people have many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia. Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants, the American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States, sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance and predominantly conservative, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, international relations and race relations. Apart from its climate, the experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. The arrival of millions of Northerners and millions of Hispanics meant the introduction of cultural values, the process has worked both ways, with aspects of Southern culture spreading throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States in a process termed Southernization.
The question of how to define the subregions in the South has been the focus of research for nearly a century, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states. As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty-seven percent of all U. S. residents, lived in the South, the nations most populous region. Other terms related to the South include, The Old South, the New South, usually including the South Atlantic States. The Solid South, region largely controlled by the Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964, before that, blacks were elected to national office and many to local office through the 1880s, Populist-Republican coalitions gained victories for Fusionist candidates for governors in the 1890s. Includes at least all the 11 former Confederate States, Southeastern United States, usually including the Carolinas, the Virginias, Kentucky, Alabama and Florida. The Deep South, various definitions, usually including Louisiana, Mississippi, occasionally, parts of adjoining states are included
Burkesville is a home rule-class city in Cumberland County, Kentucky, in the United States. Nestled among the foothills of Appalachia and bordered by the Cumberland River to the south and east. The population was 1,521 at the 2010 census, Burkesville began as a small riverside settlement even before the Iroquois Indians officially sold the land in 1768. The settlement was originally called Cumberland Crossing, in 1846, it was incorporated as a city and named Burkesville after Isham Burk, a prominent citizen leader at that time. Just as Kentucky was a state in the Civil War. Burkesville stood on the Cumberland River, a natural barrier between opposing forces, so Union and Confederate troops as well as guerillas led by Champ Ferguson sparred across the countryside. Burkesville was a busy river port whose heyday came during the latter part of the nineteenth century. The rise of larger craft, such as the riverboat, required diligent dredging of the riverbed to keep it navigable so far upstream. The last steamboat docked in Burkesville in 1929, the year after the first major road was opened to the city of Glasgow,40 miles to the west.
While this put an end to commercial river traffic, it had the benefit of controlling flooding that plagued the town for years. Now only recreational craft ply the rivers waters, today the main routes of access to the city are Highway 90 and Highway 61 which intersect at the towns single stoplight. An old-fashioned town square sits on Main Street just a few hundred feet south of the stoplight, Main Street splits and forms a circle around the town court house, the third incarnation of the structure. Original buildings ring the square on three sides, the fourth was razed to make way for a justice center, completed in 2006. This road was the access to the city from the west for many years until Highway 90 was built. Dynamite was used to blast a pass through a spur of that hill, Burkesville is located at 36°47′34″N 85°22′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 2.64 square miles, of which 2.57 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,756 people,768 households, the population density was 620.2 people per square mile.
There were 856 housing units at a density of 302.3 per square mile
Nashville is the capital of the U. S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in the central part of the state. The city is a center for the music, publishing and transportation industries and it is known as a center of the country music industry, earning it the nickname Music City, U. S. A. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government which includes six municipalities in a two-tier system. Nashville is governed by a mayor, vice-mayor, and 40-member Metropolitan Council, thirty-five of the members are elected from single-member districts, five are elected at-large. Reflecting the citys position in government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Courts courthouse for Middle Tennessee. According to 2015 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the balance population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Nashville, was 654,610. The 2015 population of the entire 13-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,830,345, the 2015 population of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 1,951,644.
The town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, and it was named for Francis Nash, the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville quickly grew because of its location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 African American slaves and 14 free blacks, in 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee, by 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city. The citys significance as a port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river. In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops, the state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war. Within a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W.
Morton, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base. The post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and these healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, which can still be seen around the downtown area. Circa 1950 the state approved a new city charter that provided for the election of city council members from single-member districts. This change was supported because at-large voting diluted the minority populations political power in the city and they could seldom gain a majority of the population to support a candidate of their choice
In hydrology, a main stem is the primary downstream segment of a river, as contrasted to its tributaries. Another common term for the stem, the final large channel of a riverine system, is the trunk. Water enters the main stem from the drainage basin, the land area through which the main stem. A drainage basin may be referred to as a watershed or catchment, hydrological classification systems assign numbers to tributaries and main stems within a drainage basin. In the Strahler number, a modification of a system devised by Robert E. Horton in 1945, when two first-order streams meet, they are said to form a second-order stream, when two second-order streams meet, they form a third-order stream, and so on. In the Horton system, the main stem of a drainage basin was assigned the highest number in that basin. However, in the Strahler system, adopted in 1957, only part of the main stem below the tributary of the next highest rank gets the highest number. In the United States, the Mississippi River main stem achieves a Strahler number of 10, eight rivers, including the Columbia River, reach 9.
Streams with no tributaries, assigned the Strahler number 1, are most common, more than 1.5 million of these small streams, with average drainage basins of only 1 square mile, have been identified in the United States alone. Benke, Arthur C. ed. and Cushing, Colbert E. ed, rivers of the United States, Volume II, Chemical and Physical Characteristics. New York, John Wiley & Sons
The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period and it once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before naturally occurring erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east-west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines, definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians. A common variant definition does not include the Adirondack Mountains, which belong to the Grenville Orogeny and have a different geological history from the rest of the Appalachians. The range covers parts of the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft. The highest of the group is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet, the term Appalachian refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range.
Most broadly, it refers to the mountain range with its surrounding hills. The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were originally part of the Appalachians as well, the name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváezs expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15,1528, now spelled Appalachian, it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves. The first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutierrezs map of 1562, the name was not commonly used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and often more popular name was the Allegheny Mountains, Alleghenies, in the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In U. S. dialects in the regions of the Appalachians.
In northern parts of the range, it is pronounced /ˌæpəˈleɪtʃᵻnz/ or /ˌæpəˈleɪʃᵻnz/, the third syllable is like lay. There is often debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a commonly accepted pronunciation for the adjective Appalachian is /ˌæpəˈlætʃiən/, the whole system may be divided into three great sections, The northern section runs from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River. The Monteregian Hills, which cross the Green Mountains in Quebec, are unassociated with the Appalachians, The central section goes from the Hudson Valley to the New River running through Virginia and West Virginia. Southern, The southern section runs from the New River onwards and it consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, which is divided into the Western Blue Ridge Front and the Eastern Blue Ridge Front, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, and the Cumberland Plateau
Cumberland Falls, sometimes called the Little Niagara, the Niagara of the South, or the Great Falls, is a large waterfall on the Cumberland River in southeastern Kentucky. Spanning the river at the border of McCreary and Whitley counties, on average the falls, which flow over a resistant sandstone bed, are 68 feet high and 125 feet wide, with an average water flow of 3,600 cubic feet per second. Under a full moon on clear nights, a lunar rainbow or moonbow is sometimes formed by the mist emanating from the falls. The Moonbow that appears here may be observed under a full moon, an arch of white light is usually produced at base of Falls and continues downstream. Generations of people have visited here to see this natural phenomenon, the last hotel on this site, Moonbow Inn, was named for the moonbow. A historical marker erected was 1987, location, 36°50. 296′ N, 84°20. 634′ W. Caudill, Night Comes to the Cumberlands,1962. ISBN 0-316-13212-8 Kentucky tourism site Kentucky state parks information page Cumberland and Other Kentucky Waterfalls
Bell County, Kentucky
Bell County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,691, the county was formed August 1,1867, from parts of Knox and Harlan Counties and augmented from Knox County in 1872. The county is named for Joshua Fry Bell, and was originally called Josh Bell, Bell County is considered a Moist county, a special type of county between dry and wet. The County recently changed to moist by a vote in September,2015 allowing alcohol-by-the-drink sales in Middlesboro, in a standard dry county, all sales of alcoholic beverages are prohibited. In the case of Bell County, Pineville had voted to allow alcohol by the drink in restaurants that seat at least 100 diners and this was the terminology to describe the area until the Middlesboro Vote allowing the retail of alcohol. The Middlesborough, KY Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Bell County, the Wilderness Road was constructed in the 1790s through what is now Bell County. Bell County was formed on February 28,1867, from portions of Harlan and it was named for Joshua Fry Bell, an attorney and member of Congress.
The courthouse has been thrice destroyed, in 1914 and 1918 it was destroyed by fire and in 1976 through flood. The documents stored there were destroyed as well, the Community of South America in Bell County appears to have been established in the Spanish Era. Spain did grant land grants in Old Kentucky prior to English settlement, the Community of South America links southeast Kentucky to an era of Indian herbal harvest and sales much like the Daniel Boone era in the state. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 361 square miles. The population density was 83 per square mile, there were 13,341 housing units at an average density of 37 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96. 02% White,2. 40% Black or African American,0. 25% Native American,0. 35% Asian,0. 03% Pacific Islander,0. 12% from other races, and 0. 83% from two or more races. 0. 65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,26. 80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.44 and the family size was 2.95. The age distribution was 24. 40% under the age of 18,9. 00% from 18 to 24,28. 70% from 25 to 44,24. 20% from 45 to 64, the median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.60 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $19,057, males had a median income of $24,521 versus $19,975 for females
A canoe is a lightweight narrow boat, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle. In International Canoe Federation nomenclature used in some European countries such as the United Kingdom the term refers to kayaks. Canoes are used for racing, whitewater canoeing and camping, the intended use of the canoe dictates its hull shape and length and construction material. Historically, canoes were dugouts or made of bark on a wood frame, most modern canoes are made of molded plastic or composites such as fiberglass. Until the mid-1800s the canoe was an important means of transport for exploration and trade, canoeing has been part of the Olympics since 1936. In places where the played a key role in history, such as the northern United States and New Zealand. Canoes can be adapted to many purposes, for example with the addition of sails, outboard motors, the word canoe comes from the Carib kenu, via the Spanish canoa.
Constructed between 8200 and 7600 BC, and found in the Netherlands, the Pesse canoe may be the oldest known canoe, excavations in Denmark reveal the use of dugouts and paddles during the Ertebølle period. Australian Aboriginal people made canoes using a variety of materials, including bark, the indigenous people of the Amazon commonly used Hymenaea trees. Many indigenous peoples of the Americas built bark canoes and they were usually skinned with birch bark over a light wooden frame, but other types could be used if birch was scarce. At a typical length of 4.3 m and weight of 23 kg, although susceptible to damage from rocks, they are easily repaired. When you reach them you load canoe and baggage upon your shoulders and go overland until the navigation is good, and you put your canoe back into the water, and embark again. American painter and traveler George Catlin wrote that the canoe was the most beautiful. Native American groups of the north Pacific coast made dugout canoes in a number of styles for different purposes, from western red-cedar or yellow-cedar, different styles were required for ocean-going vessels versus river boats, and for whale-hunting versus seal-hunting versus salmon-fishing.
The Quinault of Washington State built shovel-nose canoes, with double bows, the Kootenai of British Columbia province made sturgeon-nosed canoes from pine bark, designed to be stable in windy conditions on Kootenay Lake. The first explorer to cross the North American continent, Alexander Mackenzie, used extensively, as did David Thompson. Its dimensions were, length approximately 11 m, beam 1.2 to 1.8 m and it could carry 60 packs weighing 41 kg, and 910 kg of provisions. With a crew of eight or ten, they could make three knots over calm waters, four to six men could portage it, bottom up
Wolf Creek Dam
The Wolf Creek Dam is a multi-purpose dam on the Cumberland River in the western part of Russell County, United States. Because of seepage problems in the foundation, it has become the U. S. Army Corps of Engineerss top dam priority. U. S. Route 127 is built on top of the dam, construction of the Wolf Creek Dam was authorized by the Flood Control Act of 1938 and the River Harbor Act of 1946 as part of a comprehensive plan to develop the Cumberland River Basin. Construction began in 1941 but because of World War II and other factors, Lake Cumberland is one of four major flood control reservoirs for the Cumberland, the others being J. Percy Priest Dam, Dale Hollow Dam, and Center Hill Dam. The last of the generators was installed in 1952. The Wolf Creek Dam is a 5,736 ft long and 258 ft high dam with a combined earthen, the concrete section of the Wolf Creek Dam consists of 37 gravity monoliths that comprise 547m of the dams length, across the old river channel. The spillway section contains ten 15m x 11m tainter gates and six 1. 2m x 1. 8m low level sluice gates, the power intake section contains the penstocks that feed the six 45 MW turbines.
The embankment section extends from the end of the concrete gravity portion 1200m across the valley to the right abutment and it has a maximum height of 65m above the top of rock. The non-zoned embankment is composed of well-compacted, low plasticity clays, in 1968, signs of seepage problems within Wolf Creek Dams earthen embankments and foundation were discovered. Sinkholes appeared at the toe of the dam, and muddy water was observed in the dams outflow channel. The seepage problems were traced to the karst geology of the region allows for the dissolution of limestone in the dams foundation. Solution channels caused by this process allow piping to occur, which adds to the rate of erosion in the foundation, the dam and its adjacent reservoir reside upon a heavy Karst bedrock foundation. Karst formations are large void spaces lying beneath seemingly solid species of limestone bedrock, Karst formations are created when limestone bedrocks are, over time, attacked by water through natural precipitation seepage.
The rain or snowmelt water contains dissolved carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and that acid attacks the limestone rock dissolving it and thereby leading to the voids within the rock formation. However Wolf Creek is primarily an earth embankment dam. In the particular case of Wolf Creek dam, the embankment section is placed directly upon the formerly existing streambed, with only the surface soils. It is this phenomenon that has occurred and led directly to the seepage problem, a short-term solution of grouting the existing seepage channels was employed immediately, grouting in the dam foundation ran from 1968 to 1970 and is credited with saving the dam. Construction of a solution began in 1975 in the form of a seepage cut-off wall