Curtiss F6C Hawk
The Curtiss F6C Hawk was a late 1920s American naval biplane fighter aircraft. It was part of the long line of Curtiss Hawk airplanes built by the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company for the American military. Designed for land-based use, the Model 34C was identical to the P-1 Hawk in United States Army Air Corps service; the United States Navy ordered nine, but starting with the sixth example, they were strengthened for carrier-borne operations and redesignated Model 34D. Flown from the carriers Langley and Lexington from 1927–30, most of the variants passed to Marine fighter-bomber units, while a few were flown for a time as twin-float seaplanes. United States VF-9M operated 5 Model 34C, XF6C-4 from land bases. VF-2 operated 4 Model 34D, F6C-2 from Langley VF-5S renamed VF-1B along with VF-8M operated 35 Model 34E, F6C-3 from Lexington VF-2B operated 31 Model 34H, F6C-4 from Langley F6C-1 Model 34C identical to the P-1 series. F6C-2 Model 34D fitted with arrester hooks. F6C-3 Model 34E modified version of the F6C-2.
XF6C-4 Model 34H prototype F6C-1 with a Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp radial engine. F6C-4 Model 34H production version of the XF6C-4. XF6C-5 Model 34H prototype F6C-1 with a Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet radial of 525 hp. F6C-6 Model 34E modified with its radiator located inside the fuselage. XF6C-6 Model 34E the F6C-6 which had won the 1930 Curtiss Marine Trophy was converted to parasol-wing monoplane configuration and given wing surface radiators. XF6C-7 Model 34H testbed for an experimental 350 hp Ranger SGV-770C-1 air-cooled inverted Vee engine. Data from United States Navy Aircraft since 1911General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 22 ft 6 in Wingspan: 37 ft 6 in Height: 10 ft 11 in Wing area: 252 ft² Empty weight: 1,980 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 3,171 lb Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 9-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, 410 hp Performance Maximum speed: 155 mph at sea level Range: 360 mi Service ceiling: 22,900 ft Climb to 5,000 ft: 2.5 minArmament Guns: 2 × fixed.30 in Browning machine guns in the forward fuselage Related development Curtiss P-1 Hawk
Royal Thai Air Force
The Royal Thai Air Force or RTAF is the air force of the Kingdom of Thailand. Since its establishment in 1913 as one of the earliest air forces of Asia, the Royal Thai Air Force has engaged in numerous major and minor conflicts. During the Vietnam War era, the RTAF was supplied with USAF-aid equipment. In February 1911 Belgian pilot Charles Van Den Born was responsible for the first aircraft demonstration in Siam at Bangkok's Sapathum Horse Racing Course. King Rama VI was sufficiently impressed that on 28 February 1912 he sent three Army officers to France to learn to fly. After receiving their wings and qualification, the officers returned to Siam in November 1913, bringing with them eight aircraft: four Breguets and four Nieuport IVs). In March 1914, Thai aviation moved from Sapathum to Don Muang north of Bangkok; the Ministry of Defence placed the Siamese Flying Corps under the Army Engineer Inspector General Department. Prince Purachatra Jayakara, Commander of the Army Engineers, his brother Prince Chakrabongse Bhuvanath, were instrumental in the development of the Royal Siamese Aeronautical Service as it was renamed in 1919.
In 1937, it became an independent service known as the Royal Siamese Air Force. Two years when the kingdom's name was changed to Thailand, it became the Royal Thai Air Force; the Air Force during the years before the Second World War was seen as a moderately-well equipped force with modern aircraft. During the French-Thai War, the Thai Air Force achieved several air-to-air-victories in dogfights against the Vichy Armée de l'Air. During World War II, the Thai Air Force supported the Royal Thai Army in its occupation of the Shan States of Burma as somewhat reluctant allies of the Japanese and took part in the defense of Bangkok against allied air raids in the latter part of the war, achieving some successes against state-of-the-art aircraft like the P-51 Mustang and the B-29 Superfortress. During these times, the RTAF was supplied by the Japanese with Imperial Japanese Army Air Force aircraft such as the Ki-43 "Oscar," and the Ki-27 "Nate." Other RTAF personnel took an active part the anti-Japanese resistance movement.
The Thai Air Force sent three C-47s to support the United Nations in Korean War. The Wings Unit, operating the C-47 joined the anti-communist forces in the Vietnam War. Along the border, the Thai Air Force launched many operations against communist forces, including the Ban Nam Ta Airfield Raid in Laos, clashes between Thai and communist Vietnamese troops along the Thai-Cambodian border; when the Cold War ended, the Thai Air Force participated in Operation Border Post 9631 along the Thai-Burmese border in 1999, launched the evacuation of foreigners during the 2003 Phnom Penh riots in Cambodia. For fiscal year 2018 the air force's budget is 39,931 million baht; the Royal Thai Air Force is commanded by the Commander of the Royal Thai Air Force. The Royal Thai Air Force Headquarters is located in Don Muang Airbase, Thailand; the RTAF command structure consists of five groups: headquarters, logistics support, special services, combat forces. The headquarters group in Bangkok performs the usual general staff functions, including planning and directing operations of the combat elements.
Combat Group. The support group provides engineering, ordnance, transportation and medical services support; the education group supervises all air force training programmes. The special service group is responsible for the welfare of air force personnel and coordinates the activities of Thai civil aviation with those of the air force; the Royal Thai Air Force maintains a number of modern bases which were constructed between 1954 and 1968, have permanent buildings and ground support equipment. All but one were built and used by United States forces until their withdrawal from Thailand in 1976 when Thai air force assumed use of the installations at Takhli and Nakhon Ratchasima. In the late 1980s, these bases and Don Muang Air Base outside Bangkok, which the air force shares with civil aviation, remain the primary operational installations. Maintenance of base facilities abandoned by the United States exceeded Thai needs. Nonetheless, all runways were still available for emergency use. By 2004 the Royal Thai Air Force had its main base at Don Muang airport, adjacent to Don Mueang International Airport.
The RTAF had large air fields and facilities at Nakon Ratchasima Ubon Ratchathani, Takhli. The following squadrons are active with the Royal Thai Air Force; this 100 man unit, part of the Royal Thai Air Force's Special Combat Operations Squadron, was formed in the late 1970s and are based near Don Muang Airport and provide anti-hijacking capabilities. They have three assault platoons, each divided into two sections; the Royal Thai Air Force Combat Group is divided into 11 wings plus a training school, plus a few direct-reporting units. Directorate of Air Operations Control, RTAF RTAF Security Force Command Flying Training Schoolcomposed of 1st, 2nd and 3rd Flying Training Squadrons. Based at RTAFB Kamphang Saen in Nakhon Pathom ProvinceWing 1Interceptor and fighter wing based at RTAFB Korat in Nakhon Ratchasima Province. Wing 2Helicopter wing providing utility/transport and search and rescue. Based at RTAFB Lopburi in Lopburi ProvinceWing 4Light attack / Interceptor wing based at RTAFB Takhli in Nakhon Sawan Province.
Wing 5 Transport and special mission wing based at RTAFB Prachuap Khiri Khan in Ao Manao, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province. Wing 6Multi-role non-combat wing providing transport, mapping and surveying. Based at RTAFB Don Muang/B
Cuba the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet, it is east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is capital; the area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres. The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres, the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants; the territory, now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century. From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902.
As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba; the country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, it is a multiethnic country whose people and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country is a middle power in world affairs, it has one of the world's only planned economies, its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world, it ranks in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation unknown"; the exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as'where fertile land is abundant', or'great place'. Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno, the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people; the ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D; when Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as hunter-gatherers. After first landing on an island called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital.
The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were wiped out due to multiple factors Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance, aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had survived smallpox. On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba, he arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, he built Havana's first church made of maso
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other. The first powered, controlled aeroplane to fly, the Wright Flyer, used a biplane wing arrangement, as did many aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage over a monoplane, it produces more drag than a similar unbraced or cantilever monoplane wing. Improved structural techniques, better materials and the quest for greater speed made the biplane configuration obsolete for most purposes by the late 1930s. Biplanes offer several advantages over conventional cantilever monoplane designs: they permit lighter wing structures, low wing loading and smaller span for a given wing area. However, interference between the airflow over each wing increases drag and biplanes need extensive bracing, which causes additional drag. Biplanes are distinguished from tandem wing arrangements, where the wings are placed forward and aft, instead of above and below; the term is occasionally used in biology, to describe the wings of some flying animals.
In a biplane aircraft, two wings are placed one above the other. Each provides part of the lift, although they are not able to produce twice as much lift as a single wing of similar size and shape because the upper and the lower are working on nearly the same portion of the atmosphere and thus interfere with each other's behaviour. For example, in a wing of aspect ratio 6, a wing separation distance of one chord length, the biplane configuration will only produce about 20 percent more lift than a single wing of the same planform; the lower wing is attached to the fuselage, while the upper wing is raised above the fuselage with an arrangement of cabane struts, although other arrangements have been used. Either or both of the main wings can support ailerons, while flaps are more positioned on the lower wing. Bracing is nearly always added between the upper and lower wings, in the form of wires and/or slender interplane struts positioned symmetrically on either side of the fuselage; the primary advantage of the biplane over a monoplane is to combine great stiffness with light weight.
Stiffness requires structural depth and, where early monoplanes had to have this added with complicated extra bracing, the box kite or biplane has a deep structure and is therefore easier to make both light and strong. A braced monoplane wing must support itself while the two wings of a biplane help to stiffen each other; the biplane is therefore inherently stiffer than the monoplane. The structural forces in the spars of a biplane wing tend to be lower, so the wing can use less material to obtain the same overall strength and is therefore much lighter. A disadvantage of the biplane was the need for extra struts to space the wings apart, although the bracing required by early monoplanes reduced this disadvantage; the low power supplied by the engines available in the first years of aviation meant that aeroplanes could only fly slowly. This required an lower stalling speed, which in turn required a low wing loading, combining both large wing area with light weight. A biplane wing of a given span and chord has twice the area of a monoplane the same size and so can fly more or for a given flight speed can lift more weight.
Alternatively, a biplane wing of the same area as a monoplane has lower span and chord, reducing the structural forces and allowing it to be lighter. Biplanes suffer aerodynamic interference between the two planes; this means that a biplane does not in practice obtain twice the lift of the similarly-sized monoplane. The farther apart the wings are spaced the less the interference, but the spacing struts must be longer. Given the low speed and power of early aircraft, the drag penalty of the wires and struts and the mutual interference of airflows were minor and acceptable factors; as engine power rose after World War One, the thick-winged cantilever monoplane became practicable and, with its inherently lower drag and higher speed, from around 1918 it began to replace the biplane in most fields of aviation. The smaller biplane wing allows greater maneuverability. During World War One, this further enhanced the dominance of the biplane and, despite the need for speed, military aircraft were among the last to abandon the biplane form.
Specialist sports aerobatic biplanes are still made. Biplanes were designed with the wings positioned directly one above the other. Moving the upper wing forward relative to the lower one is called positive stagger or, more simply stagger, it can help increase lift and reduce drag by reducing the aerodynamic interference effects between the two wings, makes access to the cockpit easier. Many biplanes have staggered wings. Common examples from the 1930s include the de Havilland Tiger Moth, Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann and Travel Air 2000, it is possible to place the lower wing's leading edge ahead of the upper wing, giving negative stagger. This is done in a given design for practical engineering reasons. Examples of negative stagger include Breguet 14 and Beechcraft Staggerwing. However, positive stagger is more common; the space enclosed by a set of interplane struts is called a bay, hence a biplane or triplane with one set of such struts connecting the wings on each side of the aircraft is a single-bay biplane.
This provided sufficient strength for smaller aircraft such as the First World War-era Fokker D. VII fighter and the Second World War de Havilland Tiger Moth basic trainer; the larger two-seat Curtiss JN-4 Jenny is a two bay biplane, the extra bay being necessary as overlong bays are prone to flexing and can fail. The SPAD S. XIII fighter, while appearing to be a two bay bip
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
A hardpoint is a location on an airframe designed to carry an external or internal load. This includes a station on the wing or fuselage of a civilian aircraft or military aircraft where external jet engine, countermeasures, gun pods, targeting pods or drop tanks can be mounted. In aeronautics, the term station is used to refer to a point of carriage on the frame of an aircraft. A station is rated to carry a certain amount of payload, it is a design number which has taken the rated g-forces of the frame into account. Therefore, point loads on the structure from externally or internally mounted stores, equipment and payload are the weight of the item and any pylons, mounting brackets, etc. multiplied by the maximum load factor which the aircraft will sustain when these items are carried. In civilian aviation a station is used to carry an external engine or a fuel tank; as engines are a fixed installation, operators refer to them with the designation of the engine. Therefore, the term is being used for load points meant for non-fixed installation.
In the military, a station can be called weapons station. Unlike civilian aircraft, NATO aircraft frame strength is required to remain without detrimental deformations at 115 percent of the limit or specified loads, without structural failure at ultimate loads. Most stations on a military aircraft serve to carry weapons. A minor number of stations can serve to carry external fuel tanks; these stations are called a general aeronautic term referring to usage of fuel like wet thrust. The term wet is carried over to the adapters, such as a pylon. Wing stations require pylons to carry objects. Stations on the fuselage may not require a pylon, such as the fuselage stations on the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, while other aircraft need pylons for certain stations in order to provide clearance for the landing gear retraction sequence or to provide necessary item space. Swing-wing aircraft that mount pylons on the moving portion of the wing must include a mechanism for swiveling the pylon as the wing sweeps fore or aft, in order to keep the pylon and store facing directly forwards at all times.
The F-111's outermost pair of hardpoints do not swivel, can only be used while the wing is extended. This restricts the aircraft to subsonic flight only while these pylons are fitted fitted with fuel tanks during ferry flights; the pylons are automatically jettisoned if the wing sweep moves past 26 degrees, which would mean that the aircraft is accelerating towards transonic speeds. Stations may be numbered for reference or not at all; the numbering is not consistent and may originate from elsewhere like station 559 on the B-52. There is not an order in which numbers are assigned; the order can be for example from left to right or vice versa, or mirrored and from outboard to inboard. The unique centerline station is no exception. A pylon serves to connect the frame of an aircraft to an item or object, being carried; the use of a pylon is necessary to clear the carriage item of control surfaces as well as prevent undesired disturbance of the flow of air toward the wing. Pylons are designed to be aerodynamic to reduce air resistance.
There are many different forms and designs of pylons distinctly termed accordingly like a wedge adaptor or stub wing pylon. Stealth aircraft like the F-22 or F-35 can use jettisonable pylons to retain stealth and reduce drag. While most pylons are part of a modular system, compatible with numerous stores, certain weapons and aircraft can require special pylons or adapters to carry a specific load. For example, in the Vietnam War, the "Wild Weasel" defense suppression version of the F-105 Thunderchief, the F-105G, could carry the usual AGM-45 "Shrike" anti-radiation missile on a standard pylon and launcher, but the newly developed AGM-78 Standard ARM required a specially designed and unique "LAU-78/a" launcher, unique to that missile. NATO suspension equipment and stores are standardized in MIL-STD-8591. A military pylon provides carriage and the ability to jettison external stores – weapons, fuel tanks or other ordnance. Pylons have a modular bay to carry a wider variety of stores; these adaptors can be bomb racks, launchers or other types of support structures each with their own provisions for mounting all other assemblies.
Racks carry and release stores. Racks are either part of, or can be inserted into, the modular bay of a support structure such as a pylon. A rack can mount a store or another piece of suspension equipment, for example, numerous bombs being mounted onto a single pylon, such as was done on F-105 Thunderchief missions over Vietnam, or the large external pylons on the B-52 Stratofortress, which can carry 12 unguided bombs in four triple ejector racks mounted to a single pylon. Alternatively, using the same pylon, but different racks and adapters, 9 air-launched cruise missiles can be carried. Using modular racks and universal adapters makes it much easier to configure the desired load; the store is mounted by locking the store's lugs with L-shaped suspension hooks in the rack. Depending on the mass of the store there can be a single lug or a number of lugs on the store separated by a certain distance; the distances are standardized. For NATO there is the 14-inch suspension for a 30-inch suspension for heavier stores.
Depending on specific stores from 1000 lb upward
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company was an American aircraft manufacturer formed in 1916 by Glenn Hammond Curtiss. After significant commercial success in the'teens and 20s, it merged with the Wright Aeronautical in 1929 to form Curtiss-Wright Corporation. In 1907, Glenn Curtiss was recruited by the scientist Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, to be among the founding members of Bell's Aerial Experiment Association, with the purpose of helping establish an aeronautical research and development organization. According to Bell, it was a "co-operative scientific association, not for gain but for the love of the art and doing what we can to help one another."In 1909, the AEA was disbanded and Curtiss formed the Herring-Curtiss Company with Augustus Moore Herring on March 20, 1909, renamed the Curtiss Aeroplane Company in 1910. The Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company was created on January 13, 1916 from the Curtiss Aeroplane Company of Hammondsport, New York and Curtiss Motor Company of Bath, New York.
Burgess Company of Marblehead, became a subsidiary in February 1916. With the onset of World War I, military orders rose and Curtiss needed to expand quickly. In 1916, the company moved its headquarters and most manufacturing activities to Buffalo, New York, where there was far greater access to transportation, manufacturing expertise, much needed capital; the company housed an aircraft engine factory in the former Taylor Signal Company-General Railway Signal Company. An ancillary operation was begun in Toronto, Ontario, involved in both production and training, setting up the first flying school in Canada in 1915. In 1917, the two major aircraft patent holders, the Wright Company and the Curtiss Company, had blocked the building of new airplanes, which were needed as the United States was entering World War I; the U. S. government, as a result of a recommendation of a committee formed by Franklin D. Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy, pressured the industry to form a cross-licensing organization, the Manufacturer's Aircraft Association.
Curtiss was instrumental in the development of U. S. Naval Aviation by providing training for pilots and providing aircraft; the first major order was for 144 various subtypes of the Model F trainer flying boat. In 1914, Curtiss had lured B. Douglas Thomas from Sopwith to design the Model J trainer, which led to the JN-4 two-seat biplane trainer; the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company worked with the United States' British and Canadian allies, resulting in JN-4 trainers being built in Canada. In order to complete large military orders, JN-4 production was distributed to five other manufacturers. After the war, large numbers of JN-4s were sold as surplus, making influential as the first plane for many interwar pilots, including Amelia Earhart. A stamp was printed to commemorate the Curtiss JN-4, however a printing error resulted in some having the aircraft image inverted, which has become valuable, one of the best known rare stamps being featured in a number of movies; the Curtiss HS-2L flying boat was used extensively in the war for anti-submarine patrols and was operated from bases in Nova Scotia, Canada and Portugal.
The John Cyril Porte of the Royal Navy and Curtiss worked together to improve the design of the Curtiss flying boats resulting in the Curtiss F5L and the similar Felixstowe F.3. Curtiss worked with the US Navy to develop the NC-4, which became the first aircraft to fly across the Atlantic Ocean in 1919, making several stops en route. By the end of World War I, the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company would claim to be the largest aircraft manufacturer in the world, employing 18,000 in Buffalo and 3,000 in Hammondsport, New York. Curtiss produced 10,000 aircraft during that war, more than 100 in a single week. Peace brought cancellation of wartime contracts. In September 1920, the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company underwent a financial reorganization and Glenn Curtiss cashed out his stock in the company for $32 million and retired to Florida, he served only as an advisor on design. Clement M. Keys gained control of the company and it became the nucleus of a large group of aviation companies. Curtiss seaplanes won the Schneider Cup in two consecutive races, those of 1923 and 1925.
The 1923 race was won by U. S. Navy Lieutenant David Rittenhouse flying a Curtiss C. R.3 to 177.266 miles per hour. Piloted by U. S. Army Lt. Cyrus K. Bettis, a Curtiss R3C won the Pulitzer Trophy Race on October 12, 1925, at a speed of 248.9 miles per hour. Thirteen days Jimmy Doolittle won the Schneider Trophy in the same aircraft fitted with floats with a top speed of 232.573 miles per hour. The Curtiss Robin light transport was first flown in 1928, becoming one of the company's biggest sellers during the Great Depression, the 769 built helped keep the company solvent when orders for military aircraft were hard to find. On July 5, 1929, Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company together with 11 other Wright and Curtiss affiliated companies merged to become the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. One of the last projects started by Curtiss Aeroplane was the ambitious Curtiss-Bleecker SX-5-1 Helicopter, a design that had propellers located midpoint on each of the four large rotors that drove the main rotors.
The design, while costly and well engineered, was a failure. Curtiss operated a flying school at Long Branch Aerodrome in Toronto Township, Ontario from 1915 to 1917 before being taken over by the Royal Flying Corps Canada. Glenn H. Curtiss sponsored the Atlantic Coast Aeronautical Station on a 20-acre tract east of Newport News, VA Boat Harbor in the Fall of