A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, a mound of stones built for various purposes, may originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a round tumulus commonly constructed on top of burials; the internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house, or a chamber tomb. Examples of barrows include Duggleby Maeshowe; the word tumulus is Latin for'mound' or'small hill', derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *teuh2- with extended zero grade *tum-,'to bulge, swell' found in tumor, thumb and thousand.
The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad. Patroclus is burned on a pyre, his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat; the barrow is built on the location of the pyre. Achilles sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing and spear throwing. Beowulf's body is taken to Hronesness. During cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, a widow's lament being mentioned in particular, singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, filled with treasure. A band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord. Parallels have been drawn to the account of Attila's burial in Jordanes' Getica. Jordanes tells that as Attila's body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games. An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession "halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, the mourners marched thrice solemnly round the spot."
Archaeologists classify tumuli according to their location and date of construction. Some British types are listed below: Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow D-shaped barrow – round barrow with a purposely flat edge at one side defined by stone slabs. Disc barrow Fancy barrow – generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a simple hemispherical shape. Long barrow Oval barrow – a Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound. Platform barrow – The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch, they occur across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West Sussex. Pond barrow – a barrow consisting of a shallow circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression, from the Bronze Age. Ring barrow – a bank that encircles a number of burials. Round barrow – a circular feature created by the Bronze Age peoples of Britain and the Romans and Saxons.
Divided into subclasses such as saucer and bell barrow—the Six Hills are a rare Roman example. Saucer barrow – a circular Bronze Age barrow that features a low, wide mound surrounded by a ditch that may have an external bank. Square barrow – burial site of Iron Age date, consisting of a small, ditched enclosure surrounding a central burial, which may have been covered by a mound. In 2015, the first long barrow in thousands of years, inspired by those built in the Neolithic Period, was built near All Cannings in England; the project was steward of Stonehenge. The barrow was designed to have a large number of private niches within the stone and earth structure to receive cremation urns; the structure received significant media attention, with national press writing extensively about the revival of the structures, various episodes of filming, for example by BBC Countryfile as it was being built. It was subscribed within eighteen months; this was followed soon after by a new barrow near St Neots. Further plans to revive barrows are at Soulton in Shropshire.
The word kurgan is of Turkic origin, derives from Proto-Turkic *Kur-. In Ukraine and Russia, there are royal kurgans of Varangian chieftains, such as the Black Grave in Ukrainian Chernihiv, Oleg's Grave in Russian Staraya Ladoga, vast, intricate Rurik's Hill near Russian Novgorod. Other important kurgans are found in Ukraine and South Russia and are associated with much more ancient steppe peoples, notably the Scythians and early Indo-Europeans The steppe cultures found in Ukraine and South Russia continue into Central Asia, in particular Kazakhstan. Salweyn in northern Somalia contains a large field of cairns, which stretches for a distance of around 8 km. An excavation of one of these tumuli by Georges Révoil in 1881 uncovered a tomb, beside which were artefacts pointing to an ancient, advanced civilization; the interred objects included pottery shards from Samos, some well-crafted enamels, a mask of Ancient Greek design. Tumuli are one of the most prominent types of prehistoric monuments spread throughout northern and southern Albania.
Some well-known local tumuli are: Kamenica Tumulus Lofkënd Tumulus Pazhok Tumulus More than 50 burial mounds were found in Kupres. Man from Kupres- the skeleton found
A cist is a small stone-built coffin-like box or ossuary used to hold the bodies of the dead. Examples can be found in the Middle East. A cist may have been associated with other monuments under a cairn or long barrow. Several cists are sometimes found close together within barrow. Ornaments have been found within an excavated cist, indicating the wealth or prominence of the interred individual. EnglandHepburn woods, NorthumberlandEstoniaJõelähtme stone-cist graves, Harju CountyGuatemalaMundo Perdido, Petén DepartmentIsraelTel Kabri, Upper GalileeScotlandBalblair cist, Inverness Dunan Aula, Craignish and Bute Holm Mains Farm, Inverness Kistvaen Dartmoor kistvaens Pretanic World - Chart of Neolithic, Bronze Age and Celtic Stone Structures
Genealogy known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genealogists use oral interviews, historical records, genetic analysis, other records to obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship and pedigrees of its members; the results are displayed in charts or written as narratives. The pursuit of family history and origins tends to be shaped by several motives, including the desire to carve out a place for one's family in the larger historical picture, a sense of responsibility to preserve the past for future generations, a sense of self-satisfaction in accurate storytelling. Amateur genealogists pursue their own ancestry and that of their spouses. Professional genealogists may conduct research for others, publish books on genealogical methods, teach, or produce their own databases, they may work for companies that provide software or produce materials of use to other professionals and to amateurs. Both try to understand not just where and when people lived, but their lifestyles and motivations.
This requires—or leads to—knowledge of antiquated laws, old political boundaries, migration trends, historical socioeconomic or religious conditions. Genealogists sometimes specialize in a particular group. Bloodlines of Salem is an example of a specialized family-history group, it welcomes members who can prove descent from a participant of the Salem Witch Trials or who choose to support the group. Genealogists and family historians join family history societies, where novices can learn from more experienced researchers; such societies serve a specific geographical area. Their members may index records to make them more accessible, engage in advocacy and other efforts to preserve public records and cemeteries; some schools engage students in such projects as a means to reinforce lessons regarding immigration and history. Other benefits include family medical histories with families with serious medical conditions that are hereditary; the terms "genealogy" and "family history" are used synonymously, but some offer a slight difference in definition.
The Society of Genealogists, while using the terms interchangeably, describes genealogy as the "establishment of a Pedigree by extracting evidence, from valid sources, of how one generation is connected to the next" and family history as "a biographical study of a genealogically proven family and of the community and country in which they lived". The term "family history" may be more popular in Europe, "genealogy" more popular in the United States. In communitarian societies, one's identity is defined as much by one's kin network as by individual achievement, the question "Who are you?" would be answered by a description of father and tribe. New Zealand Māori, for example, learn whakapapa to discover. Family history plays a part in the practice of some religious belief systems. For example, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a doctrine of baptism for the dead, which necessitates that members of that faith engage in family history research. In societies such as Australia or the United States, there was by the 20th century growing pride in the pioneers and nation-builders.
Establishing descent from these was, is, important to lineage societies such as the Daughters of the American Revolution and The Mayflower Society. Modern family history explores new sources of status, such as celebrating the resilience of families that survived generations of poverty or slavery, or the success of families in integrating across racial or national boundaries; some family histories emphasize links to celebrity criminals, such as the bushranger Ned Kelly in Australia. The growing interest in family history in the media coupled with easier access to online records has allowed those who are curious to do so to start investigating their ancestry; this curiosity can be strong among those whose family histories were lost or unknown due to, for example, adoption or separation from family as a result of bereavement. In Western societies the focus of genealogy was on the kinship and descent of rulers and nobles arguing or demonstrating the legitimacy of claims to wealth and power; the term overlapped with heraldry, in which the ancestry of royalty was reflected in their coats of arms.
Modern scholars consider many claimed noble ancestries to be fabrications, such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that traced the ancestry of several English kings to the god Woden. Some family trees have been maintained for considerable periods; the family tree of Confucius has been maintained for over 2,500 years and is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest extant family tree. The fifth edition of the Confucius Genealogy was printed in 2009 by the Confucius Genealogy Compilation Committee. In modern times, genealogy became more widespread, with commoners as well as nobility researching and maintaining their family trees. Genealogy received a boost in the late 1970s with the television broadcast of Roots: The Saga of an American Family, Alex Haley's account of his family line. With the advent of the Internet, the number of resources readil
The Saxons were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany. Earlier, in the late Roman Empire, the name was used to refer to Germanic inhabitants of what is now England, as a word something like the "Viking", as a term for raiders. In Merovingian times, continental Saxons were associated with the coast of what became Normandy. Though sometimes described as fighting inland, coming in conflict with the Franks and Thuringians, no clear homeland can be defined. There is a single classical reference to a smaller homeland of an early Saxon tribe, but it is disputed. According to this proposal, the Saxons' earliest area of settlement is believed to have been Northern Albingia; this general area is close to the probable homeland of the Angles. In contrast, the British "Saxons", today referred to in English as Anglo-Saxons, became a single nation bringing together Germanic peoples with the Romanized populations, establishing long-lasting post-Roman kingdoms equivalent to those formed by the Franks on the continent.
Their earliest weapons and clothing south of the Thames were based on late Roman military fashions, but immigrants north of the Thames showed a stronger North German influence. The term "Anglo-Saxon" came into use by the 8th century to distinguish English Saxons from continental Saxons, but the Saxons of Britain and those of Old Saxony continued to be referred to as'Saxons' in an indiscriminate manner in the languages of Britain and Ireland. However, while the English Saxons were no longer raiders, the political history of the continental Saxons is unclear until the time of the conflict between their semi-legendary hero Widukind and the Frankish emperor Charlemagne. While the continental Saxons are no longer a distinctive ethnic group or country, their name lives on in the names of several regions and states of Germany, including Lower Saxony, as well as the two states that make up Upper Saxony, known today as Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony; the latter have their names from dynastic history, not their ethnic history.
The Saxons may have derived their name from a kind of knife for which they were known. The seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem, their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word "Saxon". The Elizabethan era play Edmund Ironside suggests the Saxon name derives from the Latin saxa: Their names discover what their natures are, More hard than stones, yet not stones indeed. In the Celtic languages, the words designating English nationality derive from the Latin word Saxones; the most prominent example, a loanword in English, is the Scottish word Sassenach, used by Scots- or Scottish English-speakers in the 21st century as a jocular term for an English person. The Oxford English Dictionary gives 1771 as the date of the earliest written use of the word in English, it derives from the Scottish Gaelic Sasannach. The Gaelic name for England is Sasann, Sasannach means "English" in reference to people and things, though not to the English Language, Beurla.
Sasanach, the Irish word for an Englishman, has the same derivation, as do the words used in Welsh to describe the English people and the language and things English in general: Saesneg and Seisnig. Cornish terms the English Sawsnek, from the same derivation. In the 16th century Cornish-speakers used the phrase Meea navidna cowza sawzneck to feign ignorance of the English language."England" in Scottish Gaelic is Sasann. Other examples include the Welsh Saesneg, Irish Sasana, Breton saoz, Cornish Sowson and Pow Sows for'Land of Saxons'; the label "Saxons" became attached to German settlers who migrated during the 13th century to southeastern Transylvania. From Transylvania, some of these Saxons migrated to neighbouring Moldavia, as the name of the town Sas-cut shows. Sascut lies in the part of Moldavia, today part of Romania. During Georg Friederich Händel's visit to Italy, much was made of his origins in Saxony; the Finns and Estonians have changed their usage of the root Saxon over the centuries to apply now to the whole country of Germany and the Germans.
The Finnish word sakset reflects the name of the old Saxon single-edged sword - seax - from which the name "Saxon" derives. In Estonian, saks means "a nobleman" or, colloquially, "a wealthy or powerful person"; the word survives as the surnames of Saß/Sass and Sachs. The Dutch female first name, Saskia meant "A Saxon woman". Following the downfall of Henry the Lion, the subsequent splitt
Gildas — known as Gildas the Wise or Gildas Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons. He is one of the best-documented figures of the Christian church in the British Isles during the sub-Roman period, was renowned for his Biblical knowledge and literary style. In his life, he emigrated to Brittany where he founded a monastery known as St. Gildas de Rhuys. Differing versions of the Life of Saint Gildas exist, but both agree that he was born in what is now Scotland on the banks of the River Clyde, that he was the son of a royal family; these works were written in the eleventh and twelfth centuries and are regarded by scholars as unhistorical. He is now thought to have his origins further south. In his own work, he claims to have been born the same year as the Battle of Mount Badon, he was educated at a monastic centre Cor Tewdws under St. Illtud, where he chose to forsake his royal heritage and embrace monasticism.
He became a renowned teacher, converting many to Christianity and founding numerous churches and monasteries throughout Britain and Ireland. He is thought to have made a pilgrimage to Rome before emigrating to Brittany, where he took on the life of a hermit. However, his life of solitude was short-lived, pupils soon sought him out and begged him to teach them, he founded a monastery for these students at Rhuys, where he wrote De Excidio Britanniae, criticising British rulers and exhorting them to put off their sins and embrace true Christian faith. He is thought to have died at Rhuys, was buried there. There are two different historical versions of the life of Gildas, the first written by an anonymous monk in the 9th century, the other written by Caradoc of Llancarfan in the middle of the 12th century; some historians have attempted to explain the differences in the versions by saying that there were two saints named Gildas, but the more general opinion is that there was only one St. Gildas and that the discrepancies between the two versions can be accounted for by the fact that they were written several centuries apart.
The 9th century Rhuys Life is accepted as being more accurate. The First Life of St. Gildas was written by an unnamed monk at the monastery which Gildas founded in Rhuys, Brittany in the 9th century. According to this tradition, Gildas is the son of Caunus, king of Alt Clut in the Hen Ogledd, the Brythonic-speaking region of northern Britain, he had four brothers. Gildas was sent as a child to the College of Theodosius in Glamorgan, under the care of St. Illtud, was a companion of St. Sampson and St. Paul of Léon, his master St. Illtud taught him with special zeal, he was supposed to be educated in liberal arts and divine scripture, but elected to study only holy doctrine, to forsake his noble birth in favour of a religious life. After completing his studies under St. Illtud, Gildas went to Ireland where he was ordained as a priest, he returned to his native lands in northern Britain where he acted as a missionary, preaching to the pagan people and converting many of them to Christianity. He was asked by Ainmericus, high king of Ireland, to restore order to the church in Ireland, which had altogether lost the Christian faith.
Gildas obeyed the king's summons and travelled all over the island, converting the inhabitants, building churches, establishing monasteries. He travelled to Rome and Ravenna where he performed many miracles, including slaying a dragon while in Rome. Intending to return to Britain, he instead settled on the Isle of Houat off Brittany where he led a solitary, austere life. At around this time, he preached to Nonnita, the mother of Saint David, while she was pregnant with the saint, he was sought out by those who wished to study under him, was entreated to establish a monastery in Brittany. He built an oratory on the bank of today known as St. Gildas de Rhuys. Fragments of letters that he wrote reveal that he composed a Rule for monastic life, somewhat less austere than the Rule written by Saint David. Ten years after leaving Britain, he wrote an epistolary book in which he reproved five of the British kings, he died at Rhuys on 29 January 570, his body was placed on a boat and allowed to drift, according to his wishes.
Three months on 11 May, men from Rhuys found the ship in a creek with the body of Gildas still intact. They buried it there; the second "Life" of St. Gildas was written by Caradoc of Llancarfan, a friend of Geoffrey of Monmouth and his Norman patrons. However, Llancarfan's work is most historically inaccurate, as his hagiographies tend towards the fictitious, rather than the historical. Llancarfan's "Life" was written in the 12th century, includes many elements of what have come to be known as mythical pseudo-histories, involving King Arthur and Glastonbury Abbey, leading to the general opinion that this "life" is less accurate than the earlier version. For example, according to the dates in the Annales Cambriae, Gildas would have been a contemporary of King Arthur: however, Gildas' work never mentions Arthur by name though he gives a history of the Britons, states that he was born in the same year as the Battle of Badon Hill, in which Arthur is supposed to have vanquished the Saxons. In the Llancarfan Life, St. Gildas was the son of king of Scotia.
Nau had all victorious warriors. Gildas studi
Wroxeter is a village in Shropshire, which forms part of the civil parish of Wroxeter and Uppington, beside the River Severn, 5 miles south-east of Shrewsbury. Viroconium Cornoviorum, the fourth largest city in Roman Britain, was sited here, is being excavated. Roman Wroxeter, near the end of the Watling Street Roman road that ran across England from Dubris, was a key frontier position lying on the bank of the Severn river whose valley penetrated deep into Wales, on a route to the south leading to the Wye valley. Archaeology has shown that the site of the city first was established about AD 55 as a frontier post for a Thracian legionary cohort located at a fort near the Severn river crossing. A few years a legionary fortress was built within the site of the city for the Legio XIV Gemina during their invasion of Wales; the local British tribe of the Cornovii had their original capital at the hillfort on the Wrekin. When the Cornovii were subdued their capital was moved to Wroxeter and given its Roman name.
This legion XIV Gemina was replaced by the Legio XX Valeria Victrix which in turn relocated to Chester around AD 88. As the military abandoned the fortress the site was taken over by the Cornovians' civilian settlement; the name of the settlement, meaning "Viroconium of the Cornovians", preserves a native Brittonic name, reconstructed as *Uiroconion, where *Uiro-ku is believed to have been a masculine given name meaning "werewolf". Viroconium prospered over the next century, with the construction of many public buildings, including thermae and a colonnaded forum. At its peak, it is thought to have been the 4th-largest settlement in Roman Britain, with a population of more than 15,000; the Roman city is first documented in Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography as one of the cities of the Cornovii tribe, along side Chester. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain around AD 410, the Cornovians seem to have divided into Pengwern and Powys; the minor Magonsæte sub-kingdom emerged in the area in the interlude between Powysian and Mercian rule.
Viroconium may have served as the early post-Roman capital of Powys prior to its removal to Mathrafal sometime before 717, following famine and plague in the area. The city has been variously identified with the Cair Urnarc and Cair Guricon which appeared in the 9th-century History of the Britons's list of the 28 cities of Britain. N. J. Higham proposes that Wroxeter became the eponymous capital of an early sub-Roman kingdom known as the Wrocensaete, which he asserts was the successor territorial unit to Cornovia; the literal meaning of Wrocensaete is'those dwelling at Wrocen', which Higham interprets as Wroxeter. It may refer quite to the royal court itself, in the first instance, only by extension to the territory administered from the court; the Roman city was rediscovered in 1859. A replica Roman villa was constructed in 2010 for a Channel 4 television programme called Rome Wasn't Built in a Day and was opened to the public on 19 February 2011. At the centre of Wroxeter village is Saint Andrew's parish church, some of, built from re-used Roman masonry.
The oldest visible section of the church is the Anglo-Saxon part of the north wall, built of Roman monumental stone blocks. The chancel and the lower part of the tower are Norman; the gatepiers to the churchyard are a pair of Roman columns and the font in the church was made by hollowing out the capital of a Roman column. Additions to the church incorporate remains of an Anglo-Saxon preaching cross and carvings salvaged from nearby Haughmond Abbey following the Dissolution of the Monasteries; the west window, bearing figures of St Andrew and St George, designed by the workshops of Morris & Co. is a parish war memorial, as is a brass plaque listing parish men who died serving in World War I, one of whom, Captain C. W. Wolseley-Jenkins, has an individual memorial plaque in the east end. St. Andrew's is now managed by The Churches Conservation Trust. St. Andrew's parish is now united with that of Eaton Constantine. A. E. Housman visited the site and was impressed enough to write of "when Uricon the city stood", the poem ending "Today the Roman and his trouble Are ashes under Uricon."Bernard Cornwell has the main character of The Saxon Stories visit Wroxeter in Death of Kings, referring to it as an ancient Roman city, "as big as London" and using it as an illustration of his pagan beliefs that the World will end in chaos.
The village's football team, Wroxeter Rovers compete in the Mercian Football League. Aston, Michael; the Landscape of Towns. Archaeology in the Field Series. London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd. pp. 45–48, 51–54. ISBN 0-460-04194-0. Photos of Wroxeter and surrounding area on geograph.org.uk English Heritage: Information for teachers
Annales Cambriae is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles compiled or derived from diverse sources at St David's in Dyfed, Wales. The earliest is a 12th-century presumed copy of a mid-10th century original. Despite the name, the Annales Cambriae record not only events in Wales, but events in Ireland, England and sometimes further afield, though the focus of the events recorded in the two-thirds of the text is Wales; the principal versions of Annales Cambriae appear in four manuscripts: A: London, British Library, MS. Harleian 3859, folios 190r-193r. B: London, National Archives, MS. E.164/1 pp. 2–26C: London, British Library, MS. Cotton Domitian A.i, folios 138r-155rD: Exeter, Cathedral Library, MS. 3514, pp. 523–28, the Cronica ante aduentum Domini. E: ibid. pp. 507–19, the Cronica de Wallia. A is written in a hand of about 1100x1130 AD, inserted without title into a manuscript of the Historia Brittonum where it is followed by a pedigree for Owain ap Hywel. Although no explicit chronology is given in the MS, its annals seem to run from about AD 445 to 977 with the last entry at 954, making it that the text belongs to the second half of the 10th century.
B was written at the Cistercian abbey of Neath, at the end of the 13th century. It is entitled Annales ab orbe condito adusque A. D. mcclxxxvi. C is part of a book written at St David's, is entitled Annales ab orbe condito adusque A. D. mcclxxviii. Two of the texts, B and C, begin with a World Chronicle derived from Isidore of Seville's Origines, through the medium of Bede's Chronica minora. B commences its annals with Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain "sixty years before the incarnation of the Lord." After A. D. 457, B agrees with A until A ends. C commences its annals after the empire of Heraclius at a year corresponding to AD 677. C agrees with A until A ends, although it is clear that A was not the common source for B and C. B and C briefer Welsh entries. D and E are found in a manuscript written at the Cistercian abbey of Whitland in south-west Wales in the 13th century. A alone has benefited from a complete diplomatic edition. There are two entries in the Annales on King Arthur, one on Medraut, one on Merlin.
These entries have been presented in the past as proof of the existence of Arthur and Merlin, although that view is no longer held because the Arthurian entries could have been added arbitrarily as late as 970, long after the development of the early Arthurian myth. The entries on Arthur and Mordred in the A Text: Year 72 The Battle of Badon, in which Arthur carried the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ on his shoulders for three days and three nights and the Britons were victors. Year 93 The Strife of Camlann in which Arthur and Medraut fell and there was death in Britain and in Ireland. Concerning Arthur's cross at the Battle of Badon, it is mirrored by a passage in Nennius where Arthur was said to have borne the image of the Virgin Mary "on his shoulders" during a battle at a castle called Guinnion; the words for "shoulder" and "shield" were, however confused in Old Welsh – *scuit "shield" versus *scuid "shoulder" – and Geoffrey of Monmouth played upon this dual tradition, describing Arthur bearing "on his shoulders a shield" emblazoned with the Virgin.
Merlin is not mentioned in the A Text, though there is mention of the battle of Arfderydd, associated with him in medieval Welsh literature: Year 129 The Battle of ArmteridTexts B and C omit the second half of the year 93 entry. B calls Arfderydd "Erderit". In the B Text, the year 129 entry continues: "between the sons of Elifer and Guendoleu son of Keidau in which battle Guendoleu fell and Merlin went mad". Both the B and C texts display the influence of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, this is reflected in the Arfderydd entry by the choice of the Latinized form Merlinus, first found in Geoffrey's Historia, as opposed to the expected Old Welsh form Merdin. History of Wales English historians in the Middle Ages Brett, Caroline, 1988'The Prefaces of Two Late Thirteenth-century Welsh Latin Chronicles', Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 35, pp. 64–73. Dumville, David N. 1972-74'Some aspects of the chronology of the Historia Brittonum', Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 25, pp. 439–445.
Dumville, David N. 1977'Sub-Roman Britain: history and legend', History 62, pp. 173–192. Dumville, David N. 1977/8'The Welsh Latin annals', Studia Celtica 12/13, pp. 461–467 Dumville, David N. 1984'When was the'Clonmacnoise Chronicle' created? The evidence of the Welsh annals', in Grabowski K. & Dumville D. N. 1984 Chronicles and Annals of Mediaeval Ireland and Wales: The Clonmacnoise-group of texts, Boydell, pp. 209–226. Dumville, David N. 2002'Annales Cambriae, A. D. 682-954: Texts A-C in Parallel', Department of Anglo-Saxon and Celtic, University of Cambridge. Dumville, David N. 2004' Annales Cambriae and Easter', in The Medieval Chronicle III, Amsterdam & New York. Gough-Cooper, Henry, 2010'Annales Cambriae, from Saint Patrick to AD 682: Texts A, B & C in Parallel.' The Heroic Age: A Journal of Early Medieval Northwest Europe, Issue 15 The Heroic Age website Grigg, Erik, 2009"Mole Rain' and other natural phenom