A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none. Church bell towers often incorporate clocks, and secular towers usually do, the Italian term campanile, deriving from the word campana meaning bell, is synonymous with bell tower, though in English usage Campanile tends to be used to refer to a free standing bell tower. A bell tower may in some traditions be called a belfry, though this term may refer specifically to the substructure that houses the bells. The tallest free-standing bell tower in the world, approximately 110 m high, is the Joseph Chamberlain Memorial Clock Tower, located at the University of Birmingham, bells are rung from a tower to enable them to be heard at a distance. Church bells can signify the time for worshippers to go to church for a communal service and they are rung on special occasions such as a wedding, or a funeral service. In some religious traditions they are used within the liturgy of the service to signify to people that a particular part of the service has been reached. A bell tower may have a bell, or a collection of bells which are tuned to a common scale.
They may be stationary and chimed, rung randomly by swinging through a small arc and they may house a carillon or chimes, in which the bells are sounded by hammers connected via cables to a keyboard. These can be found in churches and secular buildings in Europe and America including college. A variety of electronic devices exist to simulate the sound of bells, some churches have an exconjuratory in the bell tower, a space where ceremonies were conducted to ward off weather-related calamities, like storms and excessive rain. The main bell tower of the Cathedral of Murcia has four, in addition, most Christian denominations ring church bells to call the faithful to worship, signalling the start of a mass or service of worship. The Christian tradition of the ringing of bells from a belltower is analogous to Islamic tradition of the adhan from a minaret. In AD400, Paulinus of Nola introduced church bells into the Christian Church, by the 11th century, bells housed in belltowers became commonplace.
Historic bell towers exist throughout Europe, the Irish round towers are thought to have functioned in part as bell towers. Famous medieval European examples include Bruges, Ghent, perhaps the most famous European free-standing bell tower, however, is the so-called Leaning Tower of Pisa, which is the campanile of the Duomo di Pisa in Pisa, Italy. In 1999 thirty-two Belgian belfries were added to the UNESCOs list of World Heritage Sites, in 2005 this list was extended with one Belgian and twenty-three Northern French belfries and is since known as Belfries of Belgium and France. In the Middle Ages, cities sometimes kept their important documents in belfries, not all are on a large scale, the bell tower of Katúň, in Slovakia, is typical of the many more modest structures that were once common in country areas. Archaic wooden bell towers survive adjoining churches in Lithuania and as well as in parts of Poland
History of construction
Those fields allow us to analyse constructed buildings and other structures build since prehistory, the tools used and the different uses of building materials. Neolithic, known as the New Stone Age, was a period roughly from 9000 BC to 5000 BC named because it was the last period of the age before wood working began. The tools available were made from materials including bone, hide, wood, animal fibers. These tools were used by people to cut such as with the axe, adze. Also to scrape, chop such as with a tool, pierce, pull, leaver. Building materials included bones such as ribs, stone, bark, clay, lime plaster. For example, the first bridges made by humans were probably just wooden logs placed across a stream, the very simplest shelters, leave no traces. The first mud bricks, formed with the rather than wooden moulds. One of the largest structures of this period was the Neolithic long house, Neolithic architecture ranges from the tent to the megalith and rock-cut architecture which are frequently temples and dwellings.
There is evidence of prefabrication of the stonework, the symmetrical geometric arrays of stone clearly indicate that the builders of Stonehenge had mastered sophisticated surveying methods, Neolithic villages large enough to have rural and urban features are called proto-citys to distinguish them from cities beginning with Eridu. The Copper Age is the part of the Bronze Age. Bronze is made when tin is added to copper and brass is copper with zinc, Copper came into use before 5,000 BC and bronze around 3,100 BC, although the times vary by region. Copper and bronze were used for the types of tools as stone such as axes and chisels. Bronze was cast into desired shapes and if damaged could be recast, a new tool developed in the copper age is the saw. During the Bronze Age the corbelled arch came into use such as for beehive tombs, the wheel came into use but was not common until much later. Heavy loads were moved on boats, sledges or on rollers, the Egyptians began building stone temples with the post and lintel construction method and the Greeks and Romans followed this style.
The Iron Age is a period from roughly 1200 BC to 50 BC with the widespread use of iron for tools. Iron is not much harder than bronze but by adding carbon iron becomes steel which was being produced after about 300 BC, steel can be hardened and tempered producing a sharp, durable cutting edge
CSX Transportation is a Class I railroad in the United States. The main subsidiary of the CSX Corporation, the railroad is headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida, CSX operates one of the three Class I railroads serving most of the East Coast, the other two being the Norfolk Southern Railway and Canadian Pacific Railway. It serves the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec, together CSX and Norfolk Southern Railway have a duopoly over all east-west freight rail traffic east of the Mississippi River. As of October 1,2014, CSXs total public stock value was slightly over $32 billion, CSX Transportation was formed on July 1,1986, by combining the Chessie System and Seaboard System Railroad. The origin of the Chessie System was the former Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, which had merged with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, on June 6,1998, the STB approved the CSX–NS application and set August 22,1998, as the effective date of its decision. CSX acquired 42 percent of Conrails assets, and NS received the remaining 58 percent, as a result of the transaction, CSXs rail operations grew to include some 3,800 miles of the Conrail system.
CSX began operating its trains on its portion of the Conrail network on June 1,1999, CSX now serves much of the eastern U. S. with a few routes into nearby Canadian cities. The name came about during merger talks between Chessie System, Inc. and Seaboard System Railroad, Inc. commonly called Chessie, the company chairmen said it was important for the new name to include neither of those names because it was a partnership. Employees were asked for suggestions, most of which consisted of combinations of the initials, at the same time a temporary shorthand name was needed for discussions with the Interstate Commerce Commission. CSC was chosen but belonged to a company in Virginia. The lawyers decided to use CSX, and the name stuck, in the public announcement, it was said that CSX is singularly appropriate. C can stand for Chessie, S for Seaboard, and X, however, in the August 9,2016 article on the Railway Age website stated that. And the X was for Consolidated, the T had to be added to CSX when used as a reporting mark because reporting marks that end in X means that the car is owned by a leasing company or private car owner.
Its current slogan, How Tomorrow Moves, appeared in 2008, in 2014 Canadian Pacific Railway approached CSX with an offer to merge the two companies, but CSX declined and in 2015 Canadian Pacific made an attempt to purchase and merge with Norfolk Southern. In 2017 CSX announced Hunter Harrison as its new chief executive, CSX added 5 new directors to their board, including Harrison and Mantle Ridge founder Paul Hilal. Mantle Ridge owns 4.9 percent of CSX, CSX operates two regions of five divisions each, the Northern, based in Calumet City and Southern, based in Jacksonville, Florida. The CEO of CSX is Hunter Harrison as of Feb 2017, o823, Q740 and Q741, Q743, and Q745—which consists of Tropicana cars that carry fresh orange juice between Bradenton and the Greenville section of Jersey City, New Jersey. The train runs from Bradenton to Fort Pierce, Florida, in the 21st century, the Juice Train has been studied as a model of efficient rail transportation that can compete with trucks and other modes in the perishable-goods trade
In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects vertically from the wall of a building such as a medieval castle. Turrets were used to provide a defensive position allowing covering fire to the adjacent wall in the days of military fortification. As their military use faded, turrets were used for decorative purposes, a turret can have a circular top with crenellations as seen in the picture at right, a pointed roof, or other kind of apex. The size of a turret is therefore limited by technology, since it puts additional stresses on the structure of the building and it would traditionally be supported by a corbel. Bartizan, an overhanging, wall-mounted turret found particularly on French and they returned to prominence in the 19th century with their popularity in Scottish baronial style
Chhatris are elevated, dome-shaped pavilions used as an element in Indian architecture. The word Chhatri means canopy or umbrella, in the context of architecture, the word is used to refer to two different things. The usual and more widely understood meaning is of a memorial, usually very ornate, such memorials usually consist of a platform girded by a set of ornate pillars which hold up a stone canopy. The word chhatri is used to refer to the pavilions that mark the corners. These pavilions are purely decorative and have no utility, but are a folly which announce the status. Chhatris are commonly used to depict the elements of pride and honor in the Jat and they are widely used, in palaces, in forts, or to demarcate funerary sites. They are today seen on its finest monuments, Humayuns Tomb in Delhi, Chhatris are basic element of Hindu as well as Mughal architecture. The term chhatri means umbrella or canopy, in the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan, chhatris are built on the cremation sites of wealthy or distinguished individuals.
Chhatris in Shekhawati may consist of a structure of one dome raised by four pillars to a building containing many domes. In some places, the interior of the chhatris is painted in the manner as the Havelis of the region. Many other chhatris exist in parts of Rajasthan. Their locations include, Jaipur – Gaitore Cenotaphs of the Maharajas of Jaipur, set in a narrow valley, the cenotaphs of the former rulers of Jaipur consist of the somewhat typical chhatri or umbrella-shaped memorials. Sawai Jai Singh IIs Chhatri is particularly noteworthy because of the carvings that have used to embellish it. The chhatri of Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur has fine frescos illuminating the life of Surajmal, vividly depicting darbar and hunting scenes, royal processions and wars. Udaipur- Flanked by a row of enormous stone elephants, the Lake Pichola island has an impressive chhatri carved from gray blue stone, haldighati – A beautiful Chhatri with white marble columns, dedicated to Rana Pratap, stands here. Chetak Smarak, the dedicated to Chetak, Rana Prataps famous horse, is noteworthy.
Alwar – Moosi Maharani ki Chhatri is a red sandstone. Bundi – Suraj Chhatri and Mordi Ki Chhatri, Chaurasi Khambon ki Chhatri, rani Shyam Kumari wife of Raja Chhatrasal on the northern hill constructed the Suraj Chhatri and Mayuri the second wife of Chhatrasal on the southern hill erected Mordi Ki Chhatri
An oculus is a circular opening in the centre of a dome or in a wall. Originating in antiquity, it is a feature of Byzantine and Neoclassical architecture and it is known as an œil de boeuf from the French, or simply a bulls-eye. The oculus was used by the Romans, one of the finest examples being that in the dome of the Pantheon, open to the weather, it allows rain to enter and fall to the floor, where it is carried away through drains. Though the opening looks small, it actually has a diameter of 27 ft allowing it to light the building just as the sun lights the earth, the rain keeps the building cool during the hot summer months. Pliny in his Natural history call counters oculus, the oculus was widely used in the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. It was applied to buildings in Syria in the 5th and 6th centuries, in Constantinoples Myrelaion Church, there are two oculi above the stringcourse on both lateral facades. Early examples of the oculus in Renaissance architecture can be seen in Florence Cathedral, in the nave clerestorey, since the revival of dome construction beginning in the Italian Renaissance, open oculi have been replaced by light-transmitting cupolas and other round windows and skylights.
They can be seen in the pediments of Palladios Villa Rotonda, use of oculus windows became more popular in Baroque architecture. Widely used by Neo-Palladian architects including Colen Campbell, one can be seen in the dome of Thomas Jeffersons Rotunda at the University of Virginia
History of architecture
The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, overarching stylistic trends, and dates. The branches of architecture are civil, naval, Neolithic architecture is the architecture of the Neolithic period. In Southwest Asia, Neolithic cultures appear soon after 10,000 BC, initially in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. There are early Neolithic cultures in Southeast Anatolia and Iraq by 8000 BC, and food-producing societies first appear in southeast Europe by 7000 BC, and Central Europe by c.5500 BC. The neolithic people in the Levant, Syria, northern Mesopotamia and Central Asia were great builders, at Çatalhöyük, houses were plastered and painted with elaborate scenes of humans and animals. The Mediterranean neolithic cultures of Malta worshiped in megalithic temples, in Europe, long houses built from wattle and daub were constructed. Elaborate tombs for the dead were built and these tombs are particularly numerous in Ireland, where there are many thousands still in existence.
Neolithic people in the British Isles built long barrows and chamber tombs for their dead and causewayed camps, henges flint mines and cursus monuments. Ancient Mesopotamia is most noted for its construction of mud brick buildings, the word Ziggurat is an anglicized form of the Akkadian word ziqqurratum, the name given to the solid stepped towers of mud brick. It derives from the verb zaqaru, ‘to be high, the buildings are described as being like mountains linking Earth and heaven. The ziggurat at Ur, excavated by Leonard Woolley, is 64 by 46 meters at base and it was built under Ur-Nammu and rebuilt under Nabonidus when it was increased in height to probably seven stories. Harvests for example were seen as the benevolence of fertility deities, Ancient architecture is characterized by this tension between the divine and mortal world. Cities would mark a contained sacred space over the wilderness of nature outside, the architect, be he priest or king, was not the sole important figure, he was merely part of a continuing tradition.
The architecture and urbanism of the Greeks and Romans was very different from that of the Egyptians and Persians, civic life gained importance for all members of the community. Greek civic life was sustained by new, open spaces called the agora which were surrounded by public buildings, the agora embodied the newfound respect for social justice received through open debate rather than imperial mandate. Though divine wisdom still presided over human affairs, the rituals of ancient civilizations had become inscribed in space. Each place had its own nature, set within a world refracted through myth, the Romans conquered the Greek cities in Italy around three hundred years BCE and much of the Western world after that. One way to look at the unity of Roman architecture is through a new-found realization of theory derived from practice, civically we find this happening in the Roman forum, where public participation is increasingly removed from the concrete performance of rituals and represented in the decor of the architecture
Cupola (ISS module)
The Cupola is an ESA-built observatory module of the International Space Station. Its seven windows are used to conduct experiments and observations of Earth and it was launched aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-130 on 8 February 2010 and attached to the Tranquility module. With the Cupola attached, ISS assembly reached 85 percent completion, the Cupolas 80 cm window is the largest ever used in space. Its name derives from Italian word cupola, which means dome, the Cupola project was started by NASA and Boeing, but canceled due to budget cuts. A barter agreement between NASA and the ESA resulted in the Cupolas development being resumed in 1998 by ESA, the Cupola is berthed onto the Earth-facing port of Node 3—the final of three modules, including Node 1 and Node 2. Because of its shape and multi window configuration the Cupola has been compared to the window of the Millennium Falcon. He likened the use as similar to that of the Shuttle Orbiter Aft Flight Deck, there were to have been two Cupolas, one on either end of the racetrack shape formed by the station modules and nodes.
It was initially named the windowed workstation, to distinguish it from other computer-based workstations inside of the station, once the idea was initially accepted, a number of people went to work. Charles Wheelwright, who had defined the specifications for every window on every prior United States manned spacecraft, laurie Weaver, who had just started with NASA as a student intern, began to work on a series of different configurations for the Cupola. She started with Kitmacher’s idea, based on the Shuttle Aft Flight Deck, an inexpensive mock-up made of PVC tubes was built and tested underwater, where critical dimensions could be measured to ensure that two crew members in zero-g would have adequate access. Then she built a series of small models, looking at a variety of different alternative shapes. The different configurations and their positive and negative attributes were presented at a series of Crew Station Reviews over the year in which participants rated each. The Cupola that evolved was octagonal in shape, with eight similar windows around the periphery, four quadrant windows overhead, the module was designed to fully contain at least two crewmembers floating side by side in zero-g neutral body posture.
About this time and designer Jay Cory applied the term Cupola for the first time, Kitmacher wrote the requirements and the name into the Man-Systems Architectural Control Document and into the requests for proposals for Work Package 1 at MSFC and Work Package 2 at JSC. Later, Kitmacher went on to lead the Man-Systems group, leading the first lunar outpost and moonbase studies and the Cupola reappeared on several of his rover and module designs. Because of confusion between the responsibilities of the two contracts, both Boeing, which won Work Package 1, and McDonnell Douglas, which won Work Package 2, bid to build the Cupola. The McDonnell Douglas design was basically the same as NASA’s, but Boeing’s was smaller — a hexagon, with a large circular overhead window. This design was the one ultimately built, components of the Cupola were initially fabricated in California, and the windows in New York in the late 1980s, but as budgets were cut, the Cupola was a favorite target
Daylighting is the practice of placing windows or other openings and reflective surfaces so that during the day natural light provides effective internal lighting. Particular attention is given to daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce energy use, Energy savings can be achieved from the reduced use of artificial lighting or from passive solar heating. Daylighting is a term given to a common centuries-old, geography. The amount of daylight received in a space can be analyzed by measuring illuminance on a grid or undertaking a daylight factor calculation. Today, the use of software, such as Radiance, can allow an architect or engineer to quickly undertake complex calculations to review the benefit of a particular design, the source of all daylight is the sun. The proportion of direct to diffuse light impacts the amount and quality of daylight, solar radiation that reaches a site without being scattered within the earth’s atmosphere is called direct sunlight.
In contrast, light that is scattered in the atmosphere is referred to as diffused daylight, ground reflected light contributes to the daylight. Each climate has different composition of these daylights and different cloud coverage, so daylighting strategies vary with site locations, houses were designed with minimal windows on the polar side but more and larger windows on the equatorial-side. Equatorial-side windows receive at least some direct sunlight on any day of the year so they are effective at daylighting areas of the house adjacent to the windows. Even so, during mid-winter, light incidence is highly directional and this may be partially ameliorated through light diffusion, light pipes or tubes, and through somewhat reflective internal surfaces. In fairly low latitudes in summertime, windows that face east and west, windows are the most common way to admit daylight into a space. Their vertical orientation means that they selectively admit sunlight and diffuse daylight at different times of the day, windows on multiple orientations must usually be combined to produce the right mix of light for the building, depending on the climate and latitude.
Different types and grades of glass and different window treatments can affect the amount of transmission through the windows. The type of glazing is an important issue, expressed by its VT coefficient, as the name suggests, this coefficient measures how much visible light is admitted by the window. A low VT can reduce by half or more the coming into a room. But be aware of high VT glass, high VT numbers can be a cause of glare, on the other hand, you should take into account the undesirable effects of large windows. Another important element in creating daylighting is the use of clerestory windows and these are high, vertically placed windows. They can be used to increase direct solar gain when oriented towards the equator, when facing toward the sun and other windows may admit unacceptable glare
Dravidian architecture was an architectural idiom that emerged in the Southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India. It consists primarily of temples with pyramid shaped towers and are constructed of sandstone, soapstone or granite and this styled architecture can be found in parts of North India and central Sri Lanka. Throughout Tamilakam, a king was considered to be divine by nature, the king was the representative of God on earth’ and lived in a “koyil”, which means the “residence of God”. The Modern Tamil word for temple is koil, titular worship was given to kings. Other words for king like “kō” “king”), “iṟai” “emperor”) and “āṇḍavar” “conqueror”) now primarily refer to God, tolkappiyar refers to the Three Crowned Kings as the “Three Glorified by Heaven”. In the Dravidian-speaking South, the concept of kingship led to the assumption of major roles by state. Mayamata and Manasara shilpa texts estimated to be in circulation by 5th to 7th century AD, is a guidebook on Dravidian style of Vastu Shastra design, construction and joinery technique.
Isanasivagurudeva paddhati is another text from the 9th century describing the art of building in India in south, in north India, Brihat-samhita by Varāhamihira is the widely cited ancient Sanskrit manual from 6th century describing the design and construction of Nagara style of Hindu temples. Traditional Dravidian architecture and symbolism are based on Agamas, the Agamas are non-vedic in origin and have been dated either as post-vedic texts or as pre-vedic compositions. Gate-pyramids, which are the features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples. Gopuras are very common in dravidian temples. Pillared halls are used for purposes and are the invariable accompaniments of these temples. In Southern India seven kingdoms and empires stamped their influence on architecture during different times, one such temple, the Saluvannkuppan Murukan temple, unearthed in 2005, consists of three layers. The lowest layer, consisting of a shrine, is one of the oldest of its kind in South India.
It is one of two brick shrine pre Pallava Hindu temples to be found in the state, the other being the Veetrirundha Perumal Temple at Veppathur dedicated to Lord Vishnu. The dynasties of early medieval Tamilakkam expanded and erected structural additions to many of these brick shrines, sculptures of erotic art and deities from the Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple, and the Srirangam Ranganathaswamy Temple date from the Sangam period. The Badami Chalukyas called the Early Chalukyas, ruled from Badami, Karnataka in the period 543 –753 CE, the finest examples of their art are seen in Pattadakal and Badami in northern Karnataka. Over 150 temples remain in the Malaprabha basin, the most enduring legacy of the Chalukya dynasty is the architecture and art that they left behind. More than one hundred and fifty monuments attributed to the Badami Chalukya, the rock-cut temples of Pattadakal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Badami and Mahakuta are their most celebrated monuments
Armoured fighting vehicle
An armoured fighting vehicle is a combat vehicle, protected by strong armour and generally armed with weapons, which combines operational mobility, tactical offensive, and defensive capabilities. AFVs can be wheeled or tracked and it is not uncommon for AFVs to be simply referred to as armour. Armoured fighting vehicles are classified according to their role on the battlefield. This classification is not absolute, at different times different countries will classify the vehicle in different roles. For example, armoured carriers were generally replaced by infantry fighting vehicles in a similar role. Modern armoured fighting vehicles are the realization of an ancient concept, War machines with rudimentary armour have been used in battle for millennia. These designs historically struggled between the paradox of exposed-mobility, effective-firepower and cumbersome-protection, Siege engines, such as battering rams and trebuchets, would often be armoured in order to protect the crews from the defenders.
Very large movable siege towers, helepolis were developed by Polyidus of Thessaly, the idea of a vehicle with a tortoise like cover has been known since antiquity. Frequently cited is Leonardo da Vincis 15th century sketch of a mobile, protected gun platform, the machine was to be mounted on four wheels which would be turned by the crew through a system of hand cranks and cage gears. Leonardo quoted I will build armored wagons which will be safe, there will be no obstacle which it cannot overcome. Modern replicas have demonstrated that the crew would have been able to move it over only short distances. The war wagon were medieval weapon-platforms developmed during the Hussite Wars around 1420 by Hussite forces rebelling in Bohemia. These heavy wagon were given protective sides with firing slits and heavy firepower from either a cannon or a force of hand-gunners and crossbowmen, supported by infantry using pikes, heavy arquebuses mounted on wagons were called arquebus à croc. These carried a ball of about 3.5 ounces, the first modern AFVs were armed cars, dating back virtually to the invention of the motor car.
The Motor Scout was designed and built by British inventor F. R. Simms in 1898 and it was the first armed petrol engine powered vehicle ever built. The vehicle was a De Dion-Bouton quadricycle with a mounted Maxim machine gun on the front bar, an iron shield offered some protection for the driver from the front, but it lacked all-around protective armour. The armoured car was the first modern fully armoured fighting vehicle, the first of these was the Simms Motor War Car, designed by Simms and built by Vickers, Sons & Maxim in 1899. The vehicle had Vickers armour 6 mm thick and was powered by a four-cylinder 3. 3-litre 16 hp Cannstatt Daimler engine giving it a speed of around 9 miles per hour