Querida is a ghost town in Custer County, United States. The town was built to serve the surrounding silver mines, the most important of, the Bassick mine. Querida is Spanish for "beloved." Querida is located at 38°07′34″N 105°20′04″W. List of ghost towns in Colorado Ghosttowns.com: Bassick City or Querida Full Resolution Ghost Town and Historic Site Photos by Coloradopast.com
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
In the mountaineering parlance of the Western United States, a fourteener is a mountain peak with an elevation of at least 14,000 feet. There are 96 fourteeners in all west of the Mississippi River. Colorado has the most of any single state. Many peak baggers try to climb all fourteeners in the contiguous United States, one particular state, or another region; the summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways: topographic elevation: the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level. Topographic prominence: how high the summit rises above its surroundings. Topographic isolation: how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation. Not all summits over 14,000 feet qualify as fourteeners. Summits which qualify are those considered by mountaineers to be independent. Objective standards for independence include topographic prominence and isolation, or a combination of the two. However, fourteener lists do not always use such objective rules. A rule used by mountaineers in the contiguous United States is that a peak must have at least 300 feet of prominence to qualify.
By this rule, Colorado has 53 fourteeners, California has 12, Washington has two. According to the Mountaineering Club of Alaska, it is standard in Alaska to use a 500-foot prominence rule rather than a 300-foot rule. By this rule, Alaska has at least 21 peaks over 14,000 feet and its 12 highest peaks exceed 15,000 feet; the following table lists the 96 mountain peaks of the United States with at least 14,000 feet of topographic elevation and at least 300 feet of topographic prominence. Of these 96 fourteeners, 53 rise in Colorado, 29 in Alaska, 12 in California, two in Washington; the 22 highest fourteeners all rise in Alaska. The table above includes 97 peaks; the number of peaks included. A criterion of 100 meters includes 90 peaks, 500 feet includes 77 peaks, 1000 feet includes 63 peaks, 500 meters includes 46 peaks; the following U. S. summits have 14,000 feet of elevation, but have less than 300 feet of topographic prominence: Denali, Browne Tower, 14,530, Alaska. Prominence = 25–125 feet, it is unclear.
Mount Cameron, 14,238, Colorado. Prominence = 118 feet. El Diente Peak, 14,159, Colorado. Prominence = 239 feet. On many fourteener lists. Point Success, 14,158, Washington. Prominence = 118 feet. Polemonium Peak, 14,080+, California. Prominence = 160–240 feet. Starlight Peak, 14,080, California. Prominence = 80–160 feet. North Conundrum Peak, 14,040+, Colorado. Prominence = 200–280 feet. North Eolus, 14,039, Colorado. Prominence = 159–199 feet. North Maroon Peak, 14,014, Colorado. Prominence = 234 feet. On many fourteener lists. Thunderbolt Peak, 14,003, California. Prominence = 223 feet. Sunlight Spire, 14,001, Colorado. Prominence = 195–235 feet. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Greenland List of mountain peaks of Canada List of mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains List of mountain peaks of the United States List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the major 4000-meter summits of the United States List of the major 3000-meter summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the ultra-prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of the major 100-kilometer summits of the United States List of extreme summits of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of mountain peaks of California List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of mountain peaks of Hawaiʻi List of mountain peaks of Montana List of mountain peaks of Nevada List of mountain peaks of Utah List of mountain peaks of Washington List of mountain peaks of Wyoming List of mountain peaks of México List of mountain peaks of Central America List of mountain peaks of the Caribbean United States of America Geography of the United States Geology of the United States Category:Mountains of the United States commons:Category:Mountains of the United States Physical geography Topography Topographic elevation Topographic prominence Topographic isolation United States Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System @ USGS United States National Geodetic Survey Geodetic Glossary @ NGS NGVD 29 to NAVD 88 online elevation converter @ NGS Survey Marks and Datasheets @ NGS Bivouac.com Peakbagger.com Peaklist.org Peakware.com Summitpost.org
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u
The Wet Mountains are a small mountain range in southern Colorado, named for the amount of snow they receive in the winter. They are a sub-range of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, in the southern Rocky Mountains System. There are three variant names of mountain range: Cuerno Verde, Greenhorn Mountains, Sierra Mojada. Most of the Wet Mountains range is within Custer County. Greenhorn Peak and part of the range are in Pueblo County; the range runs from U. S. Highway 50 to Walsenburg; the tallest point is known as Greenhorn Mountain, which has multiple peaks, the highest of which reaches 12,346 feet. Greenhorn Peak, St. Charles Peak, North Peak all reach above tree line; the range provides the eastern boundary of the Wet Mountain Valley, bordered on the west by the Sangre de Cristos. The adjacent Wet Mountain Valley contains the small towns of Silver Cliff. Within the mountains, Highway 96 weaves its way down to Wetmore by way of Hardscrabble Canyon and is one of only three main exits from the valley.
The only other highway in the range is Highway 165, which travels through the range to Rye and Colorado City, can be noted for Lake Isabel and Bishop's Castle. Other towns/communities in the small range include Beulah and Rosita, now a ghost town after a period of gold and silver mining over the past two centuries; the summit of SH 96 in Hardscrabble Canyon has no official name, but is known locally as Hardscrabble Pass, elevation 9085 ft. Its broad saddle is just east of Silver Cliff; the summit of SH 165 is elevation 9403 ft, near Ophir Creek Campground. The intersection of the two highways, between Silver Cliff and Wetmore, is McKenzie Junction, elevation 8359 ft; the gravel road that connects SH 78 from Beulah to SH 165 is known locally as Bathtub Pass, for a discarded roadside clawfoot bathtub. The Wet Mountains are the east flank of an uplifted faulted anticline; the core of the range consists of Precambrian granitic rocks with Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata in fault contact around the southern end and in the northwest.
The range lies on the southeast end of the Central Colorado volcanic field and contains Eocene to Oligocene volcanic rocks. List of articles on Sangre de Cristo Mountains Mountain ranges of Colorado Media related to Wet Mountains at Wikimedia Commons
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Pueblo County, Colorado
Pueblo County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 159,063; the county seat is Pueblo. The county was named for the historic city of Pueblo which took its name from the Spanish language word meaning "town" or "village". Pueblo County comprises CO Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,398 square miles, of which 2,386 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water. San Isabel National Forest Greenhorn Mountain Wilderness American Discovery Trail Frontier Pathways National Scenic and Historic Byway TransAmerica Trail Bicycle Route Western Express Bicycle Route As of the Census 2007 statistical update, there were 154,712 people, 59,956 households, 40,084 families residing in the county; the population density was 59 people per square mile. There were 67,314 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 79.47% Caucasian, 1.90% Black or African American, 1.59% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 12.93% from other races, 3.38% from two or more races.
37.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 11.6 % were of 8.8 % Italian, 6.7 % English, 6.6 % American and 6.5 % Irish ancestry. There were 59,956 households out of which 31.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.10% were married couples living together, 13.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.60% were non-families. 26.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 15.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 95.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $41,283, the median income for a family was $50,143; the per capita income for the county was $21,656.
About 11.20% of families and 14.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.70% of those under age 18 and 8.70% of those age 65 or over. The Board of Pueblo County Commissioners is elected by voters to represent three individual districts within Pueblo County; the board serves as the policy-setting authority for Pueblo County. Pueblo County is part of Colorado's 3rd congressional district and is represented by U. S. House member Scott Tipton. At the state level the following representatives have boundaries that cover parts of Pueblo County, President of the Colorado Senate Leroy Garcia representing Senate District 3, Larry Crowder representing Senate District 35, House Majority Caucus Chair Daneya Esgar representing District 46, Bri Buentello representing District 47 and Donald Valdez representing District 62. Pueblo Boone Rye Avondale Beulah Valley Blende Colorado City Pueblo West Salt Creek Vineland School districts serving the county include: Pueblo City Schools Pueblo County School District 70 Edison School District 54-JT Fowler School District R-4JPueblo County has thirteen high schools.
Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles Arapahoe County, Kansas Territory El Paso County, Jefferson Territory Colorado census statistical areas Front Range Urban Corridor National Register of Historic Places listings in Pueblo County, Colorado Saint Charles Reservoir Pueblo County Government website Pueblo County Geographic Information Systems website Geographic data related to Pueblo County, Colorado at OpenStreetMap Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society