California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Long Branch Aerodrome
Long Branch Aerodrome was an airfield located west of Toronto and just east of Port Credit, now Mississauga, was Canada's first aerodrome. The airport was opened by the Curtiss Flying School, part of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, as a pilot training school in 1915. In 1917 the airport was run by the Royal Flying Corps - RFC, closed in 1919, it is recognized by the existence of Aviation Road in the Lakeview, Mississauga community and a historical plaque. The aerodrome was one of several in the Toronto area, including three near Downsview. For many years it was the site of Ontario Power Generation's Lakeview Generating Station; as of 2009 it became a brownfield site awaiting redevelopment. The airfield was opened on May 20, 1915, by Curtiss Aeroplanes and Motors Company for the Royal Flying Corps. Aircraft such as the Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" soon became a common sight at the airfield. John Alexander Douglas McCurdy, the first person to fly an airplane in the British Empire, was hired as the airport's first manager.
The airport had a small corrugated metal hangar with space for a barnhouse. There was no runway. In January 1917, the newly designated Royal Flying Corps Canada, opened the RFC training centre at Long Branch; the Long Branch training centre provided instruction on flying boats at nearby Hanlan's Point on Toronto Islands, the first seaplane base in Canada. By July 1917, the flight school re-located to Armour Heights Field. Long Branch became the Cadet Ground Training School for the Royal Flying Corps. Both the school and the aerodrome closed in 1919. During Second World War, the former aerodrome served as Non-Permanent Active Militia's No 21 Training Centre and as an army small arms training centre. After the war, the Lakeview Armoury was demolished in the 1950s. List of abandoned airports in Canada List of airports in the Greater Toronto Area Historical plaque
Aero Club of America
The Aero Club of America was a social club formed in 1905 by Charles Jasper Glidden and Augustus Post, among others, to promote aviation in America. It was the parent organization of numerous state chapters, the first being the Aero Club of New England, it thrived until 1923, when it transformed into the National Aeronautic Association, which still exists today. It issued the first pilot's licenses in the United States, successful completion of its licensing process was required by the United States Army for its pilots until 1914, it contests. Cortlandt Field Bishop was president in 1910. Starting in 1911, new president Robert J. Collier began presenting the Collier Trophy. Although conventional wisdom states that the Aero Club began in 1905, there are photos of high society and adventurers printed in 1902 with the stamp, "Aero Club". In the summer of 1905 several members of the Automobile Club of America including Charles Glidden, Homer Hedge, Dave Morris, John F. O'Rourke, Augustus Post founded the Aero Club of America.
They found little support in America for the sport of aviation. They determined to establish a new club with an organization similar to the Automobile Club but whose purpose was to promote aviation, much like the Aero Club of France. Homer Hedge became the first Augustus Post the first secretary. In 1910, three different conventions were held in New York among aeronautical societies; the National Council of Affiliated Clubs of the Aero Club of America, was formed. Thirty-nine delegates, representing constituencies from Pasadena, California, to Boston, met at the Aero Club and formed the parent organization of various state chapters. At the Belmont Air Show in October 1910, a considerable controversy arose between the Englishman Claude Graham-White and the American J. B. Moisant. In one race around the Statue of Liberty, Graham-White won by several minutes, but due to a technicality, the race and considerable prize money was awarded to Moisant. John Armstrong Drexel made public statements accusing the organization of favoritism toward its own members, Drexel held a competing dinner banquet at the same time as the awards banquet of the organization.
The schism among the membership threatened the integrity of the organization, but was resolved with Drexel's resignation. In 1911, the Aero Club of New York put on the First Industrial Airplane Show, held in conjunction with the 11th U. S. International Auto Show at Manhattan's Grand Central Palace, in New York City, it was a spectacular event with prominent speakers, an enthusiastic large crowd that would gaze upon a full-size airplane for the first time. It started December 31, 1910, until mid-January 1911. In 1919, the secretary of the club, Augustus Post organized and drew up the rules for a transatlantic flight competition between New York and Paris, he worked with wealthy hotel owner Raymond Orteig in securing the $25,000 for the Orteig Prize. The $25,000 prize was to be awarded "to the first aviator of any Allied Country crossing the Atlantic in one flight, from Paris to New York or New York to Paris". After five years of failing to attract competitors, the award was put under the control of a seven-member Bryant Bank board of trustees, which awarded it to Charles Lindbergh for his successful 1927 flight in the Spirit of St. Louis.
Some of the licenses issued by the Aero Club of America bore the printed signature of Orville Wright. Wright served for a time as Chairman of the Aero Club of America's Contest Committee. Contrary to popular myth, the Wright brothers were not issued licenses number 4 and 5 for malicious reasons, they were among the five pilots who had, in America, demonstrated their ability to fly airplanes before the Aero Club of America's licensing program began. Those first five licenses were issued in alphabetical order –-- a practice followed by other national organizations belonging to the FAI. Pilot's licenses were not required by law until well after World War I. Aero Club of America licenses were required for participation in sporting events and demonstrations sanctioned by the ACA and FAI, they gave credibility to pilots seeking to perform demonstration flights for hire, but many American pilots never applied for a license, which required a demonstration of flight proficiency; the ACA was notorious for the inflexibility of its licensing process, which prescribed, among other items, a letter of application, a photograph of a candidate, appointment of an ACA examiner, his report of examination, all of which had to be submitted in the correct form and sequence for a license to be issued, whether the candidate passed the flight test or not.
Some notable early pilots issued licenses by the Aero Club of America are listed below. 01 Glenn Curtiss 02 Frank Purdy Lahm 03 Louis Paulhan, French aviator 04 Orville Wright 05 Wilbur Wright 06 Clifford B. Harmon 07 Thomas Scott Baldwin 08 John Armstrong Drexel 09 Todd Shriver 10 Charles Foster Willard 11 James Cairn Mars 13 Leon Richardson 17 Eugene Ely 24 Charles Terres Weymann 25 Augustus Post 26 Ralph Clayton Diggins of the Ralph C. Diggins Company, he was born on March 7, 1887, in Cadillac and moved to Chicago, Illinois. He made his first flight in 1912 and was the 26th person in the United States to receive a pilot's license issued by the Aero Club of America, he died in 1959. 28 Theodore Gordon Ellyson 32 Edson Fessenden Gallaudet 35 William Redmond Cross, Aero Club of America, 1911-1921 37 Harriet Quimby, first woman 44 Matilde Moisant, second woman 55 Norman Prince, early member of the Lafayette Escadrille 57 Paul Peck, one of the first US army pilots. As a first lieutenant in the US Army he was one of
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy; some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal in 1896. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world; the word aviation was coined by the French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863. He derived the term from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. There are early legends of human flight such as the stories of Icarus in Greek myth and Jamshid and Shah Kay Kāvus in Persian myth.
Somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human flights appear, such as the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum, the winged flights of Abbas ibn Firnas, Eilmer of Malmesbury, the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers; the practicality of balloons was limited. It was recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances; the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin, it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced.
The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on May 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed that the coating used in the material covering the frame was flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion, rigid frames and improved speed and maneuverability There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight; the first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890 in his bat-winged self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole.
It was the first manned, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance but insignificant altitude from level ground. Seven years on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry; the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an "uninterrupted flight" of around 300 metres. Although believed at the time, these claims were discredited; the Wright brothers made the first successful powered and sustained airplane flight on December 17, 1903, a feat made possible by their invention of three-axis control. Only a decade at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, attacks against ground positions. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew more reliable; the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908.
During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, there were numerous qualified pilots available; the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. After World War II in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.
Royal Flying Corps
The Royal Flying Corps was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force. During the early part of the war, the RFC supported the British Army by artillery co-operation and photographic reconnaissance; this work led RFC pilots into aerial battles with German pilots and in the war included the strafing of enemy infantry and emplacements, the bombing of German military airfields and the strategic bombing of German industrial and transport facilities. At the start of World War I the RFC, commanded by Brigadier-General Sir David Henderson, consisted of five squadrons – one observation balloon squadron and four aeroplane squadrons; these were first used for aerial spotting on 13 September 1914 but only became efficient when they perfected the use of wireless communication at Aubers Ridge on 9 May 1915. Aerial photography again only became effective the next year. By 1918, photographic images could be taken from 15,000 feet and were interpreted by over 3,000 personnel.
Parachutes were not available to pilots of heavier-than-air craft in the RFC – nor were they used by the RAF during the First World War – although the Calthrop Guardian Angel parachute was adopted just as the war ended. By this time parachutes had been used by balloonists for three years. On 17 August 1917, South African General Jan Smuts presented a report to the War Council on the future of air power; because of its potential for the'devastation of enemy lands and the destruction of industrial and populous centres on a vast scale', he recommended a new air service be formed that would be on a level with the Army and Royal Navy. The formation of the new service would make the under-used men and machines of the Royal Naval Air Service available for action on the Western Front and end the inter-service rivalries that at times had adversely affected aircraft procurement. On 1 April 1918, the RFC and the RNAS were amalgamated to form a new service, the Royal Air Force, under the control of the new Air Ministry.
After starting in 1914 with some 2,073 personnel, by the start of 1919 the RAF had 4,000 combat aircraft and 114,000 personnel in some 150 squadrons. With the growing recognition of the potential for aircraft as a cost-effective method of reconnaissance and artillery observation, the Committee of Imperial Defence established a sub-committee to examine the question of military aviation in November 1911. On 28 February 1912 the sub-committee reported its findings which recommended that a flying corps be formed and that it consist of a naval wing, a military wing, a central flying school and an aircraft factory; the recommendations of the committee were accepted and on 13 April 1912 King George V signed a royal warrant establishing the Royal Flying Corps. The Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers became the Military Wing of the Royal Flying Corps a month on 13 May; the Flying Corps' initial allowed strength was 133 officers, by the end of that year it had 12 manned balloons and 36 aeroplanes. The RFC came under the responsibility of Brigadier-General Henderson, the Director of Military Training, had separate branches for the Army and the Navy.
Major Sykes commanded the Military Commander C R Samson commanded the Naval Wing. The Royal Navy however, with different priorities to that of the Army and wishing to retain greater control over its aircraft, formally separated its branch and renamed it the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 July 1914, although a combined central flying school was retained; the RFC's motto was Per ardua ad astra. This remains the motto of other Commonwealth air forces; the RFC's first fatal crash was on 5 July 1912 near Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain. Killing Captain Eustace B. Loraine and his observer, Staff Sergeant R. H. V. Wilson, flying from Larkhill Aerodrome. An order was issued after the crash stating "Flying will continue this evening as usual", thus beginning a tradition. In August 1912 RFC Lieutenant Wilfred Parke RN became the first aviator to be observed to recover from an accidental spin when the Avro G cabin biplane, with which he had just broken a world endurance record, entered a spin at 700 feet above ground level at Larkhill.
Four months on 11 December 1912 Parke was killed when the Handley Page monoplane in which he was flying from Hendon to Oxford crashed. Aircraft used during the war by the RFC included: Airco DH 2, DH 4, DH 5, DH 6, DH 9 Armstrong-Whitworth F. K.8 Avro 504 Bristol's Bristol Scout single-seat fighter, F2A and F2B Fighter two-seaters Handley Page O/400 Martinsyde G.100 Morane-Saulnier Bullet Biplane Parasol Nieuport Scout 17, 24, 27 Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.2a, B. E.2b, B. E.2c, B. E.2e, B. E.12, F. E.2b, F. E.8, R. E.8, S. E5a Sopwith Aviation Company 1½ Strutter, Triplane, Dolphin SPAD S. VII Vickers FB5 On its inception in 1912 the Royal Flying Corps consisted of a Military and a Naval Wing, with the Military Wing consisting of three squadrons each commanded by a major; the Naval Wing, with fewer pilots and aircraft than the Military Wing, did not organise itself into squadrons until 1914. By November 1914 the Royal Flying Corps taking the loss of the Naval Wing into account, had expanded sufficiently to warrant the creation of wings consisting of two or more squadrons.
These wings were commanded by lieutenant-colonels. In October 1915 the Corps had undergone further expansion which justified the creation of brigades, each commanded by a brigadier-general. Further expansion led to the creation of divisions, with the Training Division being established in August 1917 and R
Glenn Hammond Curtiss was an American aviation and motorcycling pioneer, a founder of the U. S. aircraft industry. He began his career as builder before moving on to motorcycles; as early as 1904, he began to manufacture engines for airships. In 1908, Curtiss joined the Aerial Experiment Association, a pioneering research group, founded by Alexander Graham Bell at Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, to build flying machines. Curtiss made the first witnessed flight in North America, won a race at the world's first international air meet in France, made the first long-distance flight in the United States, his contributions in designing and building aircraft led to the formation of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, now part of Curtiss-Wright Corporation. His company built aircraft for the U. S. Army and Navy, during the years leading up to World War I, his experiments with seaplanes led to advances in naval aviation. Curtiss civil and military aircraft were predominant in the World War II eras. Curtiss was born in 1878 in New York, to Frank Richmond Curtiss and Lua Andrews.
Although his formal education extended only to eighth grade, his early interest in mechanics and inventions was evident at his first job at the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company in Rochester, New York. He invented a stencil machine adopted at the plant and built a rudimentary camera to study photography. On March 7, 1898, Curtiss married Lena Pearl Neff, daughter of Guy L. Neff and Jenny M. Potter, in Hammondsport, New York, they had two children: Carlton N. Curtiss and Glenn Hammond Curtiss Curtiss began his career as a Western Union bicycle messenger, a bicycle racer, bicycle-shop owner. In 1901, he developed an interest in motorcycles when internal-combustion engines became more available. In 1902, Curtiss began manufacturing motorcycles with his own single-cylinder engines, his first motorcycle's carburetor was adapted from a tomato soup can containing a gauze screen to pull the gasoline up by capillary action. In 1903, he set a motorcycle land speed record at 64 miles per hour for one mile.
When E. H. Corson of the Hendee Mfg Co visited Hammondsport in July 1904, he was amazed that the entire Curtiss motorcycle enterprise was located in the back room of the modest "shop". Corson's motorcycles had just been trounced the week before by "Hell Rider" Curtiss in an endurance race from New York to Cambridge, Maryland. On January 24, 1907, Curtiss set an unofficial world record of 136.36 miles per hour, on a 40 horsepower 269 cu in V-8-powered motorcycle of his own design and construction in Ormond Beach, Florida. The air-cooled F-head engine was intended for use in aircraft, he remained "the fastest man in the world", the title the newspapers gave him, until 1911, his motorcycle record was not broken until 1930. This motorcycle is now in the Smithsonian Institution. Curtiss's success at racing strengthened his reputation as a leading maker of high-performance motorcycles and engines. In 1904, Curtiss became a supplier of engines for the California "aeronaut" Tom Baldwin. In that same year, Baldwin's California Arrow, powered by a Curtiss 9 HP V-twin motorcycle engine, became the first successful dirigible in America.
In 1907, Alexander Graham Bell invited Curtiss to develop a suitable engine for heavier-than-air flight experimentation. Bell regarded Curtiss as "the greatest motor expert in the country" and invited Curtiss to join his Aerial Experiment Association. Between 1908 and 1910, the AEA produced each one an improvement over the last. Curtiss designed the AEA's third aircraft, Aerodrome #3, the famous June Bug, became its test pilot, undertaking most of the proving flights. On July 4, 1908, he flew 5,080 ft to win its $2,500 prize; this was considered to be the first pre-announced public flight of a heavier-than-air flying machine in America. The flight of the June Bug propelled Curtiss and aviation into public awareness. On June 8, 1911 Curtiss received U. S. Pilot's License #1 from the Aero Club of America, because the first batch of licenses were issued in alphabetical order. At the culmination of the Aerial Experiment Association's experiments, Curtiss offered to purchase the rights to Aerodrome #3 using it as the basis of his "Curtiss No.
1, the first of his production series of pusher aircraft. During the 1909–1910 period, Curtiss employed a number of demonstration pilots, including Eugene Ely, Charles K. Hamilton, Augustus Post, Hugh Robinson. Aerial competitions and demonstration flights across North America helped to introduce aviation to a curious public; this was a busy period for Glenn Curtiss. In August 1909, Curtiss took part in the Grande Semaine d'Aviation aviation meeting at Reims, organized by the Aéro-Club de France; the Wrights, who were selling their machines to customers in Germany at the time, decided not to compete in person. Two Wright aircraft were at the meet. Flying his No. 2 biplane, Curtiss won the overall speed event, the Gordon Bennett Cup, completing the 20-km course in just under 16 minutes at a speed of 46.5 mph, six seconds faster than runner-up Louis Blériot. On May 29, 1910, Curtiss flew from Albany to New York City to make the first long-distance flight between two major cities in the U. S. For this 137-mile flight, which he completed in just under four hours including two stops to refuel, he won a $1
Hammondsport, New York
Hammondsport is a village at the south end of Keuka Lake, one of the Finger Lakes of New York, United States. The population was 731 at the 2000 census; the Village of Hammondsport is northeast of Bath, New York. Lazarus Hammond founded the village around 1827; the village was incorporated in 1856. The village became a center for the New York wine industry; the American motorcycle designer and manufacturer, recognized expert on gasoline engines Glenn Hammond Curtiss resided at Hammondsport, where he was born in 1878. Early development of aircraft and seaplanes was carried out at Hammondsport by Curtiss who had joined with Alexander Graham Bell and others in the Aerial Experiment Association. In 1921, five local men purchased a wood barrel factory just south of the present D. W. Putnam Wine Company, named it the Aerial Service Corporation. Two of these men, Henry Kleckler, the president and William Chadeayne, vice president, were with the Curtiss Aeroplane Company, founded by Curtiss. Today, this company is known as the Mercury Corporation.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.4 square miles, of which 0.3 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles is water. Hammondsport is at the south end of Keuka Lake, north of the junction of New York State Route 54 and New York State Route 54A. NY-54A passes through the village after linking with County Road 76. Keuka Inlet and Glen Brook flow past the village. At the 2000 census, there were 332 households and 200 families residing in the village; the population density was 2,088.5 per square mile. There were 388 housing units at an average density of 1,108.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.58% White, 1.37% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.41% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.27% of the population. There were 332 households of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families.
34.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.83. 24.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 29.7% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.2 males. The median household income was $38,182 and the family median income was $50,125. Males had a median income of $32,143 and females $28,906; the per capita income for the village was $18,308. About 4.6% of families and 5.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.1% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those aged 65 or over. One of Hammondsport's current wineries, the Pleasant Valley Wine Company, founded in 1860 and a mile southwest, was designated U. S. Bonded Winery No.1 and has eight remarkable stone buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The Great Western Winery and Visitor Center, the most comprehensive center of its kind in the world, is part of the same facilities. Displayed there are historical artifacts covering over 140 years of Finger Lakes winemaking and grape growing expertise, a working model of the Bath and Hammondsport Railroad, "The Champagne Trail" and the cooper's shop, showing authentic wine casks and barrels, cooper tools and equipment. Hammondsport's other wineries include Bully Hill Vineyards, Dr. Konstantin Frank, Heron Hill Winery, Chateau Renaissance Wine Cellars. Bully Hill Vineyards includes the Greyton H. Taylor Wine Museum; the village is referred to as "The Cradle of Aviation" and is home to The Glenn H. Curtiss Museum, dedicated to the memory of the pioneer aviator and housing such exhibits as a full-scale replica of the first naval aircraft and many original planes and developed by Curtiss; the modern-day Mercury Corporation is a held company having 1,500,000 sq ft of manufacturing facilities in New York, subsidiaries in Florida, North Carolina and Mexico, as well as alliance partnerships in Europe and Asia.
It is one of the leading corporations involved in contract manufacturing, sheet metal fabrication and assembly, plastic injection molding. The village was served by the Hammondsport Railroad for many years. Although the tracks are still in place, railroad service has been discontinued. Hammondsport is along the route of the Finger Lakes Trail, a scenic trail winding across central and western New York. Much of the 1995 mockumentary Dadetown was filmed around Hammondsport. In addition to Pleasant Valley Wine Company complex, other sites on the National Register of Historic Places are Germania Wine Cellars, Gold Seal Winery, Hammondsport Union Free School, Mallory Mill and the Pulteney Square Historic District. Morris Brown, Jr. won a Medal of Honor for his actions in the American Civil War. Charles Champlin, film critic and writer, born in Hammondsport in 1926. Meredith Mallory, former US Congressman Joseph M. Champlin, Roman Catholic priest and lecturer, born in Hammondsport in 1930. John Randolph Kuhl, former Congressman, New York assemblyman and state senator, resides in Hammondsport.
Glenn Curtiss, aviation pioneer, born 1878 in Hammondsport. Steve Dunning, award winning bbq restaurant owner in Asheville North Carolina, born in Hammondsport in 1965. Hammondsport Art Show - Keuka Lake Art Association Hammondsport, Cradle of Aviation Hammondsport Chamber of Commerce Information about Hammondsport The Glenn H. Curtiss Museum Pleasant Valley Wine Co