Custer County is a rural mountain county in the center of the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,368; the county seat is Challis. Established in 1881, the county was named for the General Custer Mine, where gold was discovered five years earlier. Custer County relies on ranching and tourism as its main resources. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,937 square miles, of which 4,721 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water, it is the third-largest county in Idaho by area. The Lost River Range, the state's highest mountains, are located in eastern Custer County; the highest is the highest natural point in Idaho at 12,662 feet. On the western border of the county is Idaho's famous Sawtooth Range. Twenty miles east are the White Cloud Mountains, the tallest of, Castle Peak at 11,815 feet; the Salmon River and Big Lost River flow through Custer County. Lemhi County - north Butte County - east Blaine County - south Elmore County - southwest Boise County - southwest Valley County - west US 93 SH-21 SH-75 Challis National Forest Sawtooth National Forest Sawtooth National Recreation Area Hemingway–Boulders Wilderness Jim McClure–Jerry Peak Wilderness Sawtooth Wilderness Cecil D. Andrus–White Clouds Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 4,342 people, 1,770 households, 1,196 families living in the county.
The population density was 0.88 people per square mile. There were 2,983 housing units at an average density of 0.60 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.28% White, 0.55% Native American, 0.02% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.17% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 4.21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.6 % were of 9.9 % American ancestry. There were 1,770 households out of which 29.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.10% were married couples living together, 4.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 27.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 4.80% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 29.30% from 45 to 64, 14.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years.
For every 100 females there were 104.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,174, the median income for a family was $39,551. Males had a median income of $32,255 versus $21,463 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,783. About 10.70% of families and 14.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.70% of those under age 18 and 12.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,368 people, 1,936 households, 1,244 families living in the county; the population density was 0.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,103 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.4% white, 0.6% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.5% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 34.3% were English, 25.6% were German, 19.5% were Irish, 2.8% were American.
Of the 1,936 households, 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families, 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.74. The median age was 48.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,910 and the median income for a family was $56,710. Males had a median income of $42,865 versus $27,317 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,625. About 10.1% of families and 13.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.2% of those under age 18 and 13.2% of those age 65 or over. Custer County is overwhelmingly Republican; the last Democrat to carry the county was John F. Kennedy in 1960, since 1968 no Democrat has passed 37 percent of the county’s vote, the last to pass 28 percent was Michael Dukakis in 1988. However, unusually for so Republican a county, the westernmost precincts adjacent to Blaine County give Democratic majorities in most statewide elections.
In the 2008 Presidential election, it supported Republican John McCain over Democrat Barack Obama by a margin of 71 percent to 25 percent. In 2012, the county gave Mitt Romney a first ballot victory in the Republican primary caucus and subsequently voted 74.1 percent for him in the Presidential election. In 2016, Donald Trump won the Republican primaries with 41.8 percent of support in the county although Ted Cruz won the state with 45.5 percent. Challis Clayton Lost River Mackay Stanley Ellis Goldburg Bayhorse Bonanza Custer National Register of Historic Places listings in Custer County, Idaho Official website Challis School District #181 The History of Custer County
Rock Master is an international climbing competition held every year in Arco. The event takes place in two rounds: the first is an on-sight session and the second is called "after work"; the final classification is given by the sum of the two events. On Friday the athletes are given a chance to survey the work route, the actual climbing takes place on Saturday and Sunday; the history of Rock Master is linked to that of the first international races in the history of climbing. In 1985 it was disputed for the first time Sportroccia to Bardonecchia; the following year the event was tied to a stop at the side of the Colodri of Arc. Right on the wall of the Colodri in 1987, played in the first Rock Master; the following year, the race left the rock and from that moment is played only on artificial in a large open space at the base of Colodri. Since 1999, in addition to lead climbing and speed climbing competitions were held. Since 2006, during the event a jury assigns Arco Rock Legends, two awards are like the Oscars of climbing: Salewa Rock Award with the athlete had the best performance of single pitch sport climbs and boulder La Sportiva Competition Award for the best athlete who has competed in the previous competition season.
The competition is held the first weekend of September, with a few exceptions: in 2010 has been brought forward to July as a pre-event of the World Championship of climbing that would take place in 2011. Instead of the usual two rounds a competition was held to only classical view in three rounds: qualifiers, semi-finals and finals. In 2011 instead of the Rock Master was held in July at the Arco Climbing World Championship in 2011; the title of the Rock Master was, given the evidence of the Duel, a competition demonstration that took place at the end of the World Championship and attended the first sixteen male and female athletes of the league lead. In 2012 the speed test was valid as the fourth leg of the World Cup speed climbing 2012. Malfer, Giulio. Rock Master. Nicolodi. ISBN 978-8884471949. Official site
Ravi Pujari is an Indian gangster, involved in various murders and threats to celebrities in India and Australia throughout the 2000s. In January 2019, he was arrested in Senegal, he started his criminal career at Mumbai. He was a small-time criminal until he killed rival Bala Zalte, he joined gangster Chhota Rajan. He extorted from real estate builders, they parted ways after Dawood Ibrahim made an attempt on Rajan’s life in Bangkok, Thailand in 2000. In the mid-1990s, three of his men shot Om Prakash Kukreja of Kukreja in his Chembur office. Eight years a Navi Mumbai builder, Suresh Wadhwa, escaped an assassination attempt by ducking under his office desk; as per the Sydney Morning Herald, Pujari was believed to be hiding in Australia and had an Australian passport. He calls up the police claiming to have targeted people close to Dawood or his aide Chhota Shakeel. On 13 February 2016 over the controversy of Jawaharlal Nehru University protests, Ravi Pujari threatened to eliminate hardliner Hurriyat faction Syed Ali Shah Geelani...
In 2017 and 2018, various activists in India including students and MLAs filed police complaints that they were receiving death threats from Ravi Pujari, now in Australia. He had threatened them to stop supporting the Modi government, else they would be killed. In 2019 Kerala MLA P. C. George complained that he got threats from Ravi Pujari as death threats for his kids. Kerala Police verified that Mr George got calls from Senegal. From 2009 to 2013, Pujari threatened many Bollywood actors like Salman Khan, Akshay Kumar, Karan Johar, Rakesh Roshan, Shahrukh Khan. Ravi Pujari threatened Shah Rukh Khan for his relationship with Karim Morani, a friend and business partner of Shah Rukh Khan. On 21 January 2020, Pujari was arrested from a barber shop in Dakar, Senegal where he was living with his family under the name Anthony Fernandes. Mumbai police were preparing a request for his extradition, he held a Burkina Faso passport. He was believed to be residing in Australia, he was extradited to India as per procedure on 23 February 2020 and was arrested and brought to Bangalore, India on 24 February 2020 by a four member police team of the Karnataka Police
Jane Wardley known as Mother Jane Wardley, was a founding leader of what became the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, more known as Shakers. Little is known about Wardley's personal life, she was a resident of Bolton, located in the United Kingdom known as Bolton-le-moors. She worked there with her husband James, who worked as a tailor, they moved to Manchester where they continued to live in low temporal conditions. Wardley and her husband were devout members of the Society of Friends known as Quakers. However, around 1747 Wardley began to have visions from God telling her to go about her town teaching the truth about the end of the world: that Christ was about to return, that his second appearance would be in the form of a woman, as is written in the book of Psalms in the Bible. Inspired, she did just that, her first conversion was her husband, soon followed by John Townley, considered a wealthy bricklayer, former Anglicans and Methodists. As a Quaker her worship began with a period of silent meditation.
However, she began shaking, rocking, as she "received visions from god". This led to her followers being called "Shaking Quakers". "In their worship they would sit in silent meditation for a while, when they were taken with a mighty trembling under which they would express the indignation of God against all sin. At other times they were affected, with a mighty shaking; the Testimony of Christ's Second Appearing. The Wardley Society known as the Wardley Group and the Bolton Society, was a Quaker worship group founded in Bolton by Jane and James Wardley; the religious practices of the group can be traced back to French prophets called "Camisards" who travelled to England in 1705 to preach and spread their method of worship. These teachings spread through England and influenced the Wardleys, who began their own preaching and teaching at their home to about 30 devout followers; as described in the previous section, they began their worship like many other Quaker groups but they soon began to shake and break into singing and dancing.
Meetings were first held in Bolton, Manchester, where the articulate preacher, Jane Wardley, urged her followers to: "Repent. For the kingdom of God is at hand; the new heaven and new earth prophesied of old is about to come. The marriage of the Lamb, the first resurrection, the new Jerusalem descended from above, these are now at the door, and when Christ appears again, the true church rises in full and transcendent glory all anti-Christian denominations—the priests, the Church, the pope—will be swept away." They preached that people should open their hearts and prepare for the second coming of Jesus Christ, who would be reincarnated in the near future as a woman. John Townley began to visit the meetings in Manchester after he left the Church of England joined the Methodist Society, he was a wealthy bricklayer. Around 1766, he was visited at his home by James Wardley, he subsequently hosted many poorer members of the society. Ann Lee was the daughter of two devout members of the church, she was compelled by the power of the testimonies of Wardley and her husband, confessed her sins to them.
She taught that repentance was essential to the reception of the power to forsake sin. She became the first leader of the Shakers. Shakers Quakers Ann Lee
Société des Acadiens et Acadiennes du Nouveau-Brunswick Inc v Canada 2008 SCC 15 is a Canadian constitutional law case, dealing with the language standards imposed by section 20 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms on the Royal Canadian Mounted Police pursuant to their duties as New Brunswick's police force. In 1992, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police signed an agreement with the New Brunswick government whereby the RCMP would provide provincial policing services, pursuant to section 20 of the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act and section 2 of the New Brunswick Police Act. In 2000, Marie-Claude Paulin was issued a speeding ticket near Woodstock by an RCMP officer who did not speak with her in French. Paulin sought a declaratory action affirming her right to receive service in French under section 20 of the Charter; the Société des Acadiens et Acadiennes du Nouveau-Brunswick joined Paulin's action in Federal Court. The RCMP argued that section 20 of the Charter did not apply to their institution because they were a federal institution, meaning that only the lesser section 20 Charter provision would apply.
The trial judge, Gauthier J, sided with Paulin and the SAANB, holding that providing New Brunswick's provincial policing services sufficed to make the RCMP a New Brunswick institution for the purpose of section 20 of the Charter. The RCMP appealed to the Federal Court of Appeal. Richard CJ allowed the appeal, holding that the RCMP was not a New Brunswick institution, that the issue was one of contract law, not constitutional law, that the respondents should have brought the action against the province, not in Federal Court; the case was appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada. Paulin and the SAANB argued that section 20 of the Charter did not prevent the RCMP from being subject to the stricter section 20 language standard, that the RCMP's powers within New Brunswick arose from section 2 of the New Brunswick Police Act, making them a New Brunswick institution; the RCMP argued that, per Eldridge v British Columbia, the government of New Brunswick could not delegate its constitutional obligation to oversee the administration of justice, that the RCMP could not be a federal and provincial institution.
Bastarache J, writing for a unanimous Court, allowed the SAANB's appeal. Bastarache J confirmed that the RCMP is a federal institution when contracting with a province, per Doucet v Canada, that section 20 of the Charter applies. However, Bastarache J found that the RCMP's status as a federal institution is not determinative of the issue. Due to section 20 of the RCMPA and section 2 of the Police Act, RCMP officers who administer justice within a province "perform the role of an'institution of the legislature or government'". Further, since the RCMP is under contract to the provincial government, since their policing activities are controlled by the provincial Minister of Justice, the RCMP are an institution of the provincial government and thus must comply with the constitutional obligation set out in section 20 of the Charter
Rosa May Billinghurst was a suffragette and women's rights activist. She was known as the "cripple suffragette", she was born in 1875 in Lewisham, the second of nine children of Henry Farncombe Billinghurst and Rosa Ann Billinghurst. Her mother came from a family who manufactured her father was a banker; as a child she survived polio. She used either crutches or a modified tricycle, she became active in social work in a Greenwich workhouse, teaching in a Sunday School and joining the temperance Band of Hope. She was a useful member of the Women's Liberal Association and in 1907 a member of the Women's Social and Political Union. Despite her disability she took part in the WSPU's march to the Royal Albert Hall in June 1908. Billinghurst helped organise the WSPU's response in the Haggerston by-election in July 1908, polling was on the day that twenty-four suffragettes were released from Holloway prison and came round the area canvassing to'keep the Liberal out.' She was assumed to be the wheelchair user, in 1909, seen distracting a police horse by Annie Barnes, who laughed as another woman seemed to tip the rider off and he fell in the horse trough.
Two years she founded the Greenwich branch of the WSPU. As its first Secretary she took part in the'Black Friday' demonstrations, she was able to attend. She was still arrested. Billinghurst knew that she was helpless when this happened but she was quite prepared to take the added publicity to benefit the suffrage cause; the police exploited her disability leaving her in a side street after letting her tyres down and pocketing the valves. Billinghurst was able to get closer to the House of Commons on another occasion in 1911, when police thought the better of attacking her trike with'Votes for Women' banner during the rush, she is thought to have been one of the suffragettes to evade the 1911 census on the night of Sunday 2 April 1911 in response to the calls from suffragette organisations for a boycott. Billinghurst would charge any opposition, she was arrested several more times in the next few years. The Glaswegian suffragette, Janie Allan worked in partnership with Billinghurst during the window-smashing campaign of March 1912, with Billinghurst hiding a supply of stones under the rug that covered her knees.
Billinghurst's first stint in Holloway Prison was for smashing a window on Henrietta Street during this campaign, for which she was sentenced to one month's hard labour. The prison authorities were confused when she was sentenced to one month hard labour and gave her no extra work, she was befriended by the many other prisoners including Dr Alice Stewart Ker who got her to smuggle a letter out to her daughter when Billinghurst was released. On 8 January 1913, she was tried at the Old Bailey and sentenced to eight months in Holloway Prison for damaging letters in a postbox, she subsequently went on hunger strike, was force-fed along with other suffragettes. She became so ill. Billinghurst had been given a Hunger Strike Medal'for Valour', she spoke at a public meeting in West Hampstead in March 1913. On 24 May she chained herself to the gates of Buckingham Palace and on 14 June she was dressed in white on her trike in Emily Wilding Davison's funeral procession after she became a martyr to the cause.
Billinghurst took part in the mass deputation of suffragettes to petition King George V on 21 May 1914. Though she was not arrested, two policemen deliberately tipped her out of her tricycle, another suffragette, Charlotte Drake, had to lift her back into it. Billinghurst supported the Pankhurst's lead when they decided to prioritise the war over the campaign for women's rights, she helped in Christabel Pankhurst's campaign to be elected in Smethwick in 1918. She became part of the Suffragette Fellowship, she supported Jill Craigie's Equal Pay Film Fund. Billinghurst stopped her activity for women's suffrage after Parliament Act 1918 gave some women the vote, she attended Emmeline Pankhurst's funeral and the unveiling of Emmeline's statue in 1930. In 1911, she was residing with her parents at Lewisham. Billinghurst lived in the garden house of her property "Minikoi", Surrey, with her adopted child, "Beth". Beth has since written a book describing her relationship with her adoptive mother, her brother was Alfred John Billinghurst, an artist whom she lived with after 1914.
She died on 29 July 1953 at a hospital in Twickenham, leaving her body to science. Her name and picture are on the plinth of the statue of Millicent Fawcett in Parliament Square, unveiled in 2018. List of suffragists and suffragettes Tejera, P.. Reinas de la carretera. Madrid. Ediciones Casiopea. ISBN 9788494848216 / ISBN 9788494848223. Spanish edit; the archives of Rosa May Billinghurst are held at The Women's Library at the Library of the London School of Economics