Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia, a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles by the possession of a neocortex, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. All female mammals nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands, Mammals include the largest animals on the planet, the great whales. The basic body type is a quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme, all modern mammals give birth to live young, most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha, the next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, and the Carnivora. Living mammals are divided into the Yinotheria and Theriiformes There are around 5450 species of mammal, in some classifications, extant mammals are divided into two subclasses, the Prototheria, that is, the order Monotremata, and the Theria, or the infraclasses Metatheria and Eutheria.
The marsupials constitute the group of the Metatheria, and include all living metatherians as well as many extinct ones. Much of the changes reflect the advances of cladistic analysis and molecular genetics, findings from molecular genetics, for example, have prompted adopting new groups, such as the Afrotheria, and abandoning traditional groups, such as the Insectivora. The mammals represent the only living Synapsida, which together with the Sauropsida form the Amniota clade, the early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period, this group diverged from the line that led to todays reptiles. Some mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation. Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies, most mammals are polygynous, but some can be monogamous or polyandrous.
They provided, and continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as commodities such as meat, dairy products, wool. Mammals are hunted or raced for sport, and are used as model organisms in science, Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, and appear in literature, film and religion. Defaunation of mammals is primarily driven by anthropogenic factors, such as poaching and habitat destruction, Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus initially defined the class. No classification system is accepted, McKenna & Bell and Wilson & Reader provide useful recent compendiums. Though field work gradually made Simpsons classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to a classification of mammals
Baja California, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Baja California, is a state in Mexico. It is the northernmost and westernmost of the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico, before becoming a state in 1952, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California. It has an area of 70,113 km2, or 3. 57% of the mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California Peninsula, north of the 28th parallel. The mainland portion of the state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U. S. State of Arizona, and the Gulf of California and its northern limit is the U. S. state of California. The state has an population of 3,165,776 much more than the sparsely populated Baja California Sur to the south. Over 75% of the lives in the capital city, Mexicali, in Ensenada. Other important cities include San Felipe and Tecate, there is a large immigrant population from the United States due to its proximity to San Diego and the cheaper cost of living compared to San Diego.
There is a significant population from Central America, many immigrants moved to Baja California for a better quality of life and the number of higher paying jobs in comparison to the rest of Mexico and Latin America. Baja California is the twelfth largest state by area in Mexico and its geography ranges from beaches to forests and deserts. The backbone of the state is the Sierra de Baja California, where the Picacho del Diablo and this mountain range effectively divides the weather patterns in the state. In the northwest, the weather is semi-dry and mediterranean, in the narrow center, the weather changes to be more humid due to altitude. It is in area where a few valleys can be found, such as the Valle de Guadalupe. To the east of the range, the Sonoran Desert dominates the landscape. In the south, the weather becomes drier and gives way to the Vizcaino Desert, the state is home to numerous islands off both of its shores. In fact, the westernmost point in Mexico, the Guadalupe Island, is part of Baja California, the Coronado, Todos Santos and Cedros Islands are on the Pacific Shore.
On the Gulf of California, the biggest island is the Angel de la Guarda, separated from the peninsula by the deep, the first people came to the peninsula at least 11,000 years ago. At that time two main groups are thought to have been present on the peninsula. In the south were the Cochimí, in the north were several groups belonging to the Yuman language family, including the Kiliwa, Kumeyaay and Quechan
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. They inhabit a variety of habitats, with most species living within terrestrial, arboreal or freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Thus amphibians typically start out as larvae living in water, the young generally undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to an adult air-breathing form with lungs. Amphibians use their skin as a respiratory surface and some small terrestrial salamanders and frogs lack lungs. They are superficially similar to lizards but, along with mammals and birds, reptiles are amniotes, the earliest amphibians evolved in the Devonian period from sarcopterygian fish with lungs and bony-limbed fins, features that were helpful in adapting to dry land. They diversified and became dominant during the Carboniferous and Permian periods, over time, amphibians shrank in size and decreased in diversity, leaving only the modern subclass Lissamphibia. The three modern orders of amphibians are Anura and Apoda, the number of known amphibian species is approximately 7,000, of which nearly 90% are frogs.
The smallest amphibian in the world is a frog from New Guinea with a length of just 7.7 mm. The largest living amphibian is the 1.8 m Chinese giant salamander, the study of amphibians is called batrachology, while the study of both reptiles and amphibians is called herpetology. The word amphibian is derived from the Ancient Greek term ἀμφίβιος, the term was initially used as a general adjective for animals that could live on land or in water, including seals and otters. Traditionally, the class Amphibia includes all tetrapod vertebrates that are not amniotes, the numbers of species cited above follows Frost and the total number of known amphibian species is over 7,000, of which nearly 90% are frogs. With the phylogenetic classification, the taxon Labyrinthodontia has been discarded as it is a group without unique defining features apart from shared primitive characteristics. Classification varies according to the phylogeny of the author and whether they use a stem-based or a node-based classification.
The phylogeny of Paleozoic amphibians is uncertain, and Lissamphibia may possibly fall within groups, like the Temnospondyli or the Lepospondyli. If the common ancestor of amphibians and amniotes is included in Amphibia, all modern amphibians are included in the subclass Lissamphibia, which is usually considered a clade, a group of species that have evolved from a common ancestor. The three modern orders are Anura and Gymnophiona, although the fossils of several older proto-frogs with primitive characteristics are known, the oldest true frog is Prosalirus bitis, from the Early Jurassic Kayenta Formation of Arizona. It is anatomically similar to modern frogs. The oldest known caecilian is another Early Jurassic species, Eocaecilia micropodia, the earliest salamander is Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis from the Late Jurassic of northeastern China
San Diego is a major city in California, United States. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, approximately 120 miles south of Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,394,928 as of July 1,2015, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the US and a country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. San Diego has been called the birthplace of California, historically home to the Kumeyaay people, San Diego was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, the Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, in 1850, California became part of the United States following the Mexican–American War and the admission of California to the union.
The city is the seat of San Diego County and is the center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diegos main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San Dieguito, the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was Portuguese-born explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sailing under the flag of Castile, sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, and named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast, in May 1769, Gaspar de Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River. It was the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California, in July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Junípero Serra.
By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in, Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks, in 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, and San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began attempting to extend its authority over the territory of Alta California. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1833, the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, and Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote
Pinus lambertiana is the tallest and most massive pine tree, and has the longest cones of any conifer. The species name lambertiana was given by the British botanist David Douglas and it is native to the mountains of the Pacific coast of North America, from Oregon through California to Baja California. The sugar pine is the tallest and largest Pinus species, commonly growing to 40–60 meters tall, exceptionally to 82 m tall, with a diameter of 1. 5–2.5 m. The tallest recorded specimen is 83.45 metres tall, is located in Yosemite National Park, the second tallest recorded was Yosemite Giant, an 82.05 m tall specimen in Yosemite National Park, which died from a bark beetle attack in 2007. The tallest, living specimens today grow in southern Oregon and Yosemite National Park, one in Umpqua National Forest is 77.7 m tall and another in Siskiyou National Forest is 77.2 m tall. Yosemite National Park has the third tallest, measured to 80.5 m tall as of June 2013, the Rim Fire affected this specimen, but it survived.
Pinus lambertiana is a member of the white group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, like all members of that group. They are 6–11 cm ch) long, Sugar pine is notable for having the longest cones of any conifer, mostly 25–50 cm long, exceptionally to 66 cm long, although the cones of the Coulter pine are more massive. The seeds are 10–12 mm long, with a 2–3-centimeter long wing that aids their dispersal by wind, the seeds of the sugar pine are a type of edible pine nut. The sugar pine has been affected by the white pine blister rust. A high proportion of sugar pines has been killed by the blister rust, the rust has destroyed much of the western white pine and whitebark pine throughout their ranges. The U. S. Forest Service has a program for developing rust-resistant sugar pine, seedlings of these trees have been introduced into the wild. However, blister rust is less common in California, and Sugar, Western White. Naturalist John Muir considered sugar pine to be the king of the conifers, the common name comes from the sweet resin, which Native Americans used as a sweetener.
John Muir found it preferable to maple sugar and it is known as the great sugar pine. The scientific name was assigned by David Douglas in honor of Aylmer Bourke Lambert, in the Achomawi creation myth, the creator, makes one of the First People by intentionally dropping a sugar pine seed in a place where it can grow. One of the descendants in this ancestry is Sugarpine-Cone man, who has a son named Ahsoballache. After Ahsoballache marries the daughter of Tokis the Chipmunk-woman, his grandfather insists that the new couple have a child
Calocedrus is a genus of coniferous trees in the cypress family Cupressaceae first described as a genus in 1873. It is native to eastern Asia and western North America, the generic name means beautiful cedar. The genus is related to the Thuja, and has similar overlapping scale-leaves, Calocedrus decurrens, California incense cedar, is native to western North America. It is a tree, typically reaching heights of 40–60 m and a trunk diameter of up to 3 m. The leaves are green on both sides of the shoots, and the cones 2–2.5 cm long. It is by far the most widely known species in the genus, Calocedrus formosana, Taiwan incense cedar, is endemic to Taiwan. It is very similar to C. macrolepis, and some treat it as a variety of that. It is a tree, growing to 25–30 m tall. The leaves are green on the upper side of the shoots. The cones are 1. 5–2 cm long, carried on a 1–1.5 cm stem, †Calocedrus huashanensis is an extinct species which was described in 2012. It is known from fossils found in the Oligocene age Ningming Formation of southern China.
Calocedrus huashanensis is known from branches and leaves and it is a medium-size tree to 25–30 m tall, and like C. formosana, is rare in the wild. The leaves and cones are similar to C. formosana, differing most obviously in the shorter cone stem, Calocedrus rupestris, the most recently discovered living species of Calocedrus, was identified in Vietnam and first described in 2004. It occurs exclusively on limestone terrain, a habitat that has a very high level of endemism. The close proximity of these populations to the Chinese and Laotian borders indicates that the species may occur in countries as well. It is an evergreen, monoecious tree up to 25 m tall with a rounded crown. †Calocedrus suleticensis is a species known from fossils found in the Early Oligocene of Probostov in the volcanic complex of the Ceske stredohori Mts. Boehmia. Calocedrus suleticensis is known from a cone, the wood of Calocedrus is soft, moderately decay-resistant, and with a strong spicy-resinous fragrance
Abies concolor, commonly known as the white fir or Colorado white-fir, is a fir native to the mountains of western North America, occurring at elevations of 900–3,400 m. It is a medium to large coniferous tree growing to 25–60 m tall. It is popular as a landscaping tree and as a Christmas tree. It is sometimes called concolor fir, the cones are 6–12 cm long and 4–4.5 cm broad, green or purple ripening pale brown, with about 100–150 scales, the scale bracts are short, and hidden in the closed cone. The winged seeds are released when the cones disintegrate at maturity about 6 months after pollination. As treated here, there are two subspecies, these are variously treated at either the lower rank of variety by some authors, or as distinct species by others. Concolor — Colorado white fir or Rocky Mountains white fir, a smaller tree to 25–35 m tall, rarely 45 m. Foliage strongly upcurved to erect on all except weak shaded shoots in the crown, leaves mostly 3. 5–6 cm. Tolerates winter temperatures down to about −40 °C, lowiana — Lows white fir or Sierra Nevada white fir.
In the United States, at altitudes of 900–2,700 m from the Cascades of central Oregon south through California to northern Baja California, a larger tree to 40–60 m tall. Tolerates winter temperatures down to about −30 °C, to the south in Mexico, it is replaced by further close relatives, Durango fir and Mexican fir. It is sometimes regarded as a pest by those in the industry, as it drives out trees of greater stature, has weaker, knottier wood than its competitors. This latter trait creates a fire ladder that allows flames to reach up to the canopy and this tree was discovered by William Lobb on his expedition to California of 1849–1853, having been overlooked previously by David Douglas. This tree is host to fir mistletoe, a parasitic plant and it is attacked by many types of insects, such as the fir engraver. White fir is a preferred construction species because of its ability, lightness in weight, and resistance to split, twist. It is straight-grained, non-resinous, fine-textured and strong, White fir is popular as a Christmas tree and for Christmas decoration owing to its soft needles, generally excellent needle retention and abundance.
It is often marketed as concolor or white fir, White fir is widely planted as an ornamental tree in parks and larger gardens, particularly some cultivars of subsp. Concolor selected for very bright blue foliage, such as cv
Birds, a subgroup of Reptiles, are the last living examples of Dinosaurs. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at ten thousand. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians, the fossil record indicates that birds evolved from feathered ancestors within the theropod group of saurischian dinosaurs. True birds first appeared during the Cretaceous period, around 100 million years ago, especially those in the southern continents, survived this event and migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species, the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are uniquely adapted for flight.
Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have evolved for swimming. Many species annually migrate great distances, Birds are social, communicating with visual signals and bird songs, and participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting and mobbing of predators. The vast majority of species are socially monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or, Birds produce offspring by laying eggs which are fertilised through sexual reproduction. They are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents, most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching. Some birds, such as hens, lay eggs even when not fertilised, songbirds and other species are popular as pets. Guano is harvested for use as a fertiliser, Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them.
Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry, the first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system currently in use, Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda, Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria
Schist is a medium-grade metamorphic rock with medium to large, sheet-like grains in a preferred orientation. It is defined by having more than 50% platy and elongated minerals, often finely interleaved with quartz and these lamellar minerals include micas, talc, hornblende and others. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a form called quartz schist is produced. Schist forms at a temperature and has larger grains than phyllite. Geological foliation with medium to large grained flakes in a preferred orientation is called schistosity. The names of various schists are derived from their mineral constituents, for example, schists rich in mica are called mica schists and include biotite or muscovite. Most schists are mica schists, but graphite and chlorite schists are common, Schists are named for their prominent or perhaps unusual mineral constituents, as in the case of garnet schist, tourmaline schist, and glaucophane schist. The individual mineral grains in schist, drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure, Schist is characteristically foliated, meaning that the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs.
Most schists are derived from clays and muds that have passed through a series of processes involving the production of shales and phyllites as intermediate steps. Certain schists are derived from fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalts, before the mid-18th century, the terms slate and schist were not sharply differentiated by those involved with mining. In the context of underground mining, shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. During metamorphism, rocks which were originally sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic are converted into schists, if the composition of the rocks was originally similar, they may be very difficult to distinguish from one another if the metamorphism has been great. A quartz-porphyry, for example, and a fine grained feldspathic sandstone, however, it is possible to distinguish between sedimentary and igneous schists and gneisses. If, for example, the district occupied by these rocks has traces of bedding, clastic structure, or unconformability.
In other cases intrusive junctions, chilled edges, contact alteration or porphyritic structure may prove that in its original condition a metamorphic gneiss was an igneous rock. Such rocks as limestones, dolomites and aluminous shales have very definite chemical characteristics which distinguish them even when completely recrystallized, the schists are classified principally according to the minerals they consist of and on their chemical composition. For example, many metamorphic limestones and calc-schists, with crystalline dolomites, contain silicate minerals such as mica, diopside, scapolite and they are derived from calcareous sediments of different degrees of purity. Another group is rich in quartz, with amounts of white and black mica, feldspar, zoisite
Cedar Fire (2003)
The Cedar Fire was a wildfire which burned over 280,000 acres of land in San Diego County, California during October and November 2003. The fires rapid growth was driven by the Santa Ana winds, by the time the fire was fully contained on November 4, it had burned 280,278 acres of land, destroyed 2,820 buildings and killed 15 people, including one firefighter. The fire remains the largest wildfire in California history, according to CALFIRE, it is the third deadliest and second most destructive wildfire in state history. The Cedar Fire began in the Cuyamaca Mountains within the Cleveland National Forest and it was first reported at 5,37 PM PDT on October 25,2003, to the south of Ramona in central San Diego County. At the time it began, at least eleven other wildfires were burning in southern California. Within ten minutes of the report, the U. S. Forest Service had deployed 10 fire engines. Within 30 minutes,320 firefighters and six fire chiefs were en route, a San Diego County Sheriffs Department ASTREA helicopter that was rescuing a hunter spotted the fire at about the same time as the first phone report was received and called for an air response.
Another Sheriffs helicopter equipped with a Bambi bucket was dispatched to drop water on the fire, when the helicopter was only minutes away from the fire, a Forest Service fire chief cancelled the water drop because policy required the cutoff of aerial firefighting 30 minutes before sunset. Between the time the fire started and midnight the predicted strong easterly Santa Ana winds surfaced, by 3,00 AM,62,000 acres had burned. Overnight, the fire killed 12 people living in Wildcat Canyon and Muth Valley in the northern part of Lakeside. The fire destroyed 39 homes on the Barona Indian Reservation, in only a few hours, the Cedar Fire pushed southwest over 30 miles and burned over 100,000 acres at rates of up to 6,000 acres per hour. On October 26, the fire forged into Alpine, Harbison Canyon and Crest, by October 28, the strong easterly Santa Ana winds died down and the fire turned east, consuming another 114,000 acres. The entire community of Cuyamaca, most of nearby Cuyamaca Rancho State Park, on October 29, a fire company attempting to defend a house in Riverwood Estates near Santa Ysabel became entrapped and overrun by the fire.
Another firefighter sustained severe injuries, and two others were hurt, firefighters finally achieved full containment of the Cedar Fire on November 3, and total containment of all 2003 wildfires on December 5. President George W. Bush declared Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego, air travel in and around the region was disrupted due to the effect on air traffic control radar. The decision to move the game to Arizona was made less than 24 hours before the game started, investigators determined that the fire was started by Sergio Martinez of West Covina, California, a novice hunter who had been hunting in the area and had become lost. After gathering sticks and brush together, Martinez lit the brush and quickly lost control of the fire because of the heat, low humidity, Martinez was charged in federal court on October 7,2004 with setting the fire and lying about it. In November 2005, a judge sentenced Martinez to six months in a work-furlough program
State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use state as a political subdivision. State parks are established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U. S. state, some of the Mexican states, the term is used in the Australian state of Victoria. The equivalent term used in Canada, South Africa, similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies. State parks are thus similar to parks, but under state rather than federal administration. Similarly, local government entities below state level may maintain parks, in general, state parks are smaller than national parks, with a few exceptions such as the Adirondack Park in New York and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park in California. As of 2014, there were 10,234 state park units in the United States, there are some 739 million annual visits to the countrys state parks.
The NASPD further counts over 43,000 miles of trail,217,367 campsites, many states include designations beyond state park in their state parks systems. Other designations might be state recreation areas, state beaches, some state park systems include long-distance trails and historic sites. The title of oldest state park in the United States is claimed by Niagara Falls State Park in New York, however several public parks previously or currently maintained at the state level pre-date it. Indian Springs State Park has been operated continuously by the state of Georgia as a park since 1825. In 1864 Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove were ceded by the government to California until Yosemite National Park was proclaimed in 1890. In 1878 Wisconsin set aside a vast swath of its forests as The State Park but, needing money. The first state park with the designation of state park was Mackinac Island State Park in 1895, list of U. S. state parks National Association of State Park Directors Wilderness preservation systems in the United States Ahlgren, Carol.
The Civilian Conservation Corps and Wisconsin State Park Development, the State Park Movement in America, A Critical Review excerpt and text search Larson, Zeb. Silver Falls State Park and the Early Environmental Movement, oregon Historical Quarterly 112#1 pp, 34-57 in JSTOR Newton, Norman T. When Forests Trumped Parks, The Maryland Experience, 1906-1950, Maryland Historical Magazine 101#2 pp, 203-224