Cupertino is a city in Santa Clara County, directly west of San Jose on the western edge of the Santa Clara Valley with portions extending into the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains. The population was 58,302 as of the 2010 census. In 2015, Forbes ranked Cupertino as one of the most educated places in the U. S. in respect to the percentage of high school and college graduates. It is known as the home of Apple Inc.'s corporate headquarters. Cupertino was named after Arroyo San José de Cupertino; the creek had been named by Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza's cartographer, who named it after Saint Joseph of Cupertino. Saint Joseph was born Giuseppe Maria Desa, was named after the town of Copertino, where he was born, in the Apulia region of Italy; the name Cupertino first became used when John T. Doyle, a San Francisco lawyer and historian, named his winery on McClellan Road Cupertino. After the turn of the 20th century, Cupertino displaced the former name for the region, West Side. Although the meaning of Copertino is uncertain, it is a compound word meaning "little shelter."
The -ino suffix in Italian words indicates "small" or "little", while coprire means "to cover". Cupertino in the 19th century was a small rural village at the crossroads of Stevens Creek Road and Saratoga-Mountain View Road. For decades, the intersection was dominated on the southeast corner by the R. Cali Brothers Feed Mill, replaced today with the Cali Mill Plaza and City Hall. Back it was known as the West Side and was part of Fremont Township; the primary economic activity was fruit agriculture. All of the land within Cupertino's present-day boundaries was covered by prune, plum and cherry orchards. A winery on Montebello Ridge overlooking the Cupertino valley region was in operation by the late 19th century. Soon railroads, electric railways, dirt roads traversed the West Side farmlands. Monta Vista, Cupertino's first housing tract, was developed in the mid-20th century as a result of the electric railway's construction. After World War II, a population and suburban housing boom shifted the demographics and economy of the Santa Clara Valley, as the "Valley of Heart's Delight" was beginning to transform into "Silicon Valley".
In 1954, a rancher, Norman Nathanson, the Cupertino-Monta Vista Improvement Association, the Fact Finding Committee, began a drive for incorporation. On September 27, 1955, voters approved the incorporation of the city of Cupertino. Cupertino became Santa Clara County's 13th city on October 10, 1955; the first city council consisted of Ralph Lindenmayer, Werner Wilson, John Saich, R. Ivan Meyerholz and Norman Nathanson. In fact, there is a residential road in northern Cupertino named after this influential rancher. Lindenmeyer was selected as the first mayor of Cupertino a week after the September 27 election. A major milestone in Cupertino's development was the creation by some of the city's largest landowners of VALLCO Business and Industrial Park in the early 1960s. Of the 25 property owners, 17 decided to pool their land to form VALLCO Park, 6 sold to Varian Associates, two opted for transplanting to farms elsewhere; the name VALLCO was derived from the names of the principal developers: Varian Associates and the Leonard, Lester and Orlando families.
A neighborhood outdoor shopping center and, much the enclosed Vallco Fashion Park renamed Cupertino Square, were developed. De Anza College opened in 1967; the college, named for Juan Bautista De Anza, occupies a 112-acre site, the location of a winery built at the turn of the 20th century, called Beaulieu by its owners and Ella Baldwin. Their mansion has now become the California History Center. De Anza College now has about 22,000 students. Housing developments were constructed in the following years as developers created neighborhoods, including Fairgrove, Garden Gate, Monta Vista, Seven Springs, other developments; the city is known for its high real estate prices. 63 percent of Cupertino's population was of Asian ancestry in 2010, compared to 32 percent in Santa Clara Country overall. Money's Best Places to Live, "America's best small towns", ranked Cupertino as #27 in 2012, the second highest in California. In 2014, Movoto Real Estate ranked Cupertino the seventh "happiest" suburb in the United States, ranking in the categories of income, safety and education.
According to the 2005–2007 American Community Survey of the US Census Bureau, the median income for a household in the city was $118,635, the median income for a family was $140,199. The per capita income for the city was $44,774. About 3.6% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. According to the 2005–2007 American Community Survey, White Americans made up 37.4% of Cupertino's population. Black Americans now made up 1.5% of Cupertino's population and American Indians made up 0.4% of the city's population. In addition, Cupertino now had an Asian American majority as this group now represented 55.7% of the city's population. Pacific Islander Americans remained at 0.1% of the population. 2.5% of the population were from some other race and 2.4% of the population are from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos remained 4.0% of Cupertino's population. In the 2000 census, non-Hispani
The Gloster Aircraft Company was a British aircraft manufacturer from 1917 to 1963. Founded as the Gloucestershire Aircraft Company Limited during the First World War, with the aircraft construction activities of H H Martyn & Co Ltd of Cheltenham, England it produced fighters during the war, it was renamed as foreigners found'Gloucestershire' difficult to pronounce. It became part of the Hawker Siddeley group and the Gloster name disappeared in 1963. Gloster designed and built several fighters that equipped the British Royal Air Force during the interwar years including the Gladiator, the RAF's last biplane fighter; the company built most of the wartime production of Hawker Hurricanes and Hawker Typhoons for their parent company Hawker Siddeley while its design office was working on the first British jet aircraft, the E.28/39 experimental aircraft. This was followed by the Meteor, the RAF's first jet-powered fighter and the only Allied jet fighter to be put into service during the Second World War.
In 1917, during the midst of the First World War, the Gloster Aircraft Company Limited was formed under the name The Gloucestershire Aircraft Company Limited. At the time of its creation, its owners were Hugh Burroughes and H H Martyn & Co Limited, who held a 50 per cent share between them, aircraft manufacturer Airco held the other 50 per cent. On the company's board were A W Martyn and George Holt Thomas of Airco; the firm acquired the aircraft component construction activities that were being carried out by H H Martyn & Co Limited for the war effort in order to perform subcontracted work from Airco. H H Martyn were architectural engineers and had produced items such as propellers before moving to whole fuselages for Airco; the firm rented facilities at Sunningend in Gloucestershire to serve as their works. By the spring of 1918, the company was producing 45 new Bristol Fighter aircraft per week; as the orders for aircraft increased, other companies in the Gloucester and Cheltenham district were contracted with work.
Where any flying was involved, the aircraft would be transported to a newly formed Air Board aircraft acceptance park at Brockworth, seven miles away by motor transport. Although Brockworth Aerodrome was used by the company, it lacked any hangars until 1921, after which it would rent a portion of one hangar from the Air Board. Gloucester would relocate its operational base to the Brockworth site. Following the Armistice of 11 November 1918 and the end of the First World War, the company suffered financial losses from the collapse of Airco, only receiving partial compensation for the cancellation of outstanding production orders. In 1920, following the closure of rival British aircraft manufacturer Nieuport & General, the services of its former chief designer, Henry Folland, were hired by the company. In December 1926, it was decided that the name of the company should be switched to a simplified form—the Gloster Aircraft Company; this was reported because customers outside of the United Kingdom found it easier to pronounce and to spell.
Locals and employees would referred to the company as GAC. With the move to metal construction, the Sunningend factory was soon deemed to be no longer suitable. In 1934, Gloster was acquired by Hawker Aircraft. Regardless of this change in ownership, the company continued to produce aircraft under its own brand name. In that same year, Gloster produced one of the Gladiator biplane; the 1935 merger of Hawker Aircraft and the interests of J. D. Siddeley saw Gloster become a part of Hawker Siddeley Aircraft, Ltd. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the firm lacked any modern designs of its own in production, but had significant expertise and production facilities available. Thus, Gloster undertook manufacture for Hawker-designed aircraft to equip the RAF on behalf of its parent company. During 1939, the company constructed 1,000 Hawker Hurricanes within the first 12 months of the conflict. After ending production of the Hurricane, it was decided to manufacture the newer Hawker Typhoon in its place.
Gloster proceeded to construct 3,300 in total the entirety of the type. Frank Whittle had first met Gloster's designer and test pilots in April 1939 and an official approach from the Air Ministry followed; as no existing aircraft was suitable for adaptation to take the new jet engine, Gloster did not have much workload in its design department, Gloster received a contract in early 1940 – to design and build Britain's first jet aircraft. Two airframes were built in secrecy. Due to the risk of bombing, one of the aircraft was built offsite from Brockworth at Regent Motors Cheltenham. On 15 May 1941, the first official test flight of the Gloster E.28/39 W 4041/G with a turbo-jet engine, invented by Sir Frank Whittle took off from RAF Cranwell. Although the E.28.39 could in theory be used as a fighter, a specific fighter design was required and Gloster began work on a twin engine jet design. Once the E.28/39 had flown, the Air Staff told Gloster to stop work on their F.18/40 nightfighter (other ai
The Wenatchee Valley Venom were a professional indoor football team based in Wenatchee, Washington. The team was most a member of the Pacific Division of the Intense Conference of the Indoor Football League; the Venom were founded in 2009 as an expansion member of the American Indoor Football Association. The Venom played their home games at Town Toyota Center. On June 15, 2009, co-owner and general manager Mark Helm announced that the Wenatchee Valley Venom would become an expansion team of the American Indoor Football Association for the 2010 season; the ownership named Keith Evans assistant general manager. In January, 2010, the Venom adding Kyle Skalisky to the ownership group and named him team president. After a 2–5 start, the team fired Keith Evans and named defensive coordinator Brian Smith as the team's interim head coach. On May 28, 2010, ownership removed the interim tag from Smith and he took over as the full-time head coach. Smith guided the Venom to a 6–1 record during the remainder of the season, but the team missed the playoffs.
The ownership group announced that the team would be returning for the 2011 season, but were unsure what league the franchise would play in. On September 11, 2010, the Venom joined the Indoor Football League for the 2011 season; the Venom won their IFL debut 45–37 over the Fairbanks Grizzlies. The Venom followed with a seven-game losing streak. Added rookie quarterback Charles Dowdell ended the Venom's losing streak by leading them to a 41–36 victory over the Wyoming Cavalry; the Venom lost the final four games of the season. On June 21, 2011 The Venom announced they had ceased operations citing low ticket sales since their debut season in 2010 despite the 8–6 season. Though they moved to the more financially stable IFL for the 2011 season, the team posted a 3–11 record and continued to have issues drawing fans; the following Venom players have been named to All-IFL Teams: WR Timothy Simmons W. V. Venom's official site Venom's 2010 stats