click links in text for more info

Curaçao (liqueur)

Curaçao is a liqueur flavored with the dried peel of the laraha citrus fruit, grown on the Dutch island of Curaçao. Curaçao liqueur is traditionally made with the dried peels of the laraha. Laraha is a bitter orange native to Curaçao with the Latin name Citrus × aurantium subsp. Currassuviencis. Spanish explorers brought the bitter Seville orange to the island in 1527, the progenitor of the laraha. Although the bitter flesh of the laraha is unpalatable, the peels are pleasantly aromatic. There are no definitive facts to point out when; the Lucas Bols distillery, founded in 1575 in Amsterdam, maintains that Lucas Bols developed a laraha-based liqueur. The Dutch West Indies Company had taken possession of Curaçao in 1634 and Bols had shares in both the West and East India Companies to guarantee the cheap supply of spices for their distilled drinks. After the discovery that an aromatic oil could be extracted from the unripe peel of the otherwise useless bitter oranges, Bols had this oil exported back to Amsterdam to develop a liqueur similar to current day Curaçao.

Bols tended to add an "element of alchemical mystery" to his products, explaining the unlikely addition of a blue coloring. In 1912 Bols sold blue curaçao as Crème de Ciel, most a reference to the 1907 musical Miss Hook of Holland. Senior & Co, a company started in Curaçao, is the only company that has always produced its liqueur from the peels of the laraha; the Jewish family and Chumaceiro, started selling their liqueur in 1896 in their pharmacy in small quantities. In 1947 they bought the Landhuis Chobolobo in Willemstad, where the distillery has since been housed; as this company is the only one that uses laraha fruit from Curaçao, it affects the word "genuine" on its labels. To create the liqueur the laraha peel is dried, bringing out the sweetly fragranced oils. After soaking in a still with alcohol and water for several days, the peel is removed and other spices are added; the company Senior & Co uses a 120-year-old copper kettle for the distilling process. They put the peels in a gunny bag, spices are added and hung in a heated copper still with 96% pure and kosher alcohol for 3 days.

After 1 day cooling, water is added and distillation takes place for another 3 days. The liqueur has an orange-like flavor with varying degrees of bitterness, it is colorless but is given artificial coloring, most blue or orange, which confers an exotic appearance to cocktails and other mixed drinks. The blue color is achieved by adding a food colorant, most E133 Brilliant Blue; some other liqueurs are sold as Curaçaos with different flavors added, such as coffee and rum and raisin. List of liqueurs Triple sec

Nicolás Zamora

Nicolás Villegas Zamora was a Methodist minister, credited with the foundation of the first indigenous evangelical church in the Philippines, known as Iglesia Evangelica Metodista en las Islas Filipinas. Zamora is recognized as the first Filipino Protestant minister in the Philippines. Zamora was born in Binondo, Manila on 10 September 1875, his mother was Estefania Villegas. Nicolás was a grandnephew of Father Jacinto Zamora, one of the three priests collectively called Gomburza executed after being implicated to the 1872 Cavite mutiny, he was first educated under Father Pedro Serrano in Intramuros, pursued higher education at Ateneo Municipal de Manila with the aid of his godfather, Pablo Zamora. From Ateneo he had earned his Bachelor of Arts degree. Zamora took up law as his master's degree prerequisite for priesthood at the University of Santo Tomas, but his schooling was interrupted by the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution in 1896. Meanwhile, his father Paulino was exiled by the Spanish government for suspected involvement in the Revolution.

He served as a Teniente Mayor in the Philippine Revolutionary Army under the command of General Gregorio del Pilar. By this time, Zamora had been secretly reading the Bible, this convinced him of father’s Protestant faith. Thus, after the return of his father from exile in 1898, they began preaching activities before the arrival of American Protestant missionaries. Zamora and his father met the Presbyterian mission, which arrived on 21 April 1899, led by Dr. James B. Rodgers, they were among the nine persons who were first entered into the Presbyterian Church in the Philippines. Zamora was baptized by Rodgers on 22 October 1899. However, he was not to be a preacher for the Presbyterian mission but for the Methodist mission; the first Protestant mission to hold a service in the Philippines was the Methodist mission. Led by Arthur W. Prautch, the service was held in June 1899. By July 1899, Prautch's interpreter did not arrive. After being convinced by Prautch, Zamora agreed to be his interpreter. Speaking in good Tagalog, Zamora was able to attract his audience with his testimony, both Filipino and American.

By October 1899, the congregation to which Zamora preached had grown to 130 members. On March 10, 1900, after eight months of lay preaching under the Methodist Episcopal Church, Bishop James M. Thoburn ordained Zamora a deacon in the place where he first preached in July 1899. In the First District Conference held on 20–23 August 1900, Zamora reported that his evangelistic work had reached seven places, with eight weekly services, 220 probationary members, seven Filipino workers, seven baptisms, 38 marriages. In 1902, he preached at a thanksgiving service, attended by more than 12,000 people; the audience included Bishop Gregorio Aglipay and Isabelo de los Reyes of the Philippine Independent Church, a national church that listed around a million members at the time. In the same year, while preaching the Gospel in Caloocan, he was drawn into a discussion by Father Valentin Tangag. Since the Catholic priest was unable to suggest a topic for discussion, Zamora chose sainthood and the futility of prayers to the saints.

Tangag was unable to rebut Zamora's points, thus retreated to his convent. The following Sunday, with more than 2,000 people eager to witness the discussion, Zamora brought his Bibles to Tangag; the latter had not left his convent to continue the discussion, but upon seeing Zamora, he attempted to punch the latter in the face. Zamora was able to dodge the blow, the people with him tried to retaliate. Tangag was quick to retreat to the convent, prompting the crowd to shout in unison, "¡Viva Cristo y su Evangelio!" Such was the success of Zamora in spreading the Gospel that it had exceeded 15 years of Methodist efforts in China. By 1901, 300 Filipino members had been received into the Methodist Church. In recognition of these efforts, Bishop Frank W. Warne forwarded the ordination of Zamora as an elder of the Methodist Episcopal Church. On 15 March 1903, Zamora was ordained Elder at the Teatro Libertad along Rizal Avenue in Manila, he continued his fervent service to the Church. On 18 April 1903, he preached at a grand rally at Pampanga.

It was attended by more than 2,000 people. In May of the same year, he held two services at Bulacan, it was attended by more than 1,000 people. Throughout the year 1903 until early 1904, he preached 218 sermons. Attendance in Manila reached 18,720, 27,250 in the nearby provinces, he held 20 prayer meetings attended by some 800 people. By 1908, the Church grew with 33,000 more being adherents. Since there were fewer Methodist missionaries as compared to other Protestant missions the Presbyterian mission, this achievement can be attributed to Zamora and the Filipino evangelists that helped the Church; as of 1908, there were exhorters. Dissatisfied with the lack of progress in Filipinizing the Church, as well as the dominance of American missionaries and their attitude of racial discrimination, Church members at Tondo, Manila established Ang Kapisanang Katotohanan in 1904, their primary purpose was to accelerate the pace of evangelism and initiate methods that would make Filipino evangelists be at par with their American counterparts.

Due to the threat of secession, the American missionaries had to counter the momentum of the society. Thus, they transferred Zamora to the Tondo c

Nelson Minnich

Nelson Hubert Minnich is an American historian and author who specializes in Catholic history. Minnich completed his BA in philosophy and MA in history at Boston College and an STB in theology from the Gregorian University in 1970, he earned his PhD in history at Harvard University in 1977. His doctoral thesis was Episcopal Reform at the Fifth Lateran Council and his doctoral advisor was Myron P. Gilmore. Minnich joined the faculty of The Catholic University of America in 1977, becoming Ordinary Professor in 1993, with joint appointments in the History Department and in the Church History program of the School of Theology and Religious Studies, he served as advisory and associate editor of The Catholic Historical Review, becoming the editor in 2005. He has served as an associate editor of the Encyclopedia of the Renaissance. Minnich is the recipient of numerous fellowships: American Academy in Rome, American Council of Learned Societies, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Humanities Center, Renaissance Society of America, Villa I Tatti.

His publications deal broadly with Christian humanism. He has worked on the controversy between Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam and Alberto III Pio, Prince of Carpi, the autobiography of Antonio degli Agli These studies include four books, six edited or co-edited volumes, twenty-seven chapters in books, thirty-four articles in scholarly journals, numerous entries in reference works and book reviews, he is a life-time member of the American Catholic Historical Association and of the Gesellschaft zur Herausgabe des Corpus Catholicorum and is active in the Societas Internationalis Historiae Conciliorum Investigandae. Since 2007 he has been a member of the Pontifical Committee of Historical Sciences; some of Minnich's notable books are: Councils of the Catholic Reformation Journeys in Church History The Decrees of the Fifth Lateran Council Catholic University of America

Ayano Ninomiya

Ayano Ninomiya is a Japanese-American violinist and a winner of both the Naumburg International Violin Competition and Tibor Varga International Competitions. Ninomiya was born in Takamatsu and moved to the United States when she was one, she is a graduate of Harvard College, from which she obtained music and French degrees while studying with Michele Auclair and Miriam Fried. She was awarded the David McCord Prize there as well winning the Harvard-Radcliffe Orchestra Concerto Competition, she obtained a master's degree from the Juilliard School, where she was under the guidance of Robert Mann. She was mentored by coaches Michele Auclair, Miriam Fried, Hyo Kang, András Keller, Robert Levin, Marylou Speaker Churchill, she has performed with such quartets as Daedalus and the Momenta in both Singapore and China, across Europe, throughout the United States, was a member of the TinAlley String Quartet of Australia. She was a frequent music festival participant and appeared in such events as the Bridgehampton, the Caramoor, the Olympic, many others.

She played violin at the National Gallery of Art and Lincoln Center and performed at places as diverse as Bethlehem, Columbia, Philadelphia, the US Capitol, Tokyo's university, where she talked on TEDx in 2012. In 2010, she became first violinist of the Ying Quartet and Associate Professor at the Eastman School of Music, she has recorded three CDs with the Ying Quartet. When not performing, Ayano Ninomiya is a Kokikai practitioner and plays a 2010 violin by living maker Mario Miralles, she placed second in the Violin Competition of 2003 sponsored by the Walter W. Naumburg Foundation. Official website

Kinmundy Township, Marion County, Illinois

Kinmundy Township is located in Marion County, Illinois, USA. At the 2010 census, its population was 1,186 and it contained 542 housing units. Kinmundy is believed to be named after a place in Scotland. Kinmundy Township is centered at 38°47'N 88°51'W, it is traversed northeast-southwest by Interstate Route 57, State Route 37 and the East Fork of the Kaskaskia River. The city of Kinmundy is located near the center of the township. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 36.98 square miles, of which 36.65 square miles is land and 0.33 square miles is water. Lone Grove Township, Fayette County LaClede Township, Fayette County Meacham Township Omega Township Alma Township Tonti Township Foster Township Wilberton Township, Fayette County US Census Illinois State Archives

Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum

The Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum or Collegium Germanicum is a German-speaking seminary for Roman Catholic priests in Rome, founded in 1552. Since 1580 its full name has been Pontificium Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum de Urbe; the Collegium Germanicum was established on 31 August 1552 by Pope Julius III with the bull Dum sollicita. Cardinal Giovanni Morone and Saint Ignatius Loyola were instrumental in its establishment, Saint Ignatius formally opened it on 28 October; the direction of the college was given to the Jesuits. After the Almo Collegio Capranica, this is the oldest college in Rome; the initiative towards its foundation was taken by Cardinal Giovanni Ignatius Loyola. Pope Julius III approved of the idea and promised his aid, but for a long time the college had to struggle against financial difficulties; the first students were received in November 1552. The administration was confided to a committee of six Cardinal Protectors, who decided that the collegians should wear a red cassock, in consequence of which they have since been popularly known as the gamberi cotti.

During the first year the higher courses were given in the college itself. He drew up the first rules for the college, which served as models for similar institutions. During the pontificate of Pope Paul IV the financial conditions became such that the students had to be distributed among the various colleges of the Society in Italy. To place the institution on a firmer basis it was decided to admit paying boarders regardless their nationality, without the obligation of embracing the ecclesiastical state. In a short time 200 boarding students, all belonging to the flower of European nobility, were received; this state of affairs lasted till 1573. Under Pope Pius V, who had placed 20 of his nephews in the college, there was some idea of suppressing the camerata of the poveri tedeschi. Pope Gregory XIII, may be considered the real founder of the college, he transferred the secular department to the Seminario Romano, endowed the college with the Abbey of S. Saba all' Aventino and all its possessions, both on the Via Portuense and on Lake Bracciano.

The new rector P. Lauretano, drew up another set of regulations; the college had changed its location five times. In 1574 Pope Gregory XIII assigned it the Palazzi di S. Apollinare, in 1575 gave it charge of the services in the adjoining church; the splendour and majesty of the functions as well as the music executed by the students under the Spaniard Tomás Luis de Victoria, his successor Annibale Stabile and other celebrated masters drew large crowds to the church. Too much attention indeed was given to music under P. Lauretano, so that regulations had to be made at various times to prevent the academic work of the students from suffering; the courses were still given in the Collegio Roman. As a special mark of his favour, Gregory XIII ordered that each year on the Feast of All Saints a student of the college should deliver a panegyric in presence of the pope. Meanwhile, in 1578 the Collegio Ungherese had been founded through the efforts of another Jesuit, Stephan Szántó, who obtained for it the church and convent of S. Stefano Rotondo on the Caelian Hill, of S. Stefanino behind St. Peter's Basilica, the former belonging to the Hungarian Pauline monks, the latter to the Hungarian pilgrims' hospice.

In 1580 Pope Gregory XIII merged it with the Collegium Hungaricum, founded in 1578, since when it has been called the Pontificium Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum de Urbe, or the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum for short. The students numbered about 100, however, there were but 54, at other times as many as 150. During the seventeenth century several changes occurred, in particular the new form of oath exacted from all the students of foreign colleges. Mention must be made of the work of P. Galeno, the business manager who succeeded in consolidating the finances of the college so as to raise the revenue to 25,000 scudi per annum. A country residence was acquired at Parioli. In the eighteenth century the college became more aristocratic. Pope Benedict XIV performed the ceremony of laying the cornerstone of the new church of S. Apollinare in 1742, on the completion of which a new Palace of S. Apollinare was erected. At the suppression of the Society the direction was entrusted to secular priests.

Discipline and studies declined rapidly. Moreover, Emperor Joseph II sequestrated the property situated in Lombardy and forbade his subjects to attend the college; the buildings, were increased by the addition of the palace opposite to S. Agostino. After Emperor Joseph II in 1781 forbade all students of his realm to study in Rome, the city was shortly afterwards occupied by French troops, the college was obliged to close in 1798, it was reopened under Pope Pius VII in 1818, reorganised by Pope Leo XII, who strengthened its connection to the Jesuits and gave it the form which it still has today. On the proclam