Battle of Inchon
The Battle of Inchon was an amphibious invasion and battle of the Korean War that resulted in a decisive victory and strategic reversal in favor of the United Nations. The operation involved some 75,000 troops and 261 naval vessels, led to the recapture of the South Korean capital of Seoul two weeks later; the code name for the operation was Operation Chromite. The battle ended on 19 September. Through a surprise amphibious assault far from the Pusan Perimeter that UN and South Korean forces were defending, the undefended city of Incheon was secured after being bombed by UN forces; the battle ended a string of victories over the Korean People's Army. The subsequent UN recapture of Seoul severed the KPA's supply lines in South Korea; the UN and South Korean forces were commanded by General of the Army Douglas MacArthur of the United States Army. MacArthur was the driving force behind the operation, overcoming the strong misgivings of more cautious generals to a risky assault over unfavorable terrain.
The battle was followed by a rapid collapse of the North Korean army. From the outbreak of the Korean War following the invasion of South Korea by North Korea on 25 June 1950, the Korean People's Army, had enjoyed superiority in both manpower and ground combat equipment over the South Korean Army and United Nations forces dispatched to South Korea to prevent it from collapsing; the North Korean strategy was to aggressively pursue UN and South Korean forces on all avenues of approach south and to engage them, attacking from the front and initiating a double envelopment of both flanks of the defending units, which allowed the North Koreans to surround and cut off the opposing force, forcing it to retreat in disarray. From their initial 25 June offensive to fighting in July and early August, the North Koreans used this tactic to defeat the UN forces they encountered and push it south. However, with the establishment of the Pusan Perimeter in August, UN forces held a continuous line which the North Koreans could not flank.
The KPA advantages in numbers decreased daily as the superior UN logistical system brought in more troops and supplies to the UN forces. When the North Koreans approached the Busan Perimeter on 5 August, they attempted the same frontal assault technique on the four main avenues of approach into the perimeter. Throughout August, they conducted direct assaults resulting in the Battle of Masan, the Battle of Battle Mountain, the First Battle of Naktong Bulge, the Battle of Taegu, the Battle of the Bowling Alley. On the east coast of the Korean Peninsula, the South Koreans repulsed three North Korean divisions at the Battle of P'ohang-dong; the North Korean attacks stalled. All along the front, the North Korean troops reeled from these defeats, the first time in the war North Korean tactics had failed. By the end of August the North Korean troops had been pushed beyond their limits and many of the original units were at far reduced strength and effectiveness. Logistic problems wracked the KPA, shortages of food, weapons and replacement soldiers proved devastating for North Korean units.
However, the North Korean force retained high morale and enough supply to allow for another large-scale offensive. On 1 September the North Koreans threw their entire military into one final bid to break the Pusan Perimeter, the Great Naktong Offensive, a five-pronged simultaneous attack across the entire perimeter; the attack caught UN forces by surprise and overwhelmed them. North Korean troops attacked Kyongju, surrounded Taegu and Ka-san, recrossed the Naktong Bulge, threatened Yongsan, continued their attack at Masan, focusing on Nam River and Haman. However, despite their efforts, in one of the most brutal fights of the Korean War, the North Koreans were unsuccessful. Unable to hold their gains, the KPA retreated from the offensive a much weaker force, vulnerable to counterattack. Days after the beginning of the war, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, the US Army officer in command of all UN forces in Korea, envisioned an amphibious assault to retake the Seoul area; the city had fallen in the first days of the war in the First Battle of Seoul.
MacArthur wrote that he thought the North Korean army would push the Republic of Korea Army back far past Seoul. He said he decided days after the war began that the battered and under-equipped South Koreans, many of whom did not support the South Korean government put in power by the United States, could not hold off the North Korean forces with American support. MacArthur felt that he could turn the tide if he made a decisive troop movement behind North Korean lines, preferred Inchon, now known as Incheon, over Chumunjin-up or Kunsan as the landing site, he had envisioned such a landing, code named Operation Bluehearts, for 22 July, with the US Army's 1st Cavalry Division landing at Incheon. However, by 10 July the plan was abandoned as it was clear the 1st Cavalry Division would be needed on the Pusan Perimeter. On 23 July, MacArthur formulated a new plan, code-named Operation Chromite, calling for an amphibious assault by the US Army's 2nd Infantry Division and the United States Marine Corps' 5th Marine Regiment in mid-September 1950.
This, too fell through. MacArthur decided instead to use the US Army's 7th Infantry Division, his last reserve unit in East Asia, to conduct the operation as soon as it could be raised to wartime strength. In preparation for the invasion, MacArthur activated the US Army's X Corps to act as the command for the landin
HMS Wolverine (1863)
HMS Wolverine was a Jason-class three-masted wooden screw corvette, of the Royal Navy. She became flagship of the Australia Station being presented to the Colony of New South Wales as a training ship for the New South Wales Naval Brigade and New South Wales Naval Artillery Volunteers. HMS Wolverine was built at the Woolwich Dockyard and launched at Woolwich on 29 August 1863. After serving in the North America and West Indies Station in the 1860s, she was commissioned as the flagship of the Australia Station on 7 September 1875, under the command of Commodore Anthony Hoskins. In 1880, Francis Pringle Taylor was appointed lieutenant in command, a position he held until 1884. During its service Wolverine was present for the Royal Navy's Detached Squadron world cruise in 1881 when the princes Albert and George undertook naval training; the Wolverine left Sydney Harbour at the same time as the Detached Squadron on 10 August 1881, with Commodore John Wilson, Commander-in-Chief of the Australia Station, her destination being Brisbane and New Guinea.
The scientist Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay travelled to New Guinea on this voyage where, aided by the Rev. James Chalmers, he intervened with the Commodore to stop the destruction of the entire native village of Kalo in reprisal for the recent murder of some missionaries there. Wolverine's service came to an end was paid off in 1882 at Sydney, she was presented to the Colony of New South Wales as a training ship for the New South Wales Naval Brigade and New South Wales Naval Artillery Volunteers — challenging "enemy" ships at Sydney heads and "attacking" coastal and harbour fortifications. The ship was decommissioned in 1892, sold to a private firm for £2,200 in August 1893 and with the engines removed was used as a hulk. After refit and conversion to a barque, she commenced service as a merchant vessel. On a voyage from Sydney to Liverpool, England she sprung leaks and returned to Auckland for repairs, however upon docking she was found to be unfit, she was sold to G. Niccol, for £1,000, she was scrapped and her hull was burnt.
Winfield, R.. The Sail and Steam Navy List: All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815–1889. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-032-6
Rapier, or espada ropera known as estoque, is a loose term for a type of large, slender pointed sword. With such design features, the rapier is optimized to be a thrusting weapon, but cutting or slashing attacks were recorded in some historical treatises like Capo Ferro's Gran Simulacro in 1610; this weapon was used in Early Modern Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries. The term "rapier" is applied by archaeologists to an unrelated type of Bronze Age sword; the word "rapier" refers to a long-bladed sword characterized by a protective hilt, constructed to provide protection for the hand wielding the sword. Some historical rapier samples feature a broad blade mounted on a typical rapier hilt; the term rapier can be confusing because this hybrid weapon can be categorized as a type of broadsword. While the rapier blade might be broad enough to cut to some degree, it is designed to perform quick and nimble thrusting attacks; the blade might be sharpened only from the center to the tip. Pallavicini, a rapier master in 1670 advocated using a weapon with two cutting edges.
A typical example would weigh 1 kilogram and have a long and slender blade of 2.5 centimetres or less in width, 104 centimetres or more in length and ending in a pointed tip. The blade length of quite a few historical examples the Italian rapiers in the early 17th century, is well over 115 cm and can reach 130 cm; the term rapier refers to a thrusting sword with a blade longer and thinner than that of the so-called side-sword but much heavier than the small sword, a lighter weapon that would follow in the 18th century and but the exact form of the blade and hilt depends on, writing and when. It can refer to earlier Spada da lato and the similar espada ropera, through the high rapier period of the 17th century through the small sword and duelling swords, thus context is important in understanding what is meant by the word; the word "rapier" is a German word to describe what was considered to be a foreign weapon, though it was produced within the Holy Roman Empire. The word rapier was not used by Italian and French masters during the heyday of this weapon, the terms spada, épée being instead the norm.
Because of this, as well as the great variation of late-16th and 17th century swords, some like Tom Leoni describe the rapier as a straight-bladed, two-edged, single-handed sword of that period, sufficient in terms of both offense and defence, not requiring a companion weapon. To avoid the confusion of lumping all swords together, some categorize such swords by their function and use. For example, John Clements categorizes thrusting swords with poor cutting abilities as rapiers, swords with both good thrusting and cutting abilities as cut and thrust swords. Some, look at the rapier in its entire time-line and see that it never fits into any single definition. Across Europe, the weapon changed based on culture and the fighting style, prescribed. One might wear a rapier with a swept hilt and edges on the same day as another might wear one with a cup hilt and an edgeless blade. Rapiers have complex, sweeping hilts designed to protect the hand wielding the sword. Rings extend forward from the crosspiece.
In some samples, rings are covered with metal plates evolving into the cup hilts of many rapiers. There were hardly any samples prior to the 1600s. Many hilts include a knuckle bow extending down from the crosspiece protecting the grip, wood wrapped with cord, leather or wire. A large pommel provides some weight to balance the long blade. Various rapier masters divided the blade into two, four, five or nine parts; the forte, strong, is that part of the blade closest to the hilt. The debole, weak, is the part of the blade which includes the point and is the second half of the blade when the sword is divided into an number of parts. However, some rapier masters divided the blade into three parts, in which case the central third of the blade, between the forte and the debole, was called the medio, mezzo or the terzo. Others used four divisions or 12; the Ricasso is the rear portion of the blade unsharpened. It extends forward from the crosspiece or quillion and gradually integrates into the thinner and sharper portion of the blade.
There was historical disagreement over how long the ideal rapier should be, with some masters, such as Thibault, denigrating those who recommended longer blades. Rapiers are single-handed weapons and
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting, longer than a knife or dagger, consisting of a long blade attached to a hilt. The precise definition of the term varies with the historical epoch or the geographic region under consideration; the blade can be curved. Thrusting swords have a pointed tip on the blade, tend to be straighter. Many swords are designed for both slashing; the sword developed in the Bronze Age, evolving from the dagger. The Iron Age sword remained short and without a crossguard; the spatha, as it developed in the Late Roman army, became the predecessor of the European sword of the Middle Ages, at first adopted as the Migration Period sword, only in the High Middle Ages, developed into the classical arming sword with crossguard. The word sword continues the Old English, sweord; the use of a sword is known as swordsmanship or, in a modern context, as fencing. In the Early Modern period, western sword design diverged into two forms, the thrusting swords and the sabers.
The thrusting swords such as the rapier and the smallsword were designed to impale their targets and inflict deep stab wounds. Their long and straight yet light and well balanced design made them maneuverable and deadly in a duel but ineffective when used in a slashing or chopping motion. A well aimed lunge and thrust could end a fight in seconds with just the sword's point, leading to the development of a fighting style which resembles modern fencing; the saber and similar blades such as the cutlass were built more and were more used in warfare. Built for slashing and chopping at multiple enemies from horseback, the saber's long curved blade and forward weight balance gave it a deadly character all its own on the battlefield. Most sabers had sharp points and double-edged blades, making them capable of piercing soldier after soldier in a cavalry charge. Sabers continued to see battlefield use until the early 20th century; the US Navy kept tens of thousands of sturdy cutlasses in their armory well into World War II and many were issued to marines in the Pacific as jungle machetes.
Non-European weapons called "sword" include single-edged weapons such as the Middle Eastern scimitar, the Chinese dao and the related Japanese katana. The Chinese jìan is an example of a non-European double-edged sword, like the European models derived from the double-edged Iron Age sword; the first weapons that can be described as "swords" date to around 3300 BC. They have been found in Arslantepe, are made from arsenical bronze, are about 60 cm long; some of them are inlaid with silver. The sword developed from the dagger. A knife is unlike a dagger in that a knife has only one cutting surface, while a dagger has two cutting surfaces; when the construction of longer blades became possible, from the late 3rd millennium BC in the Middle East, first in arsenic copper in tin-bronze. Blades longer than 60 cm were rare and not practical until the late Bronze Age because the Young's modulus of bronze is low, longer blades would bend easily; the development of the sword out of the dagger was gradual.
These are the "type A" swords of the Aegean Bronze Age. One of the most important, longest-lasting, types swords of the European Bronze Age was the Naue II type known as Griffzungenschwert; this type first appears in c. the 13th century BC in Northern Italy, survives well into the Iron Age, with a life-span of about seven centuries. During its lifetime, metallurgy changed from bronze to iron, but not its basic design. Naue II swords were exported from Europe to the Aegean, as far afield as Ugarit, beginning about 1200 BC, i.e. just a few decades before the final collapse of the palace cultures in the Bronze Age collapse. Naue II swords could be as long as 85 cm. Robert Drews linked the Naue Type II Swords, which spread from Southern Europe into the Mediterranean, with the Bronze Age collapse. Naue II swords, along with Nordic full-hilted swords, were made with functionality and aesthetics in mind; the hilts of these swords were beautifully crafted and contained false rivets in order to make the sword more visually appealing.
Swords coming from northern Denmark and northern Germany contained three or more fake rivets in the hilt. Sword production in China is attested from the Bronze Age Shang Dynasty; the technology for bronze swords reached its high point during the Warring States period and Qin Dynasty. Amongst the Warring States period swords, some unique technologies were used, such as casting high tin edges over softer, lower tin cores, or the application of diamond shaped patterns on the blade. Unique for Chinese bronzes is the consistent use of high tin bronze, hard and breaks if stressed too far, whereas other cultures preferred lower tin bronze, which bends if stressed too far. Although iron swords were made alongside bronze, it was not until the early Han period that iron replaced bronze. In the Indian subcontinent, earliest available Bronze age swords of copper were discovered in the Indus Valley Civilization sites in the northwestern regions of South Asia. Swords have been recovered in
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Étoile du Roy
Étoile du Roy is a three-masted sixth-rate frigate, designed to represent a generic Nelson-era warship, with her design inspired by HMS Blandford. The ship was built in Marmaris, Turkey, in 1996 to provide a replica of a frigate for the production of the ITV series adapted from the novels about Royal Navy officer Horatio Hornblower by C. S. Forester. Nowadays the tall ship is used in sailing events, for corporate or private charter, for receptions in her spacious saloon or on her deck. In 2010 the French company Étoile Marine Croisières, based at Saint-Malo, purchased the ship and renamed her Étoile du Roy; the frigate was designed by Michael Turk of Turks Shipyard Ltd. of Chatham, established in 1710. She was constructed of iroko planking over laminated mahogany frames, she has an overall length of 152 ft, is 97 ft at the waterline, with a beam of 34 ft and a draught of 10 ft. The frigate is square-rigged on three masts with a sail area of 8,500 sq ft, has two 400 hp Kelvin TAS8 diesel engines, a 60 hp bow thruster, as well as four AC generators for electrical power.
The ship was fitted with six 9-pounder replica cannons constructed by the naval dockyard of Sevastopol, Ukraine. These guns consisted of a high tensile steel tube encased in moulded alloy to resemble the original weapons, were designed only to fire 400 g black powder charges. On 24 August 2001 a crew member was injured after a premature explosion during the firing of a gun, while the ship was taking part in the International Festival of the Sea at Portsmouth; the Marine Accident Investigation Branch were obliged to consult the Keeper of Artillery from the Royal Armouries museum for technical assistance and advice. Grand Turk is familiar as a stand in for HMS Indefatigable in the TV series Hornblower, although the historical Indefatigable was a much larger ship, she served in the same TV series as the French ship Papillon. On 28 June 2005 she stood in for HMS Victory, Nelson's flagship at the International Fleet Review off Portsmouth, commemorating the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar.
Hornblower, 1998-2003. Longitude, 2000. Monsieur N. 2003. To the Ends of the Earth, 2005. Crusoe, 2008. Michiel de Ruyter, 2015; the frigate was purchased by Bob Escoffier of the Étoile Marine Croisières, which operates a number of traditional sailing ships: Étoile de France, Étoile Molène, Étoile Polaire, Naire Maove' and the schooner-aviso Recouvrance in Brest. The final sale price was not disclosed. After being moored in Whitby for over a decade, Grand Turk sailed for her current location in France on 16 March 2010. HMS Surprise - Replica of HMS Rose, built in 1970. Ship replica BBC video - re-enactment of the Battle of Trafalgar with the Grand Turk as the HMS V.htm Crew photos of "Trafalgar 200" Crew photos of "Monsieur N" filming in St Malo 2002 Crew photos of "To the ends of the Earth" filming off Dunkirk 2004
A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge, designed to puncture, slice or scrape surfaces or materials. Blades are made from materials that are harder than those they are to be used on. Humans have made blades from flaking stones such as flint or obsidian, from various metal such as copper and iron. Modern blades are made of steel or ceramic. Blades are one of humanity's oldest tools, continue to be used for combat, food preparation, other purposes. Blades work by concentrating force on the cutting edge. Certain blades, such as those used on bread knives or saws, are serrated, further concentrating force on the point of each tooth. During food preparation, knives are used for slicing and piercing. In combat, a blade may be used to slash or puncture, may be thrown or otherwise propelled; the function is to sever a nerve, muscle or tendon fibers, or blood vessel to disable or kill the adversary. Severing a major blood vessel leads to death due to exsanguination. Shrapnel causes wounds via the fragments' blade-like nature.
Blades may be used to scrape, moving the blade sideways across a surface, as in an ink eraser, rather than along or through a surface. For construction equipment such as a grader, the ground-working implement is referred to as the blade with a replaceable cutting edge. A simple blade intended for cutting has two faces. Ideally this edge would have no roundness but in practice all edges can be seen to be rounded to some degree under magnification either optically or with an electron microscope. Force is pressing on the back of the blade; the handle or back of the blade has a large area compared to the fine edge. This concentration of applied force onto the small edge area increases the pressure exerted by the edge, it is this high pressure that allows a blade to cut through a material by breaking the bonds between the molecules/crystals/fibres/etc. in the material. This necessitates the blade being strong enough to resist breaking before the other material gives way; the angle at which the faces meet is important as a larger angle will make for a duller blade while making the edge stronger.
A stronger edge is less to dull from fracture or from having the edge roll out of shape. The shape of the blade is important. A thicker blade will be heavier and stronger and stiffer than a thinner one of similar design while making it experience more drag while slicing or piercing. A filleting knife will be thin enough to be flexible while a carving knife will be thicker and stiffer. A curved edge, like a talwar will allow the user to draw the edge of the blade against an opponent while close to the opponent where a straight sword would be more difficult to pull in the same fashion; the curved edge of an axe means that only a small length of the edge will strike the tree, concentrating force as does a thinner edge whereas a straight edge could land with the full length of its edge against a flat section of tree. A splitting maul has a convex section to avoid getting stuck in wood where chopping axes can be flat or concave. A khopesh or falchion or kukri is angled and/or weighted at the distal end so that force is concentrated at the faster moving, heavier part of the blade maximising cutting power and making it unsuitable for thrusting where a rapier is thin and tapered allowing it to pierce and be moved with more agility while reducing its chopping power compared to a sized sword.
A serrated edge, such as on a saw or a bread knife, concentrates force onto the tips of the serrations which increases pressure as well as allowing soft or fibrous material to be expand into the spaces between serrations. Whereas pushing any knife a bread knife, down onto a bread loaf will just squash the loaf as bread has a low elastic modulus but high yield strain, drawing serrations across the loaf with little downward force will allow each serration to cut the bread with much less deformation of the loaf. Pushing on a rope tends to squash the rope while drawing serrations across it sheers the rope fibres. Drawing a smooth blade is less effective as the blade is parallel to the direction draw but the serrations of a serrated blade are at an angle to the fibres. Serrations on knives are symmetric allowing the blade to cut on both the forward and reverse strokes of a cut, a notable exception being Veff serrations which are designed to maximise cutting power while moving the blade away from the user.
Saw blade serrations, for both wood and metal, are asymmetrical so that they cut while moving in only one direction. Fullers are longitudinal channels either forged into the blade or machined/milled out of the blade though the process is less desirable; this loss of material weakens the blade but serves to make the blade lighter without sacrificing stiffness. The same principle is applied in the manufacture of beams such as I-beams. Fullers are only of significant utility in swords. In most knives there is so little material removed by the fuller than it makes little difference to the weight of the blade and they are cosmetic. Ty