An acolyte is an assistant or follower assisting the celebrant in a religious service or procession. In many Christian denominations, an acolyte is anyone who performs duties such as lighting altar candles. In others, the term is used for one who has been inducted into a particular liturgical ministry, the word acolyte is derived from the Greek word ἀκόλουθος, meaning an attendant, via Late Latin acolythus. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches, the nearest equivalent of acolyte is the altar server, at one time there was a rank of minor clergy called the taper-bearer responsible for bearing lights during processions and liturgical entrances. However, this rank has long ago been subsumed by that of the reader, the functions of an acolyte or taper-bearer are therefore carried out by readers, subdeacons, or by non-tonsured men or boys who are sometimes called acolytes informally. Also, the term altar-boys is often used to refer to young altar servers, subdeacons wear their normal vestments consisting of the sticharion and crossed orarion and servers traditionally wear the sticharion alone.
In recent times, however, in many of the North American Greek Orthodox Churches, for the sake of uniformity, readers do not cross the orarion while wearing it, the uncrossed orarion being intended to slightly distinguish a reader from a subdeacon. In the Russian tradition, readers wear only the sticharion, if a server has not been tonsured, he must remove the sticharion before he can receive Holy Communion. In the early church, a taper-bearer was not permitted to enter the sanctuary, however, servers are permitted to go in, but they are not permitted either to touch the Holy Table or the Table of Oblation. Until 1972, the acolyte was the holder of the highest of four minor orders, by Pope Paul VIs motu proprio Ministeria quaedam of 15 August 1972, the term minor orders has been replaced by that of ministries. Two such ministries, those of reader and acolyte, are to be throughout the Latin Church. A prescribed interval, as decided by the Holy See and the episcopal conference, is to be observed between receiving them.
Candidates for diaconate and for priesthood must receive both ministries and exercise them for time before receiving holy orders. The two ministries are not reserved solely for candidates for orders, but can be conferred- in their formal, institutional permanent form- only on men. The ministries are conferred by the ordinary, either a bishop or, in the case of religious institutes. The motu proprio assigned to the acolyte the functions previously reserved for the subdeacon, the functions of the acolyte are specified in the motu proprio, and have been indicated in the General Instruction of the Roman Missal, no. 98, which says, The acolyte is instituted to serve at the altar and to assist the priest and deacon. In particular, it is his responsibility to prepare the altar, in the ministry of the altar, the acolyte has his own functions, which he must perform personally
The concepts of multifaith, generic and/or humanist chaplaincy are gaining increasing support, particularly within healthcare and educational settings. School chaplains are a fixture in religious and, more recently, in religious schools the role of the chaplain tends to be educational and liturgical. In secular schools the role of the chaplain tends to be that of a mentor, Chaplains provide care for students by supporting them during times of crisis or need. Many chaplains run programs to promote the welfare of students and parents including programs to help deal with grief. Chaplains build relationships with students by participating in extra activities such as breakfast programs, lunchtime groups. School chaplains can liaise with external organisations providing support services for the school, with stagnant incomes and rising prices putting pressure on independent school budgets, cutting the post of school chaplain can seem an easy saving. In Australia chaplains in schools have, been funded by the federal government.
Australian chaplains assist school communities to support the spiritual, Chaplaincy services are provided by non denominational companies. As of August 2013 there are 2339 chaplains working in Australian secular schools, similarly, in Scotland the focus of school chaplaincy is on welfare and building positive relationships joining students on excursions and sharing meals. Chaplains are non-denominational and act as a link between the community and society. Like Australian chaplains it is expected that they will not proselytise, in Ireland chaplaincy takes a very different approach in which chaplains are expected to teach up to four hours of class instruction per week and are usually Catholic. Chaplaincy duties include visiting homes, religious services and celebrations, Chaplains often oversee programs on campus that foster spiritual, ethical and political and cultural exchange, and the promotion of service. Each day communities respond to disasters or emergencies. Most often, these incidents are managed effectively at the local level, there are some incidents that may require a collaborative approach that includes personnel from,1.
A combination of specialties or disciplines,3, Chaplain Fellowship Disaster Response certifies first responder chaplain for crisis and disaster response. At the scene of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, for example, New York City Fire Department Chaplain Fr. Judge was killed by flying debris from the South Tower when he re-entered the lobby of the North Tower of the World Trade Center, environmental chaplaincy is an emerging field within chaplaincy. Environmental chaplains provide spiritual care in a way that honors humanitys deep connection to the earth, environmental chaplains may bear witness to the Earth itself and represent the merging of science and spirituality
Subdeacon is a title used in various branches of Christianity. A subdeacon or hypodeacon is the highest of the orders of clergy in the Orthodox Church. This order is higher than the reader and lower than the deacon, like the reader, the clerical street-dress of the subdeacon is the cassock, which is usually black but only need be so if he is a monk. This is symbolic of his suppression of his own tastes and desires, and his obedience to God, his bishop. As a concession in countries where Orthodoxy is little known, many wear the cassock when attending services or when moving about the faithful on church business. This situation often arises if there is a need for a subdeacon, the reason for this lies in the fact that the canons prohibit subdeacons to marry after their ordination. This latter stipulation has led, in places, to the reservation of the formal ordination service as a stepping-stone for candidates for the priesthood. In the Byzantine Rite, the liturgical role is primarily that of servant to the bishop.
Outside of hierarchical services, the subdeacon serves in the altar as any other server but, in addition to the above duties, the subdeacon may read the reading from the Apostle at the Divine Liturgy if there is only one deacon. For this reason, he has a blessing to touch the Holy Table and the Table of Oblation. He is responsible for the training of new servers, the clerical street-wear of a subdeacon is the inner-cassock and outer cassock. Many wear the cassock only when present among the community or attending to church business. For services, the subdeacon is vested in a sticharion with an orar tied around his waist, up over his shoulders, and with the ends crossed over, the ordination to the subdiaconate is performed outside of the altar and in a context other than the Divine Liturgy. The reader who is to be tonsured subdeacon is presented to the bishop by two other subdeacons, who first lead him to the nave, there he faces east and makes a prostration before turning to make three prostrations towards the bishop, moving further west after each one.
He is led to stand immediately before the bishop, the subdeacons present the orar to the bishop, who blesses it. The ordinand kisses the orar and the hand. The bishop blesses the ordinand three times with the sign of the Cross upon his head, lays his hand upon the ordinands head. The bishop dries his hands and the three subdeacons receive the blessing and kiss his hands
A curate is a person who is invested with the care or cure of souls of a parish. In this sense curate correctly means a parish priest, but in English-speaking countries the term curate is used to describe clergy who are assistants to the parish priest. The duties or office of a curate are called a curacy, the term is derived from the Latin curatus. In other languages, derivations from curatus may be used differently, in French, the curé is the chief priest of a parish, as is the Italian curato, the Spanish cure, and the Filipino term kura pároko, which is derived from Spanish. In the Catholic Church, the English word curate is used for a priest assigned to a parish in a subordinate to that of the parish priest. The parish priest is the priest who has responsibility for the parish. He may be assisted by one or more priests, referred to as curates, assistant priests. In the Church of England today, curate refers to priests who are in their first post after ordination, once in possession of their benefices and vicars enjoyed a freehold, and could only be removed after due legal process, and for a restricted number of reasons.
Perpetual curates were placed on a footing in 1838 and were commonly styled vicars. Clergy who assist the curate were, and are, properly called assistant curates, a house provided for an assistant curate is sometimes colloquially called a curatage. Assistant curates are licensed by the bishop, but only at the request of the curate, for example, Geoffrey Francis Fisher served as Curate of Trent near Sherborne after retiring as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1961. With the 1968 Pastoral Measure and subsequent legislation, the Church of England has undergone a process of reform which still continues today. Ministers in the Church of England whose main income comes from sources other than their work as clergy may be termed Self Supporting Ministers or Curate. Terms like rector and curate were carried overseas with the spread of Anglicanism, in Anglican parishes with a Charismatic or evangelical tradition, the roles of curates are usually seen as being an assistant leader to the overall leader, often in a larger team of pastoral leaders.
Many of the larger Charismatic and Evangelical parishes have larger ministry teams with a number of leaders, some ordained. Originally a bishop would entrust a priest with the cure of souls of a parish, when, in medieval Europe, this included the legal freehold of church land in the parish, the parish priest was a perpetual curate, an assistant would be a curate. The words perpetuus and temporalis distinguish their appointments but not the length of service, a curate is appointed by the parish priest and paid from parish funds. A perpetual curate is a priest in charge of a parish who was appointed, as the church became more embedded into the fabric of feudal Europe, various other titles often supplanted curate for the parish priest
In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was a governor with extended authority over a province at some distance from the capital Constantinople. The prevailing situation frequently involved him in military operations, in the civil administration of the Byzantine Roman Empire the exarch was, as stated above, the viceroy of a large and important province. After the dissolution of the Western Empire in the fifth century. Justinian I reconquered North Africa, Italy and finally parts of Spain for the Eastern Roman Empire, this put an incredible strain on the Empires limited resources. Subsequent emperors would not surrender the land to remedy the situation. Thus the stage was set for Emperor Maurice to establish the Exarchates to deal with the evolving situation of the provinces. In Italy the Lombards were the opposition to Byzantine power. In North Africa the Amazigh or Berber princes were ascendant due to Roman weakness outside the coastal cities, the problems associated with many enemies on various fronts forced the imperial government to decentralize and devolve power to the former provinces.
The term Exarch most commonly refers to the Exarch of Italy, the exarchates seat was at Ravenna, whence it is known as the Exarchate of Ravenna. Ravenna remained the seat of the Exarch until the revolt of 727 over Iconoclasm, the growing menace of the Lombards and the split between eastern and western Christendom that Iconoclasm caused made the position of the Exarch more and more untenable. The last Exarch was killed by the Lombards in 751, a second exarchate was created by Maurice to administer northern Africa, formerly a separate praetorian prefecture, the islands of the western Mediterranean and the Byzantine possessions in Spain. The capital of the Exarchate of Africa was Carthage, the exarchate proved both financially and militarily strong, and survived until the Arab Muslim conquest of Carthage in 698. The term exarch entered ecclesiastical language at first for a metropolitan with jurisdiction not only for the area that was his as a metropolitan, the advance of Constantinople put an end to these exarchates, which fell back to the state of ordinary metropolitan sees.
But the title of exarch was still used for any Metropolitan. Thus, since the Church of Cyprus was declared autocephalous, its Primate received the title of Exarch of Cyprus, the short-lived medieval Churches of Peć, Ohrid and Tirnova, were governed previously by exarchs, though these prelates assumed the title of patriarch. On the same principle the Archbishop of Mount Sinai and Raithu is an exarch, though in case, as in that of Cyprus. When the Bulgarians reconstituted their national Church in 1870, they obtained from the Ottoman authorities for its head the title of Exarch, not the highest, that of Patriarch. The Bulgarian Exarch, who resided at Constantinople, was the most famous bearer of the title, adherents throughout Macedonia were called exarchists, as opposed to the Greek patriarchists
Commonly known in English as St. John Vianney, was a French parish priest who is venerated in the Catholic Church as a saint and as the patron saint of parish priests. Catholics attribute this to his life, his persevering ministry in the sacrament of confession. His feast day is 4 August, Vianney was born on 8 May 1786, in the French town of Dardilly and was baptized the same day. His parents, Matthieu Vianney and his wife Marie, had six children, the Vianneys were devout Catholics, who helped the poor and gave hospitality to St. Benedict Joseph Labre, the patron saint of tramps, who passed through Dardilly on his pilgrimage to Rome. By 1790, the anticlerical Terror phase of the French Revolution forced many priests to hide from the regime in order to carry out the sacraments in their parish. Even though to do so had been declared illegal, the Vianneys traveled to distant farms to attend Masses celebrated by priests on the run, realizing that such priests risked their lives day by day, Vianney began to look upon them as heroes.
He received his First Communion catechism instructions in a home by two nuns whose communities had been dissolved during the Revolution. He made his first communion at the age of 13, during the Mass, the windows were covered so that the light of the candles could not be seen from the outside. His practice of the Faith continued in secret, especially during his preparation for confirmation, the Catholic Church was re-established in France in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte, resulting in religious peace throughout the country, culminating in a Concordat. By this time, Vianney was concerned about his future vocation and he was 20 when his father allowed him to leave the farm to be taught at a presbytery-school in the neighboring village of Écully, conducted by the Abbé Balley. The school taught arithmetic, history and Latin, Vianney struggled with school, especially with Latin, since his past education had been interrupted by the French Revolution. Only because of Vianneys deepest desire to be a priest—and Balleys patience—did he persevere, Vianneys studies were interrupted in 1809 when he was drafted into Napoleons armies.
He would have been exempt, as a student. Two days after he had to report at Lyons, he became ill and was hospitalized, once released from the hospital, on 5 January, he was sent to Roanne for another draft. He went into a church to pray, and fell behind the group. He met a man who volunteered to guide him back to his group, but instead led him deep into the mountains of Le Forez, to the village of Les Noes. Vianney lived there for fourteen months, hidden in the attached to a farmhouse, and under the care of Claudine Fayot. He assumed the name Jerome Vincent, and under that name, since the harsh weather isolated the town during the winter, the deserters were safe from gendarmes
A curator is a manager or overseer. Traditionally, a curator or keeper of a heritage institution is a content specialist charged with an institutions collections. A traditional curators concern necessarily involves tangible objects of some sort—artwork, historic items, more recently, new kinds of curators have started to emerge, curators of digital data objects and biocurators. In smaller organizations, a curator may have responsibility for acquisitions. In very small, volunteer-based museums such as historical societies. Such institutions can have multiple curators, each assigned to a collecting area. In the museum setting, a curator in the United Kingdom may be called a keeper, in Scotland, the term curator is used to mean the guardian of a child. In the United States, this job is multifaceted and dependent on the particular institution, however, in recent years, the role of a curator has evolved alongside the changing role of museums. As museums in the United States have become increasingly more digitized, curators find themselves constructing narratives in both the material and digital worlds.
Historian Elaine Gurian has called for museums in which “visitors could comfortably search for answers to their own regardless of the importance placed on such questions by others. ”This would change the role of curator from teacher to “facilitator and assistor. ”In this sense, the role of curator in the United States is precarious, as digital and interactive exhibits often allow the public to become their own curator. Citizens are able to educate themselves on the subject they are interested in. More recently, advances in new technologies have led to a widening of the role of curator. This has been a focus in major art institutions internationally and has become an object of academic study, in contemporary art, the title curator is given to a person who selects and often interprets works of art. In addition to selecting works, the curator often is responsible for writing labels, catalog essays, such curators may be permanent staff members, guest curators from an affiliated organization or university, or freelance curators working on a consultant basis.
The late twentieth century saw an explosion of artists organizing exhibitions, the artist-curator has a long tradition of influence. Notable among these was Sir Joshua Reynolds, founder of the Royal Academy of Arts, in some US organizations, the term curator is used to designate the head of any given division of a cultural organization. This has led to the proliferation of such as Curator of Education. The term literary curator has been used to persons who work in the field of poetry
Deacon is a ministry in Christian Churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. In many traditions the diaconate, the term for an office, is a clerical office. The word deacon is derived from the Greek word diákonos, which is a standard ancient Greek word meaning servant, waiting-man, minister, or messenger. One commonly promulgated speculation as to its etymology is that it literally means through the dust, female deacons are mentioned by Pliny the Younger in a letter to the emperor Trajan dated c. The title deaconess is not found in the Bible, however, a woman, Phoebe, is mentioned at Romans 16, 1–2 as a deacon of the church in Cenchreae. Nothing more specific is said about her duties or authority, the exact relationship between male and female deacons varies. A biblical description of the qualities required of a deacon, and of his household, can be found in 1 Timothy 3, prominent historical figures who played major roles as deacons and went on to higher office include Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Thomas Becket and Reginald Pole.
On June 8, A. D.536 a serving Roman deacon was raised to Pope and his father, Pope Agapetus, had died and the office had been vacant for over a month. The title is used for the president, chairperson, or head of a trades guild in Scotland. The diaconate is one of the orders in the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox. The other major orders are those of bishop and presbyter, the diaconate continued in a vestigial form as a temporary, final step along the course toward ordination to priesthood. In Catholic and Anglican churches, deacons assist priests in their pastoral and administrative duties and they have a distinctive role in the liturgy of the Eastern and Western Churches. In the Eastern Church, deacons have a profound presence in the Divine Liturgy. In the Western Church, Pope St. Today, deacons are granted permission to preach, beginning around the fifth century, there was a gradual decline in the permanent diaconate in the Latin church. It has however remained a part of the Eastern Catholic Churches.
These men are known as permanent deacons in contrast to those continuing their formation, there is no sacramental or canonical difference between the two, however, as there is only one order of deacons. The permanent diaconate formation period in the Roman Catholic Church varies from diocese to diocese as it is determined by the local ordinary, although they are assigned to work in a parish by the diocesan bishop, once assigned, deacons are under the supervision of the parish pastor. Unlike most clerics, permanent deacons who have a profession have no right to receive a salary for their ministry
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, like the Lutheran Church of Sweden, it is the denomination leader title, an archbishop may be granted the title, or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are generally arranged in groups in which the bishop who is the ordinary of one of them has certain powers and he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of that see. As well as the more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank. In some cases, such a see is the one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco. In others, the title of archdiocese is for reasons attributed to a see that was once of greater importance. Some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese, an example is the Archdiocese of Avignon, which is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Marseille, Another such example is the Archdiocese of Trnava, Slovakia.
Others are immediately subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese and these are usually aggregated to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop, especially in the Anglican Communion, not all archbishops dioceses are called archdioceses. Since then, the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient, the rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops who are not ordinaries of an archdiocese. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head, the bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009, the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is merely that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones, the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr.
and the others with Arciv. Many of the sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank. In that case the person who is appointed to such a position is given the title of archbishop. They are usually referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop, until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the see, the 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a see, an archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see
A papal legate or Apostolic legate is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered on matters of Catholic Faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters, the legate is appointed directly by the pope. The term legation is applied both to a mandate and to the territory concerned. In the High Middle Ages, papal legates were often used to strengthen the links between Rome and the parts of Christendom. More often than not, legates were learned men and skilled diplomats who were not from the country they were accredited to. The Italian-born Guala Bicchieri served as legate to England in the early 13th century. Papal legates often summoned legatine councils, which dealt with church government, during the Middle Ages, a legatine council was the usual means that a papal legate imposed his directives. There are several ranks of papal legates in diplomacy, some of which are no longer used, a nuncio performs the same functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges.
Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party and this highest rank is normally awarded to a priest of cardinal rank. It is an investiture and can either be focused or broad in scope. The legate a latere is the ego of the Pope. The legatus natus would act as the representative in his province. Although limited in their jurisdiction compared to legati a latere, a legatus natus were not subordinate to them, literally sent legate, possessing limited powers for the purpose of completing a specific mission. This commission is normally focused in scope and of short duration, some administrative provinces of the Papal states in Italy were governed by a Papal Legate. This has been the case in Benevento, in Pontecorvo and in Viterbo, in four cases, including Bologna, this post was awarded exclusively to Cardinals, the Velletri post was created for Bartolommeo Pacca. The title could be changed to Apostolic Delegate, as happened in Frosinone in 1827, Papal diplomacy Nuncio – an envoy whose diplomatic status is recognized by the receiving state – usually a titular archbishop.
Papal apocrisiarius List of papal legates to England Other Pontifical legate Catholic Encyclopedia, Legate WorldStatesmen - Italy to 1860 - Papal State Maseri, de Legatis et Nunciis Apostolicis Iudiciis Ecclesiasticis Civilibus et Criminalibus Oneribusque Civitatum Cameralibus et Communitativis. Commentatio Canoncia de Legatis et Nuntiis Pontificum, die englische Legation des Cardinals Guido Fulcodi, des spaeteren P. Clemens IV
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches. Depending on the tradition, it can denote either jurisdictional authority or ceremonial precedence. The office is found only in older Catholic countries, and is now purely honorific. The Holy See has granted Polish primates the privilege of wearing cardinals crimson attire, except for the skullcap and biretta, the city may no longer have the prominence it had when the title was granted. Other former functions of primates, such as hearing appeals from metropolitan tribunals, were reserved to the Holy See by the early 20th century, the closest equivalent position in the Eastern Churches in 1911 was an exarch. The Holy See has continued in modern times to grant the title of primate, with the decree Sollicitae Romanis Pontificibus of 24 January 1956 it granted the title of Primate of Canada to the Archbishop of Quebec. As stated above, this is merely an honorary title involving no additional power, a right of precedence over other bishops and similar privileges can be granted even to a bishop who is not a primate.
Thus, in 1858, the Holy See granted the Archbishop of Baltimore precedence in meetings of the United States bishops. The title of primate is sometimes applied loosely to the archbishop of a capital, as in the case of the archbishops of Seoul in South Korea. The pre-reformation archbishop of Nidaros was sometimes referred to as Primate of Norway, the loose structure of the Benedictine Confederation is claimed to have made Pope Leo XIII exclaim that the Benedictines were ordo sine ordine. The powers of the Abbot Primate are specified, and his position defined, in a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops, the primacy is attached to the global Benedictine Confederation whose Primate resides at SantAnselmo in Rome. The Primatial powers are vested in the Abbot Primate to act by virtue of the proper law of its autonomous Benedictine congregation. However, certain branches of the Benedictine Order seem to have lost their autonomy to some extent. In a similar way the Confederation of Canons Regular of St.
Augustine, elects an Abbot Primate as figurehead of the Confederation and indeed the whole Canonical Order. The Abbots and Superiors General of the nine congregations of confederated congregations of Canons Regular elect a new Abbot Primate for a term of office lasting six years, the Current Abbot General is Rt. Rev. Fr Maurice Bitz, Abbot of St. Pierre, Anglican usage styles the bishop who heads an independent church as its primate, though commonly they hold some other title. In both the Church of England and the Church of Ireland, two bishops have the title of primate, the archbishops of Canterbury and York in England and of Armagh, only the bishop of the senior primatial see of each of these two churches participates in the meetings. The Archbishop of Canterbury, who is considered primus inter pares of all the participants, convokes the meetings and archbishops are styled The Most Reverend