Aaron Copland was an American composer, composition teacher, a conductor of his own and other American music. Copland was referred to by his peers and critics as "the Dean of American Composers"; the open changing harmonies in much of his music are typical of what many people consider to be the sound of American music, evoking the vast American landscape and pioneer spirit. He is best known for the works he wrote in the 1930s and 1940s in a deliberately accessible style referred to as "populist" and which the composer labeled his "vernacular" style. Works in this vein include the ballets Appalachian Spring, Billy the Kid and Rodeo, his Fanfare for the Common Man and Third Symphony. In addition to his ballets and orchestral works, he produced music in many other genres, including chamber music, vocal works and film scores. After some initial studies with composer Rubin Goldmark, Copland traveled to Paris, where he first studied with Isidor Philipp and Paul Vidal with noted pedagogue Nadia Boulanger.
He studied three years with Boulanger, whose eclectic approach to music inspired his own broad taste. Determined upon his return to the U. S. to make his way as a full-time composer, Copland gave lecture-recitals, wrote works on commission and did some teaching and writing. He found composing orchestral music in the modernist style he had adapted abroad a financially contradictory approach in light of the Great Depression, he shifted in the mid-1930s to a more accessible musical style which mirrored the German idea of Gebrauchsmusik, music that could serve utilitarian and artistic purposes. During the Depression years, he traveled extensively to Europe and Mexico, formed an important friendship with Mexican composer Carlos Chávez and began composing his signature works. During the late 1940s, Copland became aware that Stravinsky and other fellow composers had begun to study Arnold Schoenberg's use of twelve-tone techniques. After he had been exposed to the works of French composer Pierre Boulez, he incorporated serial techniques into his Piano Quartet, Piano Fantasy, Connotations for orchestra and Inscape for orchestra.
Unlike Schoenberg, Copland used his tone rows in much the same fashion as his tonal material—as sources for melodies and harmonies, rather than as complete statements in their own right, except for crucial events from a structural point of view. From the 1960s onward, Copland's activities turned more from composing to conducting, he became a frequent guest conductor of orchestras in the U. S. and the UK and made a series of recordings of his music for Columbia Records. Aaron Copland was born in Brooklyn, New York, on November 14, 1900, he was the youngest of five children in a Conservative Jewish family of Lithuanian origins. While emigrating from Russia to the United States, Copland's father, Harris Morris Copland and worked in Scotland for two to three years to pay for his boat fare to the US, it was there that Copland's father may have Anglicized his surname "Kaplan" to "Copland", though Copland himself believed for many years that the change had been due to an Ellis Island immigration official when his father entered the country.
Copland was however unaware until late in his life that the family name had been Kaplan, his parents never told him this. Throughout his childhood and his family lived above his parents' Brooklyn shop, H. M. Copland's, at 628 Washington Avenue, on the corner of Dean Street and Washington Avenue, most of the children helped out in the store, his father was a staunch Democrat. The family members were active in Congregation Baith Israel Anshei Emes, where Aaron celebrated his Bar Mitzvah. Not athletic, the sensitive young man became an avid reader and read Horatio Alger stories on his front steps. Copland's father had no musical interest, his mother, Sarah Mittenthal Copland, played the piano, arranged for music lessons for her children. Of his siblings, oldest brother Ralph was the most advanced musically, proficient on the violin, his sister Laurine had the strongest connection with Aaron. A student at the Metropolitan Opera School and a frequent opera-goer, Laurine brought home libretti for Aaron to study.
Copland in the summer went to various camps. Most of his early exposure to music was at Jewish weddings and ceremonies, occasional family musicales. Copland began writing songs at the age of eight and a half, his earliest notated music, about seven bars he wrote when age 11, was for an opera scenario he created and called Zenatello. From 1913 to 1917 he took piano lessons with Leopold Wolfsohn, who taught him the standard classical fare. Copland's first public music performance was at a Wanamaker's recital. By the age of 15, after attending a concert by composer-pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Copland decided to become a composer. After attempts to further his music study from a correspondence course, Copland took formal lessons in harmony and composition from Rubin Goldmark, a noted teacher and composer of American music. Goldmark, with whom Copland studied between 1917 and 1921, gave the young Copland a solid foundation in the Germanic tradition; as Copland stated later: "This was a stroke of luck for me.
I was spared the floundering that so many musicians have suffered through incompetent teaching." But Copland commented that the maestro had "little sympathy for the advanced musical idioms of the day" and his "approved" composers ended with
Nimrod, a biblical figure described as a king in the land of Shinar, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush, the son of Ham, son of Noah. The Bible states that he was "a mighty hunter before the Lord.... began to be mighty in the earth". Extra-biblical traditions associating him with the Tower of Babel led to his reputation as a king, rebellious against God. Attempts to match Nimrod with attested figures have failed. Nimrod may not represent any one personage known to history and various authors have identified him with several real and fictional figures of Mesopotamian antiquity, including the Mesopotamian god Ninurta or a conflation of two Akkadian kings Sargon and his grandson Naram-Sin, Tukulti-Ninurta I; the first biblical mention of Nimrod is in the Table of Nations. He is described as the son of Cush, grandson of Ham, great-grandson of Noah; this is repeated in the First Book of Chronicles 1:10, the "Land of Nimrod" used as a synonym for Assyria or Mesopotamia, is mentioned in the Book of Micah 5:6: And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof: thus shall he deliver us from the Assyrian, when he cometh into our land, when he treadeth within our borders.
Genesis says that the "beginning of his kingdom" were the towns of "Babel, Erech and Calneh in the land of Shinar" —understood variously to imply that he either founded these cities, ruled over them, or both. Owing to an ambiguity in the original Hebrew text, it is unclear whether it is he or Ashur who additionally built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir and Calah. Sir Walter Raleigh devoted several pages in his History of the World to reciting past scholarship regarding the question of whether it had been Nimrod or Ashur who built the cities in Assyria. In Hebrew and Christian tradition, Nimrod is considered the leader of those who built the Tower of Babel in the land of Shinar, though the Bible never states this. Nimrod's kingdom included the cities of Babel, Erech and Calneh, in Shinar. Flavius Josephus believed that it was under his direction that the building of Babel and its tower began. Several of these early Judaic sources assert that the king Amraphel, who wars with Abraham in Genesis, is none other than Nimrod himself.
Since Accad was destroyed and lost with the destruction of its Empire in the period 2200–2154 BCE, the stories mentioning Nimrod seem to recall the late Early Bronze Age. The association with Erech, a city that lost its prime importance around 2,000 BCE as a result of struggles between Isin and Elam attests the early provenance of the stories of Nimrod. According to some modern-day theorists, their placement in the Bible suggests a Babylonian origin—possibly inserted during the Babylonian captivity. Judaic interpreters as early as Philo and Yochanan ben Zakai interpreted "a mighty hunter before the Lord" as signifying "in opposition to the Lord"; some rabbinic commentators have connected the name Nimrod with a Hebrew word meaning'rebel'. In Pseudo-Philo, Nimrod is made leader of the Hamites, while Joktan as leader of the Semites, Fenech as leader of the Japhethites, are associated with the building of the Tower. Versions of this story are again picked up in works such as Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius.
The Book of Jubilees mentions the name of "Nebrod" only as being the father of Azurad, the wife of Eber and mother of Peleg. This account would thus make Nimrod an ancestor of Abraham, hence of all Hebrews. Josephus wrote: Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God, he was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah, a bold man, of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it were through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness, he gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his power. He said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again, and that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers. Now the multitude were ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God, it was built of burnt brick, cemented together with mortar, made of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit water.
When God saw that they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of th
Henny Penny, more known in the United States as Chicken Little and sometimes as Chicken Licken, is a European folk tale with a moral in the form of a cumulative tale about a chicken who believes the world is coming to an end. The phrase "The sky is falling!" Featured prominently in the story, has passed into the English language as a common idiom indicating a hysterical or mistaken belief that disaster is imminent. Versions of the story go back more than 25 centuries; the story is listed as Aarne-Thompson-Uther type 20C, which includes international examples of folktales that make light of paranoia and mass hysteria. There are several Western versions of the story, of which the best-known concerns a chick that believes the sky is falling when an acorn falls on its head; the chick decides to tell the King and on its journey meets other animals which join it in the quest. After this point, there are many endings. In the most familiar, a fox invites them to its lair and eats them all. Alternatively, the last one Cocky Lockey, survives long enough to warn the chick, who escapes.
In others all are rescued and speak to the King. In most retellings, the animals have rhyming names Chicken Licken or Chicken Little, Henny Penny or Hen-Len, Cocky Locky, Ducky Lucky or Ducky Daddles, Drakey Lakey, Goosey Loosey or Goosey Poosey, Gander Lander, Turkey Lurkey and Foxy Loxy or Foxy Woxy; the moral to be drawn changes, depending on the version. Where there is a "happy ending", the moral is not to be a "Chicken". In other versions where the birds are eaten by the fox, the fable is interpreted as a warning not to believe everything one is told. In the United States, the most common name for the story is "Chicken Little", as attested by illustrated books for children dating from the early 19th century. In Britain and its other former colonies, it is best known as "Henny Penny" and "Chicken Licken", titles by which it went in the United States; the story was part of the oral folk tradition and only began to appear in print after the Brothers Grimm had set a European example with their collection of German tales in the early years of the 19th century.
One of the earliest to collect tales from Scandinavian sources was Just Mathias Thiele, who in 1823 published an early version of the Henny Penny story in the Danish language. The names of the characters there are Kylling Kluk, Høne Pøne, Hane Pane, And Svand, Gaase Paase, Ræv Skræv. In Thiele's untitled account, a nut knocks him over, he goes to each of the other characters, proclaiming that "I think all the world is falling" and setting them all running. The fox Ræv Skræv joins in the flight and, when they reach the wood, counts them over from behind and eats them one by one; the tale was translated into English by Benjamin Thorpe after several other versions had appeared. Once the story began to appear in the English language, the titles by which they went varied and have continued to do so. John Greene Chandler, an illustrator and wood engraver from Petersham, published an illustrated children's book titled The Remarkable Story of Chicken Little in 1840. In this American version of the story, the characters' names are Chicken Little, Hen-Pen, Duck-Luck, Goose-Loose, Fox-Lox.
A Scots version of the tale is found in Robert Chambers's Popular Rhymes, Fireside Stories, Amusements of Scotland of 1842. It appeared among the "Fireside Nursery Stories" and was titled "The hen and her fellow travellers"; the characters included Henny Penny, Cocky Locky, Ducky Daddles, Goosie Poosie, an unnamed "tod". Henny Penny became convinced. In 1849, a "very different" English version was published under the title "The Story of Chicken-Licken" by Joseph Orchard Halliwell. In this Chicken-licken was startled when "an acorn fell on her bald pate" and encounters the characters Hen-len, Cock-lock, Duck-luck, Drake-lake, Goose-loose, Gander-lander, Turkey-lurkey and Fox-lox, it was followed in 1850 by "The wonderful story of Henny Penny" in Joseph Cundall's compilation, The Treasury of pleasure books for young children. Each story there is presented as if it were a separate book, in this case had two illustrations by Harrison Weir. In reality the story is a repetition of the Chambers narration in standard English, except that the dialect phrase "so she gaed, she gaed, she gaed" is retained and the cause of panic is mistranslated as "the clouds are falling".
Benjamin Thorpe's translation of Thiele's Danish story was published in 1853 and given the title "The Little Chicken Kluk and his companions" Thorpe describes the tale there as "a pendant to the Scottish story…printed in Chambers" and gives the characters the same names as in Chambers. Comparing the different versions, we find that in the Scots and English stories the animals want "to tell the king" that the skies are falling. In all versions they are eaten by the fox; the name "Chicken Little" — and the fable's central phrase, The sky is falling! — have been applied to people accused of being unreasonably afraid, or those trying to incite an unreasonable fear in those around them. The first use of the name "Chicken Little" to "one who warns of or predicts calamity without justification" recorded by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary is in 1895, but idiomatic use of the name predates that attestation. In fact, this usage is recorded in the United Sta
Nat M. Wills
Nat M. Wills, was a popular stage star, vaudeville entertainer, recording artist at the beginning of the 20th century, he is best known for his "tramp" persona and for performing humorous or satirical musical numbers, including parodies of popular songs of the day. Nat Wills was born Louis McGrath Wills in Fredericksburg, Virginia, on July 11, 1873, the son of John and Sallie B. Wills, his birth name is variously given as Louis Magrath Wills, Matthew McGrath Wills and Edward McGregor, but census records from 1880 show a boy named "Lewis" Wills, Wills gave his legal name as Louis on official documents. He had a brother, a sister, born in 1875, he had a half-sister, born in 1855, a half-brother, George F. born in 1853, from his father's first marriage to Susan A. Wills. Little is known about his early life. There is no record of his birth in Virginia. An article in the Fredericksburg, Virginia Daily Star, dated Tuesday, October 9, 1923, mentions Maud, says that Wills was the grandson of James Taylor, a policeman.
James Taylor was Wills' mother Sallie is listed on census records as a policeman. Wills' family moved to Washington, D. C. when he began his theatrical career there. One of his first stage appearances was with Minnie Palmer, a popular actress and operetta star of the day; as a young man, Wills appeared in melodramas and stage shows all over the United States. He alternated between vaudeville performances throughout his life. Wills was one of the first entertainers to perform at the famous Palace Theater, he appeared in the 1913 edition of the Ziegfeld Follies. Wills was famous for his version of "No News," an much copied vaudeville routine. In a monologue fashion, Wills played both a wealthy man returned from a doctor-ordered vacation and a servant reporting the news on the man's return home; the routine begins with the servant assuring the master there is no news to report, "except for one small thing..." which culminates in a great deal of tragic news. Wills tried to help other entertainers by forming, with other performers, The White Rats, the first entertainer's union.
He was an original member of the Board of Governors. The White Rats were organized June 1, 1900 to combat the abuses of the United Booking Office, a group of managers who had a monopoly on vaudeville bookings. Broadway appearances September 27, 1900 through October 20, 1900 - A Million Dollars, role: Cecil Roads August 17, 1903 through February 27, 1904 - A Son of Rest, role: Hunting Grubb September 11, 1905 through January 6, 1906 - The Duke of Duluth, role: Darling Doolittle June 16, 1913 through September 6, 1913 - Ziegfeld Follies of 1913 August 23, 1917 through May 11, 1918 - Cheer Up - Wills was appearing in this production when he died in December 1917. Nat Wills as King of Kazam Webb Singing Pictures No News, or What Killed the Dog? - Comic monologue, one of the best-selling records of its time. The Flag He Loved So Well - Parody of war songs describing a young man who heroically plays the trombone during war. Are You Sincere? - Parody that describes a timid police officer encountering bank robbers.
This track includes a spoken introduction. B. P. O. E: Elks' Song - Comic song in which Wills describes his time in the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, or B. P. O. E. Which he calls "The Best People on Earth." Many Elks lodges feature this song on their websites. The Old Oaken Bucket - Parody of a song based on a poetic ode to an oak bucket written by Samuel Woodworth in 1817 and set to music in 1826, in which the Happy Tramp encounters a bull; this track includes a spoken introduction. Our Boarding House - Parody of The Battle Hymn of the Republic detailing the comically deplorable conditions in a boarding house. Hoboken - No recording of this song is known to exist today. At the Comic Opera - Medley that uses music from many operas to describe one humorous night at the opera, including a mention of Enrico Caruso. Rainbow and Sunbonnet Sue - No recording of this song is known to exist today; the Traveling Man - Comic song describing the singer's time traveling the United States in a repertory theater company.
Song of the English Chappie - Parody of English music hall songs. Liberty - No recording of this song is known to exist today. Hortense at the Skating Rink - Comic monologue in which the speaker takes his overweight girlfriend to a roller skating rink. A Talk on Father - No recording of this song is known to exist today. Jungle Town Parody: Teddy in Africa - Parody of the African safari taken by former president Teddy Roosevelt after he left office in 1909. Saving up Coupons for Mother - Parody of popular sentimental ballads "Just Tell Them That You Saw Me" by Paul Dresser, describing a young man who smokes himself to death trying to save enough green cigarette coupons to purchase a tombstone for his deceased father. Reformed Love - Comic monologue describing how new research on germs and bacteria, their role in sickness, will affect love. Hortense at Sea - Comic monologue in which the speaker takes his underweight girlfriend on a sea voyage to regain her health. Too Much Dog - Comic monologue detailing the speaker's misadventures with his wife's five dogs.
A New Cure for Drinking - Comic monologue describing a group of men who are trying to give up drinking alcohol. Darky Stories - Comic monologue telling two stories about African-Americans; this track is considered offensive today. The original title of the track was "Darky Stories," but v
A singing game is an activity based on a particular verse or rhyme associated with a set of actions and movements. They have been studied by folklorists and psychologists and are seen as important part of childhood culture; the same term is used for a form of video game that involves singing. Singing games began to be recorded and studied in the nineteenth century as part of the wider folklore movement. Joseph Strutt's Sports and Pastimes of the People of England, Robert Chambers Popular Rhymes of Scotland, James Orchard Halliwell's The Nursery Rhymes of England and his Popular Rhymes and Nursery Tales, G. F. Northal's English Folk Rhymes, all included collected singing games. However, the first studies to focus on this area were William Wells Newell's Games and Songs of American Children and Alice Gomme's The Traditional Games of England and Ireland, both considered landmark works in the serious study of the subject on respective sides of the Atlantic; these works tended to have many of the faults associated with the folklore and folk song collecting of their eras, have been criticised for a focus on rural society at the expense of the urban, an obsession with recovering what were seen as disappearing'authentic' and original verse, from adults, while disregarding contemporary practice by children.
Some of these problems were rectified by work like that of Norman Douglas, who produced London Street Games in 1916, focusing on the urban working classes. Still the most significant work in the field was that of Iona and Peter Opie, which departed from previous practice in Britain, their extensive studies refuted the idea that the traditions of singing games were disappearing in the face of social and media change, instead suggested adaptation and development. Their work was influential and replicated from a number of locations, including America, where Herbert and Mary Knapp, produced One Potato, Two Potato: the Secret Education of American Children and Finland which saw Leea Virtanen's Children's Lore. Wider anthropologically based studies include Helen Schwartzman's Transformations: The Anthropology of Children's Play; as the emphasis of investigations changed so did the methods of recording. Early folklorists like Lady Gomme, tended to provide written descriptions of games and musical notation of tunes.
In time complex symbols were developed to choreographed the movement within the games, but from the late 1970s there was increasing use of ethnographic film to record the actual practice of games, providing a record of the links between movement and music. Early folklorists tended to reflect contemporary theories and beliefs, including the view that singing games were a form of pagan survivalism, which led Alice Gomme to conclude that "London Bridge Is Broken Down" reflected a memory of child sacrifice, or'devolution', which assumed that children's songs must have devolved down to children from adult culture and did not allow for innovation by children themselves; the origins of most have been evolved by children over many generations. The Opies divided singing games into a number of categories, including: Matchmaking Wedding Rings Cushion Dances Witch Dances Calls of Friendship Eccentric Circles Buffoonery Clapping Mimicry Many other children's games, that do not themselves involve singing are prefaced by a song.
Traditionally there were many calling rhymes, used to assemble players of a game, the origin of the nursery rhyme "Girls and Boys Come Out To Play". Singing games are used as counting out or'dipping' games, a means of starting a game by choosing special roles by eliminating all but one player, most famously in rhymes like "Eeny, miny, moe" and "One potato, two potato"; some children's singing games may have their origins in circle dances, including "Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush" and "Nuts in May". The simplest, the best known, circle dance is "Ring a Ring o' Roses". A number of singing games deal with elements of courtship and marriage, like "Skip to My Lou", which remained an adult courtship song, "Green Grass" and "Three Dukes", retained only by children; the best known of wedding ring games, where players are chosen for various roles in married life, from a circle is "The Farmer in the Dell". A clapping game is played by two players and involves clapping as accompaniment to a rhyme.
Clapping games are found throughout the world and similar games may be known throughout large areas with regional variations. The rhyme helps the players carry out the complicated actions in time. A skipping or jump-rope rhyme, is a form of singing game chanted while using skipping ropes; such rhymes have been recorded in all cultures. Examples of English-language rhymes have been found going back to at least the seventeenth century. Like most folklore, skipping rhymes tend to be found in many different variations. In this game, two players make an arch while the others pass through in single file while singing a song; the arch is lowered at the end of the song to "catch" a player. The most common example of such a game involves the song "London Bridge is Falling Down." A similar game is played to the tune of "Oranges and Lemons." Similar games exist in other cultures as well. In Japan, for example, similar games are played to the song "Toryanse." In Mexico, the g
Joseph Jacobs was an Australian folklorist, literary critic, social scientist and writer of English literature who became a notable collector and publisher of English folklore. Jacobs was born in Sydney to a Jewish family, his work went on to popularize some of the world's best known versions of English fairy tales including "Jack and the Beanstalk", "Goldilocks and the three bears", "The Three Little Pigs", "Jack the Giant Killer" and "The History of Tom Thumb". He published his English fairy tale collections: English Fairy Tales in 1890 and More English Fairy Tales in 1893 but went on after and in between both books to publish fairy tales collected from continental Europe as well as Jewish and Indian fairytales which made him one of the most popular writers of fairytales for the English language. Jacobs was an editor for journals and books on the subject of folklore which included editing the Fables of Bidpai and the Fables of Aesop, as well as articles on the migration of Jewish folklore.
He edited editions of The Thousand and One Nights. He went on to join The Folklore Society in England and became an editor of the society journal Folklore. Joseph Jacobs contributed to The Jewish Encyclopedia. During his lifetime, Jacobs came to be regarded as one of the foremost experts on English folklore. Jacobs was born in Sydney, Australia on 29 August 1854, he was the sixth surviving son of John Jacobs, a publican who had emigrated from London around 1837, his wife Sarah, née Myers. Jacobs was educated at Sydney Grammar School and at the University of Sydney, where he won a scholarship for classics and chemistry, he did not complete his studies in Sydney, but left for England at the age of 18. He moved to England to study at St. John's College at the University of Cambridge, where he gained a BA in 1876. At university, he demonstrated a particular interest in mathematics, literature and anthropology. While in Britain, Jacobs became aware of widespread anti-Semitism. In 1877 he moved to Berlin to study Jewish literature and bibliography under Moritz Steinschneider and Jewish philosophy and ethnology under Moritz Lazarus.
Jacobs returned to England. At this point, he began to further develop his interest in folklore. From 1878 to 1884 he served as secretary of the Society of Hebrew Literature, he was concerned by the anti-Semitic pogroms in the Russian Empire and in January 1882 wrote letters on the subject to the London Times. This helped raise public attention to the issue, resulting in the formation of the Mansion House Fund and Committee, of which he was secretary from 1882 to 1900, he was the honorary secretary of the literature and art committee of the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition—held in London's Royal Albert Hall in 1887—and with Lucien Wolf compiled the exhibit's catalogue. In 1888, Jacobs visited Spain to examine old Jewish manuscripts there. In 1891, he returned to the theme of Russian anti-Semitism for a short book, "The Persecution of the Jews in Russia", published first in London and republished in the United States by the Jewish Publication Society of America. In 1896, Jacobs began publication of the annual Jewish Year Book, continuing the series until 1899, after which it was continued by others.
In Britain, he was President of the Jewish Historical Society. In 1896, Jacobs visited the United States to deliver his lectures on "The Philosophy of Jewish History" to Gratz College in Philadelphia and to groups of the Council of Jewish Women at New York and Chicago. In 1900, he was invited to serve as revising editor for the Jewish Encyclopedia, which included entries from 600 contributors, he moved to the United States to take on this task. There he involved himself in the American Jewish Historical Society, he became a working member of the Jewish Publication Society's publication committee. In the U. S. Jacobs taught at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Jacobs fathered two sons and a daughter. In 1900, when he became revising editor of the Jewish Encyclopedia, based in New York, he settled permanently in the United States, he died on 30 January 1916 at his home in Yonkers, New York, aged 62. He was a student of anthropology at the Statistical Laboratory at University College London in the 1880s under Francis Galton.
His Studies in Jewish Statistics: Social and Anthropometric made his reputation as the first proponent of Jewish race science. In 1908, he was appointed a member of the board of seven, which made a new English translation of the Bible for the Jewish Publication Society of America. In 1913, he resigned his positions at the seminary to become editor of the American Hebrew. In 1920, Book I of his Jewish Contributions to Civilization, finished at the time of his death, was published at Philadelphia. In addition to the books mentioned, Jacobs edited The Fables of Aesop as First Printed by Caxton, Painter's Palace of Pleasure, Baltaser Gracian's Art of Worldly Wisdom, Howell's Letters and Josaphat, The Thousand and One Nights, others. Jacobs was a contributor to the Encyclopædia Britannica, James Hastings' Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics. Jacobs edited the journal Folklore from 1899 to 1900 and from 1890 to 1916 he edited multiple collections of fairy tales that were published with illustrations by John Dickson Batten: English Fairy Tales, Celtic Fairy Tales, Indian Fairy Tales, More English Fa
Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People's Ears
Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People's Ears: A West African Tale is a 1975 picture book by Verna Aardema and illustrated by Leo and Diane Dillon told in the form of a cumulative tale written for young children, which tells an African legend. In this origin story, the mosquito lies to a lizard, who puts sticks in his ears and ends up frightening another animal, which down a long line causes a panic. In the end, an owlet is killed and the owl is too sad to wake the sun until the animals hold court and find out, responsible; the mosquito is found out, but it hides in order to escape punishment. So now it buzzes in people's ears to find out if everyone is still angry at it; the artwork was made using watercolor airbrush and India ink. The cutout shapes were made by using friskets and vellum cut shapes at different angles; the book won a Caldecott Medal in 1976 for the Dillons. It was the first of their two consecutive Caldecott wins; this story is a resource for teachers to teach the skill cause and effect: "A cause is something that makes something else happen.
The actions from the other animals offers several more examples of cause and effect as each animal does something that causes the next animal to do something. This chain of events causes the owlet to die. Teachers can use this text to show students; the book was adapted into an animated short in 1984, narrated by James Earl Jones