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Cuneiform, or Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform, was one of the earliest systems of writing, invented by Sumerians in ancient Mesopotamia. It is distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus; the name cuneiform itself means "wedge-shaped". Emerging in Sumer in the late fourth millennium BC to convey the Sumerian language, a language isolate, cuneiform writing began as a system of pictograms, stemming from an earlier system of shaped tokens used for accounting. In the third millennium, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use grew smaller; the system consists of a combination of logophonetic, consonantal alphabetic, syllabic signs. The original Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Semitic Akkadian and Amorite languages, the language isolates Elamite, Hattic and Urartian, as well as Indo-European languages Hittite and Luwian. Cuneiform writing was replaced by the Phoenician alphabet during the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

By the second century AD, the script had become extinct, its last traces being found in Assyria and Babylonia, all knowledge of how to read it was lost until it began to be deciphered in the 19th century. Geoffrey Sampson stated that Egyptian hieroglyphs "came into existence a little after Sumerian script, invented under the influence of the latter", that it is "probable that the general idea of expressing words of a language in writing was brought to Egypt from Sumerian Mesopotamia". There are many instances of Egypt-Mesopotamia relations at the time of the invention of writing, standard reconstructions of the development of writing place the development of the Sumerian proto-cuneiform script before the development of Egyptian hieroglyphs, with the suggestion the former influenced the latter. Between half a million and two million cuneiform tablets are estimated to have been excavated in modern times, of which only 30,000–100,000 have been read or published; the British Museum holds the largest collection, followed by the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin, the Louvre, the Istanbul Archaeology Museums, the National Museum of Iraq, the Yale Babylonian Collection, Penn Museum.

Most of these have "lain in these collections for a century without being translated, studied or published", as there are only a few hundred qualified cuneiformists in the world. An ancient Mesopotamian poem gives the first known story of the invention of writing: Because the messenger's mouth was heavy and he couldn't repeat, the Lord of Kulaba patted some clay and put words on it, like a tablet; until there had been no putting words on clay. The cuneiform writing system was in use for more than three millennia, through several stages of development, from the 31st century BC down to the second century AD, it was replaced by alphabetic writing in the course of the Roman era, there are no cuneiform systems in current use. It had to be deciphered as a unknown writing system in 19th-century Assyriology. Successful completion of its deciphering is dated to 1857; the cuneiform script was developed from pictographic proto-writing in the late 4th millennium BC, stemming from the near eastern token system used for accounting.

These tokens were in use from the 9th millennium BC and remained in occasional use late in the 2nd millennium BC. Early tokens with pictographic shapes of animals, associated with numbers, were discover in Tell Brak, date to the mid-4th millennium BC, it has been suggested that the token shapes were the original basis for some of the Sumerian pictographs. Mesopotamia's "proto-literate" period spans the 35th to 32nd centuries BC; the first documents unequivocal written documents start with the Uruk IV period, from circa 3,300 BC, followed by tablets found in Uruk III, Jemdet Nasr and Susa dating to the period until circa 2,900 BC. Pictographs were either drawn on clay tablets in vertical columns with a sharpened reed stylus or incised in stone; this early style lacked the characteristic wedge shape of the strokes. Certain signs to indicate names of gods, cities, birds, etc. are known as determinatives and were the Sumerian signs of the terms in question, added as a guide for the reader. Proper names continued to be written in purely "logographic" fashion.

The first inscribed tablets were purely pictographic, which makes it technically impossible to know in which language they were written, but tablets after circa 2,900 BC start to use syllabic elements, which show a language structure typical of the non-Indo-European agglutinative Sumerian language. The first tablets using syllabic elements date to the Early Dynastic I-II, circa 2,800 BC, they are in Sumerian; this is the time when some pictographic element started to be used for their phonetical value, permitting the recording of abstract ideas or personal names. Many pictographs began to lose their original function, a given sign could have various meanings depending on context; the sign inventory was reduced from some 1,500 signs to some 600 signs, writing became phonological. Determinative signs were re-introduced to avoid ambiguity. Cuneiform writing proper thus arises from the more primitive system of pictographs at about that time; the earliest known Sumerian king, whose name appears on contemporary cuneiform tablets, is Enmebaragesi of Kish.

Surviving records only gradually become less

Frank Iacobucci

Frank Iacobucci, was a Puisne Justice on the Supreme Court of Canada from 1991 to 2004 when he retired from the bench. He is an expert in tax law; the son of Italian immigrants, Iacobucci was born in Vancouver, where he attended Britannia Secondary School. He received a B. Comm. and LL. B. from the University of British Columbia and an LL. M. from the University of Cambridge. While attending the University of British Columbia, he became a brother of Phi Gamma Delta. Iacobucci practiced corporate law in New York City and served as a professor at the University of Toronto's Faculty of Law from 1967 until 1982 as well as Dean of the law faculty from 1979 until 1982, he served as Vice-President and Provost of the university from 1983 to 1985. He entered the public service as Deputy Minister of Justice in the federal government from 1985 to 1988 when he was appointed Chief Justice of the Federal Court. In 1991, Justice Iacobucci was appointed as Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada by Conservative prime minister Brian Mulroney and served in this capacity until retiring in 2004.

Following his retirement from the Supreme Court, Iacobucci was appointed Interim President of the University of Toronto in 2004, served in that post until he was replaced by David Naylor in October 2005. In September of that same year he joined Torys LLP, as Counsel, since 2005 has been the Chair of the Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario, he is the Chair of the Dean's Advisory Committee for the National Centre for Business Law at the University of British Columbia Faculty of Law. He sits on a number of board of directors including Torstar, publisher of the Toronto Star and a series of smaller newspapers and owner of Harlequin Enterprises, a global publisher of popular romance novels. Iacobucci is the former chairman of Torstar. Iacobucci served as the commissioner of an internal inquiry into the role of Canadian officials in the alleged torture of three Arab-Canadians in Syria and Egypt as the personal appointee of Conservative prime minister Stephen Harper; the report concludes that certain instances of information-sharing by CSIS and the RCMP contributed indirectly to the detention of Mr. Nureddin, but not of the other two, that similar sharing of information contributed to the mistreatment of all three.

He chairs the selection committee for commissioners of the Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission. On August 11, 2011, Ontario announced Iacobucci's appointment to "review the process for including individuals living in First Nations reserve communities on the jury rolls," following concerns from First Nation organizations and jurists about Aboriginal people being under-represented on juries in Ontario; the report, released in February, 2013, determined under-representation of individuals living on reserves on Ontario's jury roll to be a symptom of a crisis. He expressed hope his report would serve as a wake-up call to remedy broader and systemic issues that are at the heart of the current dysfunctional relationship between Ontario's justice system and Aboriginal peoples in the province. In addition to 17 specific recommendations, Iacobucci emphasized the need for establishing a government-to-government relationship that "incorporates an underlying respect for cultural and historical values that are different."

He stated "this government-to-government relationship... must underlie the relationship between Ontario and First Nations going forward in dealing with justice and jury representation issues." On August 28, 2013, in response to the July 27, 2013 shooting death of Sammy Yatim by Toronto Police officer James Forcillo, Iacobucci was requested by Chief of Police Bill Blair to conduct an independent review of "the policies and procedures of, the services provided by, the TPS with respect to the use of lethal force or lethal force, in particular in encounters with persons who are or may be disturbed, mentally disturbed or cognitively impaired.". On July 24, 2014, the "Police Encounters with People in Crisis – An Independent Review Conducted by The Honourable Frank Iacobucci for Chief of Police William Blair, Toronto Police Service" report was delivered and was released to the public by Chief Blair; the 400+ page report made 84 recommendations pertaining to the mental health system and Toronto Police and focusing on police culture, training and selection of new officers, the mental health of police personnel, use of force, crisis intervention, equipment, along with suggestions surrounding implementation of the reports recommendations.

The report arranged by Blair under his authority as Chief, without Toronto Police Services Board approval, was contracted through the Toronto law firm of Torys LLP for the $500,000.00 maximum funding amount the Chief was authorized to approve without Board approval. In November 2015, the Government of Alberta retained Iacobucci to conduct an independent review of—and advice in connection with—the decision of former Alberta Ethics Commissioner Neil Wilkinson to clear former Alberta premier Alison Redford of conflict of interest charges under Alberta's Conflicts of Interest Act resulting from Redford having awarded the contract for a multibillion-dollar contract to conduct litigation against tobacco companies on behalf of the Government to a Calgary law firm for which her former husband was a partner while she was Minister of Justice; the report affirmed the concern, raised by the opposition that Mr. Wilkinson had not had necessary information available to him in reaching the decision, particular

Wallace R. Wirths

Wallace Richard "Wally" Wirths, was a former Westinghouse executive, author, newspaper columnist and radio commentator, a benefactor of Upsala College in East Orange, New Jersey. Born in Englewood, New Jersey on 7 July 1921, Wirths attended Lehigh University in Bethlehem and served in the United States Navy during peacetime. In 1957, Wirths moved to Wantage Township, in Sussex County, in northwestern New Jersey where he became active in local politics; the author of three books, Wirths wrote a column for The New Jersey Herald and was a frequent conservative radio commentator, with his segment "Wally Wirths Candidly Speaking" on WSUS. He was a public relations executive with Westinghouse Corporation until his retirement in 1979. Before it closed in 1995, Upsala College operated a 245 acres satellite campus in Wantage Township which it named the "Wirths Campus." Wirths donated his family's farm to the college in 1978. The school had considered moving to Sussex County as East Orange's crime problem and social conditions deteriorated in the 1970s but chose to remain committed to East Orange.

However, declining enrollment and financial difficulties forced the school to close. The Wirths family bought back their farm in Wantage from the college for $75,000. Wirths received an honorary doctor of law degree from Upsala College. Wirths died on 6 July 2002 from complications of a stroke he suffered in 1996, he was buried in Clove Cemetery in Wantage. One of Wirths' four adopted sons is New Jersey politician Harold J. Wirths, the state's current commissioner of the New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. 1985: Democracy: Panacea or Pandemonium 1993: Democracy-- The Myth, the Reality: A Primer on the True Nature of Our Democratic Republic 1996: The Human Race Stinks: Perspectives of an Iconoclast

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is a disease characterized by a weeks-long course of thunderclap headaches, sometimes focal neurologic signs, seizures. Symptoms are thought to arise from transient abnormalities in the blood vessels of the brain. In some cases, it may be associated with childbirth, vasoactive or illicit drug use, or complications of pregnancy. If it occurs after delivery it may be referred to as postpartum cerebral angiopathy. For the vast majority of patients, all symptoms disappear on their own within three weeks. Deficits persist in a small minority of patients, with severe complications or death being rare; because symptoms resemble a variety of life-threatening conditions, differential diagnosis is necessary. The key symptom of RCVS is recurrent thunderclap headaches. In two-thirds of cases, it is the only symptom; these headaches are bilateral severe and peak in intensity within a minute. They may last from minutes to days, may be accompanied by nausea, phonophobia or vomiting.

Some patients experience only one headache, but on average there are four attacks over a period of one to four weeks. A milder, residual headache persists between severe attacks for half of patients.1–17% of patients experience seizures. 8–43% of patients show neurologic problems visual disturbances, but hemiplegia, dysarthria and numbness. These neurologic issues disappear within minutes or a few hours. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is present in a small minority of patients; this condition features the unique property that the patient's cerebral arteries can spontaneously constrict and relax back and forth over a period of time without intervention and without clinical findings. Vasospasm is common post subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral aneurysm, but in RCVS only 25% of patients have symptoms post subarachnoid hemorrhage; the direct cause of the symptoms is believed to be either constriction or dilation of blood vessels in the brain. The pathogenesis is not known definitively, the condition is to result from multiple different disease processes.

Up to two-thirds of RCVS cases are associated with an underlying condition or exposure vasoactive or recreational drug use, complications of pregnancy, the adjustment period following childbirth called puerperium. Vasoactive drug use is found in about 50% of cases. Implicated drugs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, weight-loss pills such as Hydroxycut, alpha-sympathomimetic decongestants, acute migraine medications, epinephrine and cannabis, among many others, it sometimes follows blood transfusions, certain surgical procedures, bathing, high altitude experiences, sexual activity, exercise, or coughing. Symptoms can take a few months to manifest after a trigger. Following a study and publication in 2007, it is thought SSRIs, uncontrolled hypertension, endocrine abnormality, neurosurgical trauma are indicated to cause vasospasm; the clinician should first rule out conditions with similar symptoms, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, pituitary apoplexy, cerebral artery dissection and spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak.

This may involve a CT scan, lumbar puncture, MRI, other tests. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome has a similar presentation, is found in 10–38% of RCVS patients. RCVS is diagnosed by detecting diffuse reversible cerebral vasoconstriction. Catheter angiography is ideal, but computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography can identify about 70% of cases. Multiple angiographies may be necessary; because other diseases have similar angiographic presentations, it can only be conclusively diagnosed if vasoconstriction resolves within 12 weeks. All symptoms resolve within three weeks, may only last days. Permanent deficits are seen in a minority of patients, ranging from under 10% to 20% in various studies. Less than 5% of patients experience progressive vasoconstriction, which can lead to stroke, progressive cerebral edema, or death. Severe complications appear to be more common in postpartum mothers; the incidence of RCVS is unknown, but it is believed to be "not uncommon", under-diagnosed.

One small biased study found that the condition was diagnosed in 45% of outpatients with sudden headache, 46% of outpatients with thunderclap headache. The average age of onset is 42, but RCVS has been observed in patients aged from 19 months to 70 years. Children are affected, it is more common in females, with a female-to-male ratio of 2.4:1. As of 2014, no treatment strategy has yet been investigated in a randomized clinical trial. Verapamil and other calcium channel blockers may help reduce the intensity and frequency of the headaches. A clinician may recommend rest and the avoidance of activities or vasoactive drugs which trigger symptoms. Analgesics and anticonvulsants can help manage pain and seizures, respectively. Case studies of the condition first appeared in the 1960s, but it was not recognized as a distinct entity. In 1983, French researchers published a case series of 11 patients, terming the condition acute benign cerebral angiopathy. Gregory Call and Marie Fleming were the first two authors of a report in which doctors from Massachusetts General Hospital, led by C. Miller Fisher, described 4 patients, alongside 12 previous case studies, with the characteristic symptoms and abnormal cerebral angiogram findings.

The name Call-Fleming syndrome refers to these rese

Student council

A student council is a curricular or extracurricular activity for students within elementary and secondary schools around the world. These councils are present in most public and private K-12 school systems across the United States, Greece and Asia. Student councils serve to engage students in learning about democracy and leadership, as espoused by John Dewey in Democracy and Education; the student council helps share ideas and concerns with teachers and school principals. They also help raise funds for school-wide activities, including social events, community projects, helping people in need and school reform. Most schools participate in food drives and parties. Many members learn skills. Student councils operate in many forms. There are representative-based and modeled loosely after the U. S. Congress, or based on the Executive Branch of the United States, with a President, Vice-President, secretary and reporter. In this form student representatives and officers are elected from and by the student body, although there may be prerequisites for candidacy or suffrage.

In elementary schools, there are one or two student representatives per classroom and one presiding set of officers. However, many secondary schools have one set of officers per grade level. An example of the structure of an elementary student council may include a president, a vice president, treasurer, sergeant of arms, fundraising officer, boys rep, girls rep, just members; these roles may be assigned or voted on, either within the student council or by the entire student body. They may reflect descending grade-levels, with the president in the oldest grade, so forth. Secondary school governments have more independence and power than younger governments. A student government is overseen by a sponsor, a teacher at that particular school. Most junior or middle school student councils have a constitution of some sort and do not have a judicial branch. Compared to elementary school councils, junior high and high school councils have fewer people. In some schools, a student council representative is assigned to each class.

That person passes on requests and complaints from students in that class to the student council. In other schools, the elected Class Officers are automatically members of the student council. Student councils do not have funding authority and must generate their operating funds through fundraisers such as car washes and bake sales; some student councils have a budget from the school, along with responsibility for funding a variety of student activities within a school. Student councils can join larger associations, in the United States, the National Association of Student Councils. In Canada, the Canadian Student Leadership Association coordinates the national scene, in the United Kingdom an organization called involver provides training and coordination for the nation's student councils In Bulgaria most of the universities have a student council, regulated by law and the regulations of each university. In Canada, the student council is used for helping the school with special events and planning other events.

Secondary high schools and vocational schools in Finland have student councils. They incorporate all the students of the institution, but their status is marginal and nationally. Legislation demands that they should be heard in all matters pertaining to the education in the institution, but this is not done. A student council in Germany is used to plan school events. In India, student councils have been introduced in all Private and Public Schools. Student councils in India may be nominated or selected after interview; the student councils in Indonesia are formed by the government and is called OSIS. OSIS is present in high school; every year, the committee which consists of teachers and former student council members hold a selection process to admit students who meet qualifications to join OSIS, while the president is voted by students of the school. In some practices, the teachers can vote depending on their own regulation. In Iran, each November since 1997, secondary school students at each school in the nation elect between 5-14 Student Council members, which act as the main medium of communication and debate between the student body and school officials.

The size of the Council at each school depends on the class size and school policies. Student councils in Iran promote interpersonal and leadership skills, constructive debates between school officials and the students, organization of school activities and field trips. Since 1998 in Ireland there has been sustained development of student councils in post primary schools. In 2008 the Irish Second Level Students Union was founded as the National Umbrella body to organize and coordinate the national campaign efforts of the student councils; the Union is a member of OBESSU. Schools and staff are advised to assist the creation of a student council under section 27 of The Education Act 1998 Israel's national student and youth council is an elected body representing all youth in Israel since 1993. Representatives are elected democratically from district youth councils.. The council comprises youth from the different sectors: religious, Jewish, Druze and a Bedouin representative; the National Youth Council representatives med

Melones, California

For the existing town called Melones, see Carson Hill, California. Melones is a former settlement in Calaveras County, now submerged beneath a reservoir named New Melones Lake, it lay at an elevation of 955 feet. Melones was founded on the site of a ferry operated from 1848 by John W. Stephen Mead; the town took its name from the ferry. The first post office opened in Robinsons Ferry in 1879, the name was changed to Robinson's in 1895, to Melones in 1902; the post office was closed in 1932, re-established in 1933 and closed for good in 1942. In January 1923 Paramount Pictures chose Melones to construct a complete 1849 mining camp set there for the motion picture The Covered Wagon; the studio sent an authentic Sierra Railroad train built in 1897 to the location via the Angels Branch line to Melones. The site was submerged under New Melones Lake when the New Melones Dam finished construction and began to fill in April 1, 1978. Robinson's Ferry, Angels Camp, Cal. In E. F. Mueller Postcard Collection.

"The Goodloe & Barden Drug Co."-on front. View of Robinson's Ferry on the Stanislaus River in Calaveras County. From California State Library, accessed September 22, 2018. View of Robinson's Ferry landing at the Stanislaus River in Melones, ca.1930, Photographer: Pierce, C. C. 1861-1946, from Digitally reproduced by the USC Digital Library. Photograph of a view of Robinson's Ferry landing at the Stanislaus River in Melones, ca.1930. A wooden bridge extends from the dirt bank in the foreground to the other side of the riverbed. At the edge of the plank in center a staircase leads down to the ground through a wooden frame. At the bottom of the stairs there is a small trail of sunshine, allowed through the shade that the tall trees on the right provide. A bend of the river can be seen on the left with banks of dirt and weeds. A hillside covered in trees and bushes can be seen in the background. "Ferry began operation in 1849 but is no longer used as the river has changed its course and a bridge has been built."

Robinson's Ferry from THE HISTORICAL MARKER DATABASE, accessed September 22, 2018