Fruit curd is a dessert spread and topping made with citrus fruit, such as lemon, orange, or tangerine. Other flavor variations include passion fruit and berries such as raspberries, cranberries or blackberries; the basic ingredients are beaten egg yolks, fruit juice, zest, which are cooked together until thick and allowed to cool, forming a soft, flavorful spread. Some recipes include egg whites or butter. In late 19th- and early 20th-century England, homemade lemon curd was traditionally served with bread or scones at afternoon tea as an alternative to jam, as a filling for cakes, small pastries, tarts. Homemade lemon curd was made in small amounts as it did not keep as well as jam. In more modern times, larger quantities became possible because of the use of refrigeration. Commercially manufactured curds contain additional preservatives and thickening agents. Contemporary commercially made curds remain a popular spread for bread, toast, crumpets, cheesecake, or muffins, they can be used as a flavoring for desserts or yoghurt.
Lemon-meringue pie, made with lemon curd and topped with meringue, has been a popular dessert in Britain and the United States since the nineteenth century. Lemon curd can have whipped cream folded into it for such uses as filling cream puffs. Curds differ from pie fillings or custards in that they contain a higher proportion of juice and zest, which gives them a bolder, fruitier taste. Curds containing butter have a smoother and creamier texture than both pie fillings and custards, which contain little or no butter and use cornstarch or flour for thickening. Additionally, unlike custards, curds are not eaten on their own. List of dessert sauces List of lemon dishes and beverages List of spreads
Dahi is a traditional yogurt or fermented milk product, originating from the Indian subcontinent prepared from cow's milk, sometimes buffalo milk, or goat milk. It is popular throughout the Indian subcontinent; the word curd is used in Indian English to refer to homemade yogurt, while the term yogurt refers to the pasteurized commercial variety known as heat treated fermented milk. Dahi is made by bacterial fermentation of milk. In this process lactose in milk is converted into lactic acid by several probiotic microorganisms; the species involved in the fermentation depends on the temperature and humidity of the environment, may include Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus diacetylactis, Streptococcus cremoris, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Dahi starter is made with dried red chillies in hot milk. Milk is boiled and allowed to cool for a while; when lukewarm, dried chili peppers or their stems are added. The reason for this tradition is that dried chillies are rich in a type of lactobacilli, the bacteria that helps in fermentation of milk to form dahi.
The bowl is kept undisturbed in a warm place for 5 to 10 hours. After the starter is made, or saved from previous batch of dahi, milk is cooled. In a separate bowl dahi is mixed with its whey, mixed together with the milk, it is left to sit undisturbed for 5 to 10 hours. This practice can be applied for making dahi/yogurt from milk substitutes, such as soy milk. Buffalo curd is a traditional type of yogurt prepared from water buffalo milk, it is popular throughout the Indian subcontinent. Buffalo milk is traditionally better than cow milk due to its higher fat content making a thicker yogurt mass. Clay pots are used as packaging material for Buffalo curd. Buffalo curd is obtained by bacterial fermentation of buffalo milk. In this process lactose in buffalo milk is converted into lactic acid using several micro-organisms; the species involved in the fermentation include Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus diacetylactis, Streptococcus cremoris, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
Buffalo curd has a higher nutritional value of protein, lactose and vitamins. Quality of the curd depends on the starter culture. Fermentation develops the characteristic flavor and colour of the product. Buffalo curd can be made in both industrial forms. Traditionally buffalo milk is filtered and boiled, the scum is removed and it is cooled to room temperature. A few spoonfuls of a previous batch of curd are added and it is mixed well and poured into clay pots; these are sealed by allowing it to stand for 12 hours. Curd is an important part of everyday diet in the Indian subcontinent, both in slow cooked food and fast food. Slow food Borhani- Bangladeshi drink Dahi chawal – curd rice Dahi kadhi – curd curry Doi maach – Bengali dish, fish in curd curry Coconut chutney – side dish for Idli/Dosa/Uttapam, south Indian cuisine Raita – side dish for Biryani Dahi baigan/Kathrikai thayir kothsu – Eggplant with curd, south Indian cuisine Perugu Pachadi – curd-based dip, Andhra dish Thepla – served with plain curd, Gujrati dishFast food Dahi vada / Dahi bhalla – Vada soaked in Curd Lassi – curd mixed with water and sweetner sugar or molasses.
Chaas - curd mixed with water and Sea salt, black salt or Himalayan salt. It is known as Buttermilk. Papri chaat Dahi puri – variation of Panipuri, using curd instead of tamarind water Dahi bhelpuri – variation of Bhelpuri, with curd on top Aloo tikki – plain curd is a side dish for Aloo tikki Aloo paratha – plain curd is a side dish for Aloo paratha Mishti doi – curd, fermented after adding sweetner to milk cane Jaggery or date palm jaggery. Dadiah Dhau How to make curd or dahi How to make curd Curd and treacle Curd pots
French fries, or fries. French fries are served hot, either soft or crispy, are eaten as part of lunch or dinner or by themselves as a snack, they appear on the menus of diners, fast food restaurants and bars, they are salted and, depending on the country, may be served with ketchup, mayonnaise, tomato sauce, or other local specialties. Fries can be topped more as in the dishes of poutine or chili cheese fries. Chips can be made from other sweet potatoes instead of potatoes. A baked variant, oven chips, uses no oil. One common fast food dish is fish and chips. French fries are prepared by first cutting the potato into strips, which are wiped off or soaked in cold water to remove the surface starch, dried, they may be fried in one or two stages. Chefs agree that the two-bath technique produces better results. Potatoes fresh out of the ground can have too high a water content—resulting in soggy fries—so preference is for those that have been stored for a while. In the two-stage or two-bath method, the first bath, sometimes called blanching, is in hot fat to cook them through.
This step can be done in advance. They are more fried in hot fat to crisp the exterior, they are placed in a colander or on a cloth to drain and served. The exact times of the two baths depend on the size of the potatoes. For example, for 2–3 mm strips, the first bath takes about 3 minutes, the second bath takes only seconds. One can cook french fries using several techniques. Deep frying submerges food in hot fat, most oil. Vacuum fryers are suitable to process low-quality potatoes with higher sugar levels than normal, as they have to be processed in spring and early summer before the potatoes from the new harvest become available. In the UK, a chip pan is a deep-sided cooking pan used for deep-frying. Chip pans are named for their traditional use in frying chips. Most french fries are produced from frozen potatoes which have been blanched or at least air-dried industrially. Most chains that sell fresh cut fries use the Idaho Russet Burbank variety of potatoes, it has been the standard for french fries in the United States.
The usual fat for making french fries is vegetable oil. In the past, beef suet was recommended with vegetable shortening as an alternative. In fact, McDonald's used a mixture of 93% beef tallow and 7% cottonseed oil until 1990, when they switched to vegetable oil with beef flavoring. Starting in the 1960s, more fast food restaurants have been using frozen french fries. In the United States and most of Canada, the term french fries, sometimes capitalized as French fries, or shortened to fries, refers to all dishes of fried elongated pieces of potatoes. Variations in shape and size may have names such as curly fries, shoestring fries, etc.. In the United Kingdom, South Africa and New Zealand, the term chips is used instead, though thinly cut fried potatoes are sometimes called french fries, skinny fries, or pommes frites, to distinguish them from chips, which are cut thicker. A person from the US or Canada might instead refer to these more thickly-cut chips as steak fries or potato wedges, depending on the shape, as the word chips is more used to refer to potato chips, known in the UK and Ireland as crisps.
Thomas Jefferson had "potatoes served in the French manner" at a White House dinner in 1802. The expression "french fried potatoes" first occurred in print in English in the 1856 work Cookery for Maids of All Work by E. Warren: "French Fried Potatoes. – Cut new potatoes in thin slices, put them in boiling fat, a little salt. This account referred to thin, shallow-fried slices of potato – it is not clear where or when the now familiar deep-fried batons or fingers of potato were first prepared. In the early 20th century, the term "french fried" was being used in the sense of "deep-fried" for foods like onion rings or chicken; the French and Belgians have an ongoing dispute about where fries were invented, with both countries claiming ownership. From the Belgian standpoint the popularity of the term "french fries" is explained as a "French gastronomic hegemony" into which the cuisine of Belgium was assimilated because of a lack of understanding coupled with a shared language and geographic proximity of the countries.
Belgian journalist Jo Gérard claims that a 1781 family manuscript recounts that potatoes were deep-fried prior to 1680 in the Meuse valley, in what was the Spanish Netherlands: "The inhabitants of Namur and Dinant had the custom of fishing in the Meuse for small fish and frying among the poor, but when the river was frozen and fishing became hazardous, they cut potatoes in the form of small fish and put them in a fryer like those here." Gérard has not produced the manuscript that supports this claim due to the fact that it is unrelated to the history of the French fry, as the potato did not arrive in the region until around 1735. Given 18th century economic conditions: "It is unthinkable that a peasant could have dedicated large quantities of fat for cooking potatoes. At most they were sautéed in a pan...". At least one source says that "french fries" for deep-fried potato batons was introduced when American and British soldiers arrived in Belgium during World War I; the Belgians had been catering to the British soldiers'
Casein pronounced "kay-seen" in British English, is a family of related phosphoproteins. These proteins are found in mammalian milk, comprising c. 80% of the proteins in cow's milk and between 20% and 45% of the proteins in human milk. Sheep and buffalo milk have a higher casein content than other types of milk with human milk having a low casein content. Casein has a wide variety of uses, from being a major component of cheese, to use as a food additive; the most common form of casein is sodium caseinate. As a food source, casein supplies amino acids and two essential elements and phosphorus. Casein contains a high number of proline residues. There are no disulfide bridges; as a result, it has little tertiary structure. It is hydrophobic, making it poorly soluble in water, it is found in milk as a suspension of particles, called casein micelles, which show only limited resemblance with surfactant-type micelles in a sense that the hydrophilic parts reside at the surface and they are spherical. However, in sharp contrast to surfactant micelles, the interior of a casein micelle is hydrated.
The caseins in the micelles are held together by hydrophobic interactions. Any of several molecular models could account for the special conformation of casein in the micelles. One of them proposes the micellar nucleus is formed by several submicelles, the periphery consisting of microvellosities of κ-casein. Another model suggests; the most recent model proposes a double link among the caseins for gelling to take place. All three models consider micelles as colloidal particles formed by casein aggregates wrapped up in soluble κ-casein molecules; the isoelectric point of casein is 4.6. Since milk's pH is 6.6, casein has a negative charge in milk. The purified protein is water-insoluble. While it is insoluble in neutral salt solutions, it is dispersible in dilute alkalis and in salt solutions such as aqueous sodium oxalate and sodium acetate; the enzyme trypsin can hydrolyze a phosphate-containing peptone. It is used to form a type of organic adhesive. Casein paint is a water-soluble medium used by artists.
Casein paint has been used since ancient Egyptian times as a form of tempera paint, was used by commercial illustrators as the material of choice until the late 1960s when, with the advent of acrylic paint, casein became less popular. It is still used by scene painters, although acrylic has made inroads in that field as well. Casein-based glues, formulated from casein, hydrated lime and sodium hydroxide were popular for woodworking, including for aircraft, as late as the de Havilland Albatross airliner. Casein glue is used in transformer manufacturing due to its oil permeability. While replaced with synthetic resins, casein-based glues still have a use in certain niche applications, such as laminating fireproof doors and the labeling of bottles; the popular Elmer's School Glue was made from casein because it was non-toxic and would wash out of clothing. Several foods and toppings all contain a variety of caseinates. Sodium caseinate acts as a greater food additive for stabilizing processed foods, however companies could opt to use calcium caseinate to increase calcium content and decrease sodium levels in their products.
The main food uses of casein are for powders requiring rapid dispersion into water, ranging from coffee creamers to instant cream soups. Mead Johnson introduced a product in the early 1920s named Casec to ease gastrointestinal disorders and infant digestive problems which were a common cause of death in children at that time, it is believed to neutralize capsaicin, the active ingredient of peppers, jalapeños, other chili peppers. Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk the milk of cows, goats, or sheep, it is produced by coagulation, caused by destabilization of the casein micelle, which begins the processes of fractionation and selective concentration. The milk is acidified and coagulated by the addition of rennet, containing a proteolytic enzyme known as rennin; the solids are separated and pressed into final form. Unlike many proteins, casein is not coagulated by heat. During the process of clotting, milk-clotting proteases act on the soluble portion of the caseins, κ-casein, thus originating an unstable micellar state that results in clot formation.
When coagulated with chymosin, casein is sometimes called paracasein. Chymosin is an aspartic protease that hydrolyzes the peptide bond in Phe105-Met106 of κ-casein, is considered to be the most efficient protease for the cheese-making industry. British terminology, on the other hand, uses the term caseinogen for the uncoagulated protein and casein for the coagulated protein; as it exists in milk, it is a salt of calcium. Some of the earliest plastics were based on casein. In particular, galalith was well known for use in buttons. Fiber can be made from extruded casein. Lanital, a fabric made from casein fiber, was popular in Italy during the 1930s. Recent innovations such as QMilch are offering a more refined use of the fiber for modern fabrics. An attractive property of the casein molecule is its ability to form a gel or clot in the stomach, which makes it efficient in nutrient supply; the clot is able to provide a sustained slow release of amino acids into the blood stream
Rennet is a complex set of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals. Chymosin, its key component, is a protease enzyme; this helps young mammals digest their mothers' milk. Rennet can be used to separate milk into solid curds for cheesemaking and liquid whey. In addition to chymosin, rennet contains other important enzymes such as a lipase. Rennet is used in the production of most cheeses; the mammal's digestive system must be accessed to obtain its rennet. Non-animal alternatives for rennet are available. One of the main actions of rennet is its protease chymosin cleaving the kappa casein chain. Casein is the main protein of milk. Cleavage causes casein to form a network, it can cluster better in the presence of calcium and phosphate, why it is added in cheese making from calcium phosphate-poor goat milk. The solid truncated casein protein network traps other components of milk like fats and minerals to create cheese. In digestion it is followed by other proteases cutting casein further to release and absorb the component amino acids and minerals.
In a nutshell, curdling is chymosin cleaving casein, a process, part of natural digestion and cheese making. Calf rennet is extracted from the inner mucosa of the fourth stomach chamber of young, unweaned calves as part of livestock butchering; these stomachs are a byproduct of veal production. If rennet is extracted from older calves, the rennet contains less or no chymosin, but a high level of pepsin and can only be used for special types of milk and cheeses; as each ruminant produces a special kind of rennet to digest the milk of its own species, milk-specific rennets are available, such as kid goat rennet for goat's milk and lamb rennet for sheep's milk. Dried and cleaned stomachs of young calves are sliced into small pieces and put into salt water or whey, together with some vinegar or wine to lower the pH of the solution. After some time, the solution is filtered; the crude rennet that remains in the filtered solution can be used to coagulate milk. About 1 g of this solution can coagulate 2 to 4 L of milk.
Deep-frozen stomachs are put into an enzyme-extracting solution. The crude rennet extract is activated by adding acid; the acid is neutralized and the rennet extract is filtered in several stages and concentrated until reaching a typical potency of about 1:15,000. One kg of rennet extract has about 0.7 g of active enzymes – the rest is water and salt and sometimes sodium benzoate, 0.5% - 1.0% for preservation. 1 kg of cheese contains about 0.0003 g of rennet enzymes. Because of the limited availability of mammalian stomachs for rennet production, cheese makers have sought other ways to coagulate milk since at least Roman times; the many sources of enzymes that can be a substitute for animal rennet range from plants and fungi to microbial sources. Cheeses produced from any of these varieties of rennet are suitable for lactovegetarians. Fermentation-produced chymosin is used more in industrial cheesemaking in North America and Europe today because it is less expensive than animal rennet. Many plants have coagulating properties.
Homer suggests in the Iliad. Other examples include several species of Galium, dried caper leaves, thistles and ground ivy. Enzymes from thistle or Cynara are used in some traditional cheese production in the Mediterranean. Phytic acid, derived from unfermented soybeans, or fermentation-produced chymosin may be used. Vegetable rennet might be used in the production of kosher and halal cheeses, but nearly all kosher cheeses are produced with either microbial rennet or FPC. Commercial so-called vegetable rennets contain an extract from the mold Rhizomucor miehei; some molds such as Rhizomucor miehei are able to produce proteolytic enzymes. These molds are produced in a fermenter and specially concentrated and purified to avoid contamination with unpleasant byproducts of the mold growth; the traditional view is that these coagulants result in bitterness and low yield in cheese when aged for a long time. Over the years, microbial coagulants have improved a lot due to the characterization and purification of secondary enzymes responsible for bitter peptide formation/non-specific proteolytic breakdown in cheese aged for long periods.
It has become possible to produce several high-quality cheeses with microbial rennet. Cheeses produced this way are suitable for vegetarians, provided no animal-based alimentation was used during the production; because of the above imperfections of microbial and animal rennets, many producers sought other replacements of rennet. With genetic engineering it became possible to isolate rennet genes from animals and introduce them into certain bacteria, fungi, or yeasts to make them produce chymosin during fermentation; the genetically modified microorganism is killed after fermentation and chymosin isolated from the fermentation broth, so that the fermentation-produced chymosin used by cheese producers does not contain a GMO or any GMO DNA. FPC is produced in a more efficient way. FPC products have been on the market since 1990 and, because the quantity needed per unit of milk can be standardized, are commercially viable alternatives to crude animal or plant rennets, as well as preferred to them.
Created by biotechnology company Pfizer, F
Yogurt spelled yoghurt, yogourt or yoghourt, is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as yogurt cultures; the fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tart flavor. Cow's milk is available worldwide and, as such, is the milk most used to make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo, ewes, mares and yaks is used to produce yogurt where available locally; the milk used may be homogenized or not pasteurized or raw. Each type of milk produces different results. Yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt; some countries require yogurt to contain a certain amount of colony-forming units of bacteria. To produce yogurt, milk is first heated to about 85 °C, to denature the milk proteins so that they do not form curds.
After heating, the milk is allowed to cool to about 45 °C. The bacterial culture is mixed in, that temperature of 45 °C is maintained for 4 to 12 hours to allow fermentation to occur; the word is derived from Turkish: yoğurt, is related to the verb yoğurmak, "to knead", or "to be curdled or coagulated. It may be related to yoğun, meaning dense; the sound ğ was traditionally rendered as "gh" in transliterations of Turkish from around 1615–1625. In modern Turkish the letter ğ marks a diaeresis between two vowels, without being pronounced itself, reflected in some languages' versions of the word. In English, the several variations of the spelling of the word include yogurt, to a lesser extent yoghourt or yogourt. Analysis of the L. delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus genome indicates. Milk may have become spontaneously and unintentionally exposed to it through contact with plants, or bacteria may have been transferred from the udder of domestic milk-producing animals; the origins of yogurt are unknown, but it is thought to have been invented in Mesopotamia around 5000 BC.
In ancient Indian records, the combination of yogurt and honey is called "the food of the gods". Persian traditions hold that "Abraham owed his fecundity and longevity to the regular ingestion of yogurt"; the cuisine of ancient Greece included a dairy product known as oxygala, believed to have been a form of yogurt. Galen mentioned that oxygala was consumed with honey, similar to the way thickened Greek yogurt is eaten today; the oldest writings mentioning yogurt are attributed to Pliny the Elder, who remarked that certain "barbarous nations" knew how "to thicken the milk into a substance with an agreeable acidity". The use of yogurt by medieval Turks is recorded in the books Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk by Mahmud Kashgari and Kutadgu Bilig by Yusuf Has Hajib written in the 11th century. Both texts describe its use by nomadic Turks; the earliest yogurts were spontaneously fermented by wild bacteria in goat skin bags. Some accounts suggest that Mughal Indian emperor Akbar's cooks would flavor yogurt with mustard seeds and cinnamon.
Another early account of a European encounter with yogurt occurs in French clinical history: Francis I suffered from a severe diarrhea which no French doctor could cure. His ally Suleiman the Magnificent sent a doctor, who cured the patient with yogurt. Being grateful, the French king spread around the information about the food; until the 1900s, yogurt was a staple in diets of people in the Russian Empire, Western Asia, South Eastern Europe/Balkans, Central Europe, the Indian subcontinent. Stamen Grigorov, a Bulgarian student of medicine in Geneva, first examined the microflora of the Bulgarian yogurt. In 1905, he described it as consisting of a rod-like lactic acid-producing bacteria. In 1907, the rod-like bacterium was called Bacillus bulgaricus; the Russian Nobel laureate and biologist Ilya Mechnikov, from the Institut Pasteur in Paris, was influenced by Grigorov's work and hypothesized that regular consumption of yogurt was responsible for the unusually long lifespans of Bulgarian peasants.
Believing Lactobacillus to be essential for good health, Mechnikov worked to popularize yogurt as a foodstuff throughout Europe. Isaac Carasso industrialized the production of yogurt. In 1919, from Ottoman Salonika, started a small yogurt business in Barcelona and named the business Danone after his son; the brand expanded to the United States under an Americanized version of the name: Dannon. Yogurt with added fruit jam was patented in 1933 by the Radlická Mlékárna dairy in Prague. Yogurt was introduced to the United States in the first decade of the twentieth century, influenced by Élie Metchnikoff's The Prolongation of Life, it was popularized by John Harvey Kellogg at the Battle Creek Sanitarium, where it was used both orally and in enemas, by Armenian immigrants Sarkis and Rose Colombosian, who started "Colombo and Sons Creamery" in Andover, Massachusetts in 1929. Colombo Yogurt was delivered around New England in a horse
Bolu Province is a province in northwestern Turkey. It's an important midpoint between the capital and the largest city in the country, Istanbul, it covers an area of 7,410 km², the population is 271,208. This is an attractive forested mountain district centered on the city of Bolu, which has a long history. There is plenty of forest but little agricultural land. There is some garden produce and dairy production including good cheeses and cream, most of this is consumed or sold locally as Bolu has a large passing trade: Bolu Mountain is the major topographical obstacle on the Istanbul-Ankara highway, until 2007, when the Bolu Mountain Tunnel is being opened, most travelers stopped here for food and refreshment. Bolu has a long tradition of high quality cuisine. Annual cookery competitions are held in Mengen; the province is drained by the Koca River. The forests and mountains are rich in wildlife including three deer species and popular weekend and holiday retreats for walkers and climbers. Parts of the province are vulnerable to earthquakes.
It is not known when Bolu was first founded. There are some archaeological findings dating back about 100,000 years that suggest the region was inhabited then; the area now in Bolu Province was in eastern southwestern Paphlagonia. The town of Bithynium from which the area takes its name is the modern Bolu. By about 375 BCE, Bithynia had gained its independence from Persia, King Bas subsequently defeated Alexander's attempt to take it; the Bithynian region with parts of Paphlagonia remained its own kingdom until 88 BCE when it came under Mithridates VI and the Kingdom of Pontus. With Roman help the last Bithynian king, Nicomedes IV regained his throne, but on his death bequeathed the kingdom to Rome; this led to the Third Mithridatic War and the fall of Pontus, the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as a single province joining Paphlagonia with Bithynia. Under the folling Byzantine Empire the Bolu area was divided from western Bithynia at the Sakarya River, with western Bithynia keeping the name.
The Sakarya is still the western boundary of the province. The Byzantine Empire lost the Bolu area to the Seljuk Turks after the 1071 Battle of Manzikert, but recovered it under the Komnenian restoration. After the end of the Komnenos dynasty, the Turks took the Bolu area back. About 1240 the Seljuk Turks took the eastern part of the Bolu area from the Byzantine Empire and incorporated it into the Sultanate of Rum. Due to their assistance in taking it and Sinop, the Chobanids were given that territory and adjacent areas to the north and east to rule; the Chobanids were independent of the Sultan. That eastern area fell under the Isfendiyarids between 1292 and 1461. In 1461 it was incorporated into the rest of the Ottoman Empire. By 1265, the western part of the Bolu area was again acquired by the Seljuk Turks, but it fell to the arms of Orhan I and the Ottoman Empire in the early to mid-1300s; the two areas were reunited in 1461, under Mehmed II. In the 1864 Ottoman Empire administrative reorganization, Bolu was created as an independent sanjak, although it was geographically part of the Kastamonu Vilayet.
Bolu province is divided into nine districts, four sub-districts, thirteen municipalities and 491 villages. Bolu, with the city of Bolu the capital district Dörtdivan Gerede Göynük Kıbrıscık Mengen Mudurnu Seben Yeniçağa Lake Abant, an attractive mountain lake resort and hot springs. Yedigöller National Park; the name means "seven lakes" in Turkish. The Köroğlu Mountains, said to be the scene of the folk Epic of Köroğlu. There are mineral baths in the province. Kartalkaya, one of Turkey's most popular ski resorts. Sarıalan, a lake high in the mountains above Kartalkaya; the Aladağ mountains, including the trail and picnic area of Gölcük. Seben Çeltikler Göynük Akshemseddin MausoleumAttractive towns include: Mengen Mudurnu Gerede East Marmara Development Agency List of populated places in Bolu Province Official website Bolu municipality's official website Bolu weather forecast information