Hiyoshi-zukuri or hie-zukuri called shōtei-zukuri / shōtai-zukuri or sannō-zukuri is a rare Shinto shrine architectural style presently found in only three instances, all at Hiyoshi Taisha in Ōtsu, hence the name. They are the Sessha Usa Jingū Honden, it is characterized by a hip-and gable roof with verandas called hisashi on the sides. It has a hirairi structure, that is, the building has its main entrance on the side which runs parallel to the roof's ridge; the building is composed of a 3x2 ken core called moya surrounded on three sides by a 1-ken wide hisashi, totaling 5x3 ken. The three-sided hisashi is typical of this style; the gabled roof extends in small porticos on the two gabled sides. The roof on the back has a characteristic shape
The millimetre or millimeter is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, the SI base unit of length. Therefore, there are one thousand millimetres in a metre. There are ten millimetres in a centimetre. One millimetre is equal to 1000000 nanometres. A millimetre is equal to 5⁄127 of an inch. Since 1983, the metre has been defined as "the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second". A millimetre, 1/1000 of a metre, is therefore the distance travelled by light in 1/299792458000 of a second. A common shortening of millimetre in spoken English is "mil"; this can cause confusion since in the United States, "mil" traditionally means a thousandth of an inch. For the purposes of compatibility with Chinese and Korean characters, Unicode has symbols for: millimetre - code U+339C square millimetre - code U+339F cubic millimetre - code U+33A3In Japanese typography, these square symbols were used for laying out unit symbols without distorting the grid layout of text characters.
On a metric ruler, the smallest measurements are millimetres. High-quality engineering rules may be graduated in increments of 0.5 mm. Digital callipers are capable of reading increments as small as 0.01 mm. Microwaves with a frequency of 300 GHz have a wavelength of 1 mm. Using wavelengths between 30 GHz and 300 GHz for data transmission, in contrast to the 300 MHz to 3 GHz used in mobile devices, has the potential to allow data transfer rates of 10 gigabits per second; the smallest distances the human eye can resolve is around 0.02 to 0.04 mm the width of a human hair. A sheet of paper is between 0.07 mm and 0.18 mm thick, with ordinary printer paper or copy paper a tenth of a millimetre thick. Metric system Orders of magnitude Submillimeter
Hirairi or hirairi-zukuri is a Japanese traditional architectural structure, where the building has its main entrance on the side which runs parallel to the roof's ridge. The shinmei-zukuri, nagare-zukuri, hachiman-zukuri, hie-zukuri Shinto architectural styles belong to this type, it survives in religious settings. In residential buildings, the entrance side is the long one, but from the Edo period onward the opposite became more frequent
. Kibitsu-zukuri, kibi-zukuri or hiyoku irimoya-zukuri is a traditional Japanese Shinto architectural style characterized by four dormer gables, two per lateral side, on the roof of a large honden; the gables are set at a right angle to the main roof ridge, the honden is part of a single complex including a haiden. Kibitsu Shrine in Okayama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan is the sole example of the style, although the Soshi-dō of Hokekyō-ji in Chiba prefecture is believed to have been modeled on it; the T-shaped shrine is composed of two buildings: the haiden or prayer hall, in the front, the honden or sanctuary, in the back, both under the same roof and joined by a short stairway. Both buildings show the clear influence of Buddhist architecture, as they include features of all major styles, Daibutsuyō, Zenshūyō and Wayō; the honden, which shows strong daibutsuyō influences, is large, measuring 14.64 x 17.99 m, or 5 x 8 x 7 bays, with bays of a different length according to their position. The honden's interior has a complex structure, being divided in six separate sections joined by six different stairways.
At the center of the honden are two sanctuaries, the nai-naijin which measures 3 x 2 bays, the naijin, which measures 3 x 1 bays. The two sanctuaries are surrounded on all sides by two corridors called the gejin. Between the chūjin and the gejin lies a 5 x 1 bay space called kōhai-no-ma called ake-no-dan; the closer one gets to the higher the floor and the ceiling. The ceiling's structure itself changes, as most of the chūjin and the entire gejin have no ceiling, the roof is therefore exposed, whereas other sections have ceilings of different types; the nainaijin for example lies below the gables. The whole area is decorated with black lacquer; the honden is connected in the front to the haiden by a short stairway. The haiden's core is just 3 x 1 bays, but it is surrounded on three sides by a 1-bay wide mokoshi, bringing the building's external dimensions to 4 x 4 bays. Both entrances to the haiden are on the gabled side. Together with the outsize honden, the most visible feature of the shrine are the twin gables on both sides of the roof.
This style of roof, called hiyoku irimoya-zukuri, or "paired wing, hip-and-gable roof style", consists of two ridges at a right angle to the main roof which end in two dormer gables
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine is a style of traditional medicine based on more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, massage and dietary therapy, but also influenced by modern Western medicine. TCM is used in Sinosphere where it has a long history, it has begun "gaining global recognition". One of the basic tenets of TCM is that "the body's vital energy circulates through channels, called meridians, that have branches connected to bodily organs and functions." Concepts of the body and of disease used in TCM reflect its ancient origins and its emphasis on dynamic processes over material structure, similar to European humoral theory. Scientific investigation has not found evidence for traditional Chinese concepts such as qi, acupuncture points; the TCM theory and practice are not based upon scientific knowledge, there is disagreement between TCM practitioners on what diagnosis and treatments should be used for any given patient. The effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine supported.
There are concerns over a number of toxic plants, animal parts, mineral Chinese medicinals. There are concerns over illegal trade and transport of endangered species including rhinoceroses and tigers, the welfare of specially farmed animals including bears. A review of cost-effectiveness research for TCM found that studies had low levels of evidence, but so far have not shown benefit outcomes. Pharmaceutical research has explored the potential for creating new drugs from traditional remedies, with few successful results. A Nature editorial described TCM as "fraught with pseudoscience", said that the most obvious reason it has not delivered many cures is that the majority of its treatments have no logical mechanism of action. Proponents suggest that research has so far missed key features of the art of TCM, such as unknown interactions between various ingredients and complex interactive biological systems; the doctrines of Chinese medicine are rooted in books such as the Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon and the Treatise on Cold Damage, as well as in cosmological notions such as yin–yang and the five phases.
Starting in the 1950s, these precepts were standardized in the People's Republic of China, including attempts to integrate them with modern notions of anatomy and pathology. In the 1950s, the Chinese government promoted a systematized form of TCM. TCM describes health as the harmonious interaction of these entities and the outside world, disease as a disharmony in interaction. TCM diagnosis aims to trace symptoms to patterns of an underlying disharmony, by measuring the pulse, inspecting the tongue and eyes, looking at the eating and sleeping habits of the person as well as many other things. Traces of therapeutic activities in China date from the Shang dynasty. Though the Shang did not have a concept of "medicine" as distinct from other fields, their oracular inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells refer to illnesses that affected the Shang royal family: eye disorders, bloated abdomen, etc. which Shang elites attributed to curses sent by their ancestors. There is no evidence. According to a 2006 overview, the "Documentation of Chinese materia medica dates back to around 1,100 BCE when only dozens of drugs were first described.
By the end of the 16th century, the number of drugs documented had reached close to 1,900. And by the end of the last century, published records of CMM had reached 12,800 drugs."Stone and bone needles found in ancient tombs led Joseph Needham to speculate that acupuncture might have been carried out in the Shang dynasty. This being said, most historians now make a distinction between medical lancing and acupuncture in the narrower sense of using metal needles to treat illnesses by stimulating specific points along circulation channels in accordance with theories related to the circulation of Qi; the earliest evidence for acupuncture in this sense dates to the second or first century BCE. The Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon, the oldest received work of Chinese medical theory, was compiled around the first century BCE on the basis of shorter texts from different medical lineages. Written in the form of dialogues between the legendary Yellow Emperor and his ministers, it offers explanations on the relation between humans, their environment, the cosmos, on the contents of the body, on human vitality and pathology, on the symptoms of illness, on how to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in light of all these factors.
Unlike earlier texts like Recipes for Fifty-Two Ailments, excavated in the 1970s from a tomb, sealed in 168 BCE, the Inner Canon rejected the influence of spirits and the use of magic. It was one of the first books in which the cosmological doctrines of Yinyang and the Five Phases were brought to a mature synthesis; the Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders and Miscellaneous Illnesses was collated by Zhang Zhongjing sometime between 196 and 220 CE. Focusing on drug prescriptions rather than acupuncture, it was the first medical work to combine Yinyang and the Five Phases with drug therapy; this formulary was the earliest public Chinese medical text to group symptoms into clinically useful "patterns" that could serve as targets for therapy. Having gone through numerous changes over time, the formulary now circulates as two distinct books: the Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders and the Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Casket, which were edited separately in the eleventh century, under the Song dynasty.
Daibutsuyō is a Japanese religious architectural style which emerged in the late 12th or early 13th century. Together with Wayō and Zenshūyō, it is one of the three most significant styles developed by Japanese Buddhism on the basis of Chinese models. Called tenjikuyō, because it had nothing to do with India it was rechristened by scholar Ōta Hirotarō during the 20th century, the new term stuck. Ōta derived the name from Chōgen's work Tōdai-ji's Daibutsuden. Soon abandoned after its creator's death because it didn't harmonize with Japanese tastes, it nonetheless influenced other building styles with its rational solutions; the combination of wayō and daibutsuyō in particular became so frequent that sometimes it is classed separately by scholars under the name Shin-wayō. This grandiose and monumental style is the antithesis of the traditional wayō style; the Nandaimon at Tōdai-ji and the Amida-dō at Jōdo-ji in Ono are its best extant examples. The style was introduced by priest Chōgen, who in 1180 directed the reconstruction of Tōdai-ji, destroyed during the Genpei war.
Chōgen had just come back from the last of his three travels to China and therefore chose as a basis for the work Song Dynasty architecture. He was supported in his innovative work by first shōgun Minamoto no Yoritomo. Of his work at the temple only three structures remain, the mentioned Nandaimon, which remains the best Daibutsuyō example, the Kaizandō and the Hokkedō; the gate's most characteristic features are the six-tier bracket groups projecting directly out of the columns and connected to each other by ties as long as the facade. During the Edo period the temple's Main Hall, the Daibutsuden, was rebuilt in the style, to which it would give its name. Chōgen built other buildings in this style near and around Nara, of which the Amida-dō at Jōdo-ji in Ono is a good extant example; the style declined after its creator's death because it did not agree with Japanese tastes. Structural elements are treated as design elements, the building's deliberate roughness is supposed to be part of its beauty, but the concept was too alien to Chōgen's contemporaries, was rejected.
The Daibutsuyō style was short-lived but innovative, many of the ideas it introduced were adopted by other styles as well. In particular, during the Muromachi period the traditional Wayō style was so influenced that the mix of the two is sometimes called Shin-wayō. Thick woodwork and imposing general look Use of penetrating tie beamsDuring the Heian period temples were built using only non-penetrating tie beams made to fit around columns and pillars and nailed; the daibutsuyō style and the zenshūyō style replaced them with penetrating tie-beams, which pierced the column, were therefore much more effective against earthquakes. The nageshi was however retained as a purely decorative element. Thick, visible structural elements with decorative functionAs mentioned, many structural elements are left uncovered and have a decorative function. For example, the roof's supporting members are not covered by a ceiling and are therefore visible from within the temple; the Nandaimon's stabilizing bracket ties which run the entire width of the gate are fully visible.
Structural elements are much thicker than in Zen buildings. SashihijikiThe sashihijiki is a bracket arm inserted directly into a pillar instead of resting onto a supporting block on top of a pillar, as was normal in the preceding wayō style. At Tōdai-ji, both the Nandaimon and the Daibutsuden have six sashihijiki one on top of the other.. ŌgidarukiAnother detail unique to this style are the ōgidaruki. The rafters supporting each roof corner spread in a fan-like pattern. KibanaThe tips of each protruding beam ends in a nose-like structure called kibana. Japanese Buddhist architecture - Heian period Wayō Setchūyō Zenshūyō Fletcher, Sir Banister. Sir Banister Fletcher's a history of architecture. Architectural Press. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9. Retrieved 2009-11-11. "JAANUS". Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System. Nishi, Kazuo. What is Japanese architecture?. Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-1992-0. Retrieved 2009-11-11. Young, David. Introduction to Japanese architecture. Periplus Asian architecture. Tuttle Publishing.
ISBN 0-7946-0100-6. Retrieved 2010-01-11