Custard is a variety of culinary preparations based on milk or cream cooked with egg yolk to thicken it, sometimes flour, corn starch, or gelatin. Depending on the recipe, custard may vary in consistency from a thin pouring sauce to the thick pastry cream used to fill éclairs; the most common custards are used in desserts or dessert sauces and include sugar and vanilla, however savory custards are found, e.g. in quiche. Custard is cooked in a double boiler, or heated gently in a saucepan on a stove, though custard can be steamed, baked in the oven with or without a water bath, or cooked in a pressure cooker. Custard preparation is a delicate operation, because a temperature increase of 3–6 °C leads to overcooking and curdling. A cooked custard should not exceed 80 °C. A water bath slows heat transfer and makes it easier to remove the custard from the oven before it curdles. Adding a small amount of cornflour to the egg-sugar mixture stabilises the resulting custard, allowing it to be cooked in a single pan as well as in a double-boiler.
A sous-vide water bath may be used to control temperature. Mixtures of milk and eggs thickened by heat have long been part of European cuisine, since at least Ancient Rome. Custards baked in pastry were popular in the Middle Ages, are the origin of the English word'custard': the French term'croustade' referred to the crust of a tart, is derived from the Italian word crostata, the Latin crustāre. Examples include Crustardes of flessh and Crustade, in the 14th century English collection The Forme of Cury; these recipes include solid ingredients such as meat and fruit bound by the custard. Stirred custards cooked in pots are found under the names Creme Boylede and Creme boiled. In modern times, the name'custard' is sometimes applied to starch-thickened preparations like blancmange and Bird's Custard powder. While custard may refer to a wide variety of thickened dishes, technically the word "custard" refers only to an egg-thickened custard; when starch is added, the result is called pastry cream or confectioners' custard, made with a combination of milk or cream, egg yolks, fine sugar, flour or some other starch, a flavoring such as vanilla, chocolate, or lemon.
Crème pâtissière is a key ingredient in many French desserts including mille-feuille and filled tarts. It is used in Italian pastry and sometimes in Boston cream pie; the thickening of the custard is caused by the combination of starch. Corn flour or flour thicken at 100 °C and as such many recipes instruct the pastry cream to be boiled. In a traditional custard such as a crème anglaise, where egg is used alone as a thickener, boiling results in the over cooking and subsequent'curdling' of the custard. Once cooled, the amount of starch in pastry cream'sets' the cream and requires it to be beaten or whipped before use; when gelatin is added, it is known as crème anglaise collée. When gelatin is added and whipped cream is folded in, it sets in a mold, it is bavarois; when starch is used alone as a thickener, the result is a blancmange. In the United Kingdom, custard has various traditional recipes some thickened principally with cornflour rather than the egg component, others involving regular flour.
After the custard has thickened, it may be mixed with other ingredients: mixed with stiffly beaten egg whites and gelatin, it is chiboust cream. Beating in softened butter produces German buttercream or crème mousseline. A quiche is a savoury custard tart; some kinds of timbale or vegetable loaf are made of a custard base mixed with chopped savoury ingredients. Custard royale is a thick custard cut into decorative shapes and used to garnish soup, stew or broth. In German it is used as a garnish in German Wedding Soup. Chawanmushi is a Japanese savoury custard and served in a small bowl or on a saucer. Chinese steamed egg is a similar but larger savoury egg dish. Bougatsa is a Greek breakfast pastry whose sweet version consists of semolina custard filling between layers of phyllo. Custard may be used as a top layer in gratins, such as the South African bobotie and many Balkan versions of moussaka. In Peru, leche asada'baked milk' is custard baked in individual molds, it is considered a restaurant dish.
Recipes involving sweet custard are listed in the custard dessert category, include: Cooked custard is a weak gel and thixotropic. On the other hand, a suspension of uncooked imitation custard powder in water, with the proper proportions, has the opposite rheological property: it is negative thixotropic, or dilatant, allowing the demonstration of "walking on custard". Eggs contain the proteins necessary for the gel structure to form, emulsifiers to maintain the structure. Egg yolk contains enzymes like amylase, which can break down added starch; this enzyme activity contributes to the overall thinning of custard in the mouth. Egg yolk lecithin helps to maintain the milk-egg interface; the proteins in egg whites set at 60–80˚C. Starch is sometimes added to custard to prevent premature curdling; the starch acts as a heat buffer in the mixture: as
Harry Innes was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Kentucky. Born on January 4, 1752, in Caroline County, Colony of Virginia, British America, Innes attended the College of William & Mary and read law in 1772, with George Wythe, he was admitted to the bar in 1773 and entered private practice in Bedford County, Colony of Virginia from 1775 to 1776. From 1776 to 1777, he was employed by the Virginia Committee of Safety to superintend the working of the Chiswell lead mines on the New River, in what was Fincastle County and to procure the necessary army supplies for the Continental Army. In 1778, he was appointed deputy attorney for Bedford County by Governor Patrick Henry. In 1779, the Virginia legislature appointed Innes as commissioner to settle claims to the unpatented lands around Abingdon. In that same year, he was appointed escheator for Bedford County by Governor Thomas Jefferson. Since he was so successful in collecting taxes, he was appointed, on March 27, 1782, to be the superintendent over the commissioners of six counties.
In the fall of 1782, Innes was elected by the Virginia Legislature as an Assistant Judge of the Supreme Court of Judicature for the District of Kentucky. On November 3, 1782, Innes entered upon the duties of his commission at Crow's Station in conjunction with Judges Caleb Wallace and Samuel McDowell, but he did not move to the District of Kentucky until 1783, he was Attorney General for the District of Kentucky from 1784 to 1789. Concurrent with his service as a Judge and as Attorney General, Innes practiced law, speculated in land and raised a family, he became a trustee of Transylvania University and an honored charter member of the Political Club of Danville. A scholar and lover of books, he built a distinguished library. Innes was convinced. Decisions of the Kentucky courts were not final, appeals had to be carried over the mountains to Richmond. There was no executive authority in Kentucky nor any authority to call out the militia to protect the citizens from Indian attacks. Innes joined the movement for unconditional separation from Virginia.
It took ten conventions before the parties could agree upon terms of separation. A constitution was written and approved before Kentucky attained statehood. Innes was a member of eight of these conventions and president of the first electoral college for the choice of governor and lieutenant governor under the first state constitution. Though Innes and Patrick Henry disagreed over Kentucky independence, they both were opposed to the ratification of the Constitution. Considered Anti-federalists and Democratic-Republicans and fellow Kentuckians: John Brown, Thomas Todd, George Nicholas, John Breckinridge and Henry Clay looked to Thomas Jefferson for leadership in the emerging national party structure. Opposed to their politics was the Marshall family, headed by Colonel Thomas Marshall and included the future chief justice, John Marshall; the Marshall family became the nucleus of the Federalist Party in Kentucky and provided the core for other groups who opposed Jeffersonian politics. Innes was nominated by President George Washington on September 24, 1789, to the United States District Court for the District of Kentucky, to a new seat authorized by 1 Stat. 73.
He was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 26, 1789, received his commission the same day. His service terminated on September 1816, due to his death in Frankfort, Kentucky; the Judiciary Act of 1801 abolished the United States District Court for the District of Kentucky on February 13, 1801, assigned Innes to serve as a United States District Judge of the United States Circuit Court for the Sixth Circuit. The Act was repealed on March 8, 1802, reestablishing the United States District Court for the District of Kentucky as of July 1, 1802. Innes was the son of Reverend Robert Innes, an Episcopal clergyman, a native of Scotland, Catharine Innes, a native Virginian. Innes was educated at the College of William & Mary, he was a schoolmate of James Madison. Innes was married twice, his first wife was Elizabeth Calloway, daughter of Colonel James Calloway, of Bedford County, Virginia. She died in 1791, they had four daughters. He married Mrs. Ann Shield, widow of Dr. Hugh Shield, they had one child, who married John Todd and after his death, John J. Crittenden.
They raised a daughter from Ann's first marriage. Harry Innes at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Innes' biography at the Sixth Circuit website Allen, William B.. A History of Kentucky: Embracing Gleanings, Antiquities, Natural Curiosities and Biographical Sketches of Pioneers, Jurists, Statesmen, Mechanics, Farmers and Other Leading Men, of All Occupations and Pursuits. Bradley & Gilbert. Pp. 260–261. Retrieved 2008-11-10
Lev Lvovich Sedov was the first son of the Russian Communist leader Leon Trotsky and his second wife Natalia Sedova. He was born when his father was in prison facing life imprisonment for having participated in the Revolution of 1905, he lived separately from his parents after the October Revolution in order not to be seen as privileged. He married in 1925 at the age of 19, had a son, the following year. Sedov supported his father in the struggle against Joseph Stalin and became a leader of the Trotskyist movement in his own right, he accompanied his parents into exile in 1929, in 1931 he moved to Berlin to study. Alexandra Ramm-Pfemfert and her husband Franz Pfemfert arranged his visa and ensured that he saw an eye-specialist to treat an eye disease from which he was suffering. Carl Sternheim, a friend of the Pfemferts, met him during this period and described him as an nice looking young man with light brown hair and blue eyes but who chain smokes and vividly explains that he goes through fifty of them every day".
During this period Sedov was fluent in French. Just before Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, Sedov was able to move to Paris where he went to work as a Parisian laborer and became an important activist in the Trotskyist movement, he was followed by agents of the Soviet NKVD. Between 1935 and 1938, while in Paris and his partner, Jeanne Martin took in and cared for his young nephew, Vsevolod Volkov, called "Sieva" by the family, the son of Sedov's late half-sister, Zina. After an acute attack of appendicitis in February 1938, Mark Zborowski, an NKVD agent who had posed as Sedov’s comrade and friend, arranged to take him to a private clinic instead of a Paris hospital. At the same time, Zborowski notified the NKVD that Sedov had been transported under an assumed name to the Clinique Mirabeau, itself, operated by a White Russian with connections to Soviet intelligence, who performed an appendectomy. Complications set in after the operation, but Sedov received no further treatment, he was taken to a Paris hospital, where he died.
The historians who have analyzed the matter believe Sedov was murdered by agents of Stalin who were in Paris watching him, either while in hospital or by poisoning him, causing his condition. In 1956, Zborowski had testified before a United States Senate subcommittee that he had contacted the NKVD to report that Sedov had entered the clinic, to confirm his death. Sedov's grave is in Cimetière de Thiais, south of Paris. Lev Sedov's major political work is The Red Book on the Moscow Trials. At a time when a leftist consensus accepted the verdicts of the Moscow trials, this book analyzed them with the aim of discrediting them, it was the first thorough-going exposé of the frame-ups upon. Trotsky himself described it as a "priceless gift... the first crushing reply to the Kremlin falsifiers." The Red Book on the Moscow Trial Obituary. Leon Sedov by Victor Serge
The 1969–70 Miami Floridians season was the second season of the Floridians in the American Basketball Association. The team notably tried gimmicks to attract fans. November 5th's game would be Ladies Night, with free honey colored pantyhose given to the first 500 ladies, provided it fit anyone from 5 feet to 5 feet, 9 inches in size, with nothing extra needed to buy. For the November 10th game, if one bought a ticket, they would be allowed to walk to the Auditorium to see Jimmy Ellis box Roberto Davila, with the fight being after the game; the team faltered with constant trades and scant profits. Ned Doyle, an advertising executive became majority owner of the team, he decided to make the team a regional franchise, named the Floridians, playing in Miami Beach, Tampa-St. Petersburg and West Palm Beach. 23 Andrew Anderson - Shooting guard 41 Butch Booker - Center 22 Walter Byrd - Power forward 30 Larry Cannon - Shooting guard 42 Al Cueto - Center 20 Donnie Freeman - Point guard 32 Art Heyman - Shooting guard 34 Simmie Hill - Small forward 14 Wil Jones - Power forward 26 George Lehmann - Point guard 22 Maurice McHartley - Point guard 44 Willie Murrell - Small forward 23 Lynn Shackelford - Small forward 33 Donald Sidle - Power forward 32 Daniel Sparks - Power forward 24 Erv Staggs - Small forward 43 George Sutor - Center 43 Skip Thoren - Center 34 Dallas Thornton - Small forward 22 Stephen Vacendak - Point guard 32 Hubie White - Shooting guard -- Bob Woollard - Center 1970 ABA All-Star Game selections Donnie Freeman Floridians on Basketball Reference RememberTheABA.com 1969-70 regular season and playoff results Miami Floridians page
Falih Rıfkı Atay Nature Park is a nature park located in Sarıyer district of Istanbul Province, Turkey. Situated 7 km northwest of Bahçeköy neighborhood of Sarıyer and next to the Neşet Suyu Nature Park, it covers an area of 16.33 ha. It was established in 2011, is one of the nine nature parks inside the Belgrad Forest; the protected area is named in honor of journalist and politician Falih Rıfkı Atay. Serbs who were taken prisoners of war at the Siege of Belgrade by Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, were brought to Istanbul and settled in a village, which used to lie within the park boundaries; the nature park contains the ruins of a church, a protected historic building and was registered as cultural heritage in November 1999. The nature park offers outdoor recreational activities such as hiking and picnicing for visitors on daily basis. There are playgrounds for children. Admission is charged for visitors and vehicles and an open-air restaurant serves the visitors; the nature park has rich fauna.
Flora The park is the habitat for diverse species of plant. The main trees present are hornbeam. Other deciduous trees include sessile oak, kasnak oak and shrubs are blackberry, butcher's-broom, tree heath and bay laurel; some uncommon trees include oriental beech. Anatolian catbrier, wild strawberry and catnip are some of the flowering plants found in the nature park. Fauna Mainly observed fauna of the nature park are porcupines, turtles, crows, woodpeckers and finches. Across the nature park, there is a deer farm. Ayvat Bendi Nature Park Bentler Nature Park Fatih Çeşmesi Nature Park Irmak Nature Park Kirazlıbent Nature Park Kömürcübent Nature Park Mehmet Akif Ersoy Nature Park Neşet Suyu Nature Park
I Love a Piano is an album by American jazz pianist Phineas Newborn Jr. recorded in 1959 and released on the Roulette label. The Allmusic site awarded the album 4½ stars. "Take the "A" Train" – 2:41 "Gee, Ain't I Good to You" – 3:04 "Ain't Misbehavin'" – 3:55 "I've Got the World on a String" – 3:27 "The Midnight Sun Will Never Set" – 4:03 "Real Gone Guy" – 2:12 "Undecided" – 3:40 "Ivy League Blues" – 3:46 "Love and Marriage" – 4:01 "Give Me the Simple Life" – 4:12 Phineas Newborn Jr. – piano John Simmons – bass Roy Haynes – drums