Royal Charter Storm
The Royal Charter Storm of 25 and 26 October 1859 was considered to be the most severe storm to hit the Irish Sea in the 19th century, with a total death toll estimated at over 800. It takes its name from the Royal Charter ship, driven by the storm onto the east coast of Anglesey, with the loss of over 450 lives; the storm followed several days of unsettled weather. The first indications were seen in the English Channel about 3 p.m. on the 25 October 1859, when there was a sudden increase in wind speed and a shift in its direction. There was extensive structural damage along the coasts of Cornwall; the storm drifted northwards, hitting Anglesey by about 8 p.m. and not reaching maximum force at the River Mersey until midday on 26 October continued northwards to affect Scotland. The winds were well over 100 mph. At the Mersey a wind force of 28 lbs to the square foot was measured, more than previously recorded. On the north coast of Anglesey, where the Royal Charter, a steam clipper, was approaching the end of her voyage from Melbourne to Liverpool, the wind at Point Lynas changed direction to ENE at 10 p.m. on 25 October and rose to gale force.
By 10 p.m. the wind had reached force 10 and continued to increase. It continued to blow at force 12 until the afternoon of 26 October; the Royal Charter was driven ashore on the east coast of Anglesey just north of the village of Moelfre in the early hours of the morning of 26 October 1859 being smashed to pieces against the rocks, with the loss of over 450 lives. The public impact of the shipwreck may be judged by the fact that Charles Dickens travelled from London to Anglesey to report on the aftermath as described in The Uncommercial Traveller. A total of 133 ships were sunk during the storm and another 90 badly damaged according to the Board of Trade records; the death toll was estimated at around 800, including some people killed on land by falling rocks and masonry. Twice as many people died in these two days as had been lost at sea around the British Isles in the whole of 1858. There was extensive structural damage to many buildings, with the west coast of Great Britain being most affected.
The remains of the church of Saint Brynach may still be seen at Cwm-yr-Eglwys in Pembrokeshire. This storm had an effect on the development of the Meteorological Office as Captain Robert FitzRoy, in charge of the office at the time, brought in the first gale warning service in 1860 to prevent similar tragedies. List of United Kingdom disasters by death toll Chris and Lesley Holden. Life and Death on the Royal Charter. Calgo Publications. ISBN 978-0-9545066-2-9. McKee, Alexander; the Golden Wreck: the tragedy of the "Royal Charter". Souvenir Press. ISBN 0-285-62745-7
Dinas Island is a peninsula detached from the mainland, in the community of Dinas Cross between Fishguard and Newport, Pembrokeshire, in southwest Wales. It reaches a height of 466 feet above sea level at Pen-y-fan, marked by a triangulation point. Although Dinas Head is the northernmost part of the promontory where the cliffs meet the sea, the name is sometimes loosely used to refer to this highest point. Dinas Island is contained within the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park and the headland is under the care of the National Trust; the landward side of Dinas Island is bordered by a swampy valley cut by meltwater overflow from a glacial lake, melt water freed from reservoirs in the Preseli Hills by the dwindling ice. This was the same Ice Age melt-water. Plant cover on Dinas Island is typical of a windswept cliff environment, with gorse and bramble, scrubby trees of hawthorn and hazel, small oak and ash where there is shelter from the wind. There are coastal wildflowers such as ling, thyme, thrift, pennywort and orchids.
Bluebells bloom in spring on the eastern slopes. Feral goats at one time inhabited the headland until they were destroyed in 1947; the Pembrokeshire Coast Path, a 186 miles national trail, runs for 3 miles around the peninsula, offering extensive views towards Strumble Head to the southwest, across Newport Bay and Fishguard Bay to the northeast. This section of the path can be accessed from Pwllgwaelod at its southwestern end, from Cwm-yr-Eglwys at its southeastern end. Both these locations can be reached from Dinas Cross on the A487, offer parking and public toilets. A path, suitable for wheelchair access, links the two. Pwllgwaelod is served by the "Poppit Rocket", a bus which follows the coastline from Fishguard to Cardigan, Ceredigion in the north. Much of Dinas Island is given over to sheep pasture, Dinas Island Farm – jointly owned and run by the National Trust and the Perkins family, accessed from Pwllgwaelod – farms 1,600 Lleyn ewes plus 400 followers on 600 acres. In 2012 it won the Farmers Weekly Sheep Farmer of the Year Award and a National Grassland Management Award.
Strumble Head to Cardigan information at the National Trust
Henry Gastineau was an English engraver and prolific painter in water-colours. He was born in London to a family of Huguenot descent, he was a student at the Royal Academy, began as an engraver, but switched to painting in oils. He settled down to working in water-colour, he first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1812. A favourite subject was coastal scenery. Gastineau joined the Society of Painters in Water-colours in 1818, when he exhibited for the first time. In 1821 he was elected an associate, in 1823 a full member, he exhibited for 58 years without a break. A contemporary of David Cox, Copley Fielding, George Cattermole, Samuel Prout, he kept to the old manner of water-colour painting. Gastineau devoted a great deal of his time to teaching, both and at various schools. Early in life he built for himself a house, Norfolk Lodge, in Cold Harbour Lane and lived there until his death on 17 January 1876 in his eighty-sixth year, he was the oldest living member of the Old Society of Painters in Water-colours.
He left a family, one of whom, Maria Gastineau, was a water-colour painter. Like Cox and Prout, he was buried at West Norwood Cemetery. Gastineau's unsold works were auctioned at Christie's on 19 May 1876. 4.'Master of the Picturesque' by John Ramm Wales illustrated, in a series of views, comprising the picturesque scenery, castles, seats of the nobility & gentry, antiquities, &c. - Gastineau, Henry, 1791-1876 More by Gastineau in Internet ArchiveAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Gastineau, Henry". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Pembrokeshire Coast Path
The Pembrokeshire Coast Path often called the Pembrokeshire Coastal Path, is a designated National Trail in Pembrokeshire, southwest Wales. It was established in 1970, is 186 miles long at cliff-top level, with a total of 35,000 feet of ascent and descent. At its highest point – Pen yr afr, on Cemaes Head – it reaches a height of 574 feet, at its lowest point – Sandy Haven crossing, near Milford Haven – it is just 6 feet above low water. Whilst most of the coastline faces west, it offers – at varying points – coastal views in every direction of the compass; the southern end of the path is at Pembrokeshire. The northern end is regarded as being at Poppit Sands, near St. Dogmaels, where the official plaque was sited but the path now continues to St. Dogmaels, where a new marker was unveiled in July 2009. Here the path links with the Ceredigion Coast Path; the Pembrokeshire Coast Path forms part of the Wales Coast Path, an 870-mile long-distance walking route around the whole coast of Wales from Chepstow to Queensferry, opened in 2012.
Following the establishment of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park in 1952, Welsh naturalist and author Ronald Lockley surveyed a route around the coast. Although there were villages and settlements on the coast, communication between these was by boats, access in the region was poor. Lockley's report for the Countryside Commission in 1953 was broadly adopted; some sections of the walk were existing rights-of-way, but the majority were in private hands, necessitating negotiation. Most landowners were in favour, many benefitted from the erection of new fencing. Today, the path in places detours from the obvious line where landowners were unwilling to accept a new right-of-way across their land. Completion of the path took 17 years, this work included the erection of more than 100 footbridges and 479 stiles, the cutting of thousands of steps into steep or slippery sections; when opened by Wynford Vaughan-Thomas on 16 May 1970, the length of the path was given as 180 miles, but over the years there have been a number of Footpath Diversion Orders which have extended it to its current length of 186 miles.
The Pembrokeshire Coast Path lies entirely within the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park — Britain's only coastal national park. Throughout its length it covers a range of maritime landscapes, from rugged and steep limestone cliffs and volcanic headlands to sheltered red sandstone coves, flooded glacial valleys, winding estuaries, wide-open beaches; the path passes 14 harbours. As far as possible the route runs close to the cliff edge and coast, but this is not possible at all times, it does not include any of the coast inland of the Cleddau Bridge, missing about 50 miles of coastline around the estuary. The walking is not strenuous, but there are constant undulations and narrow sections, including many stiles. In its entirety the Coast Path represents a considerable physical challenge — its 35,000 feet of ascent and descent is said to be equivalent to climbing Everest. There are two low-tide crossings, at Dale and Sandy Haven, which require lengthy detours if not timed suitably. Along the path are seaside towns and coastal villages, such as Tenby, St Davids and Newport.
For backpackers attempting longer parts of the trail there are shops and campsites along the way, but food and water may need to be carried on some sections. There are small hotels and guest houses en route, cottages for hire built in traditional styles. For the vast majority of walkers, the coastal path is walked in shorter sections, the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park lists some 130 shorter circular walks on its website. Access to the coastal path is possible in many locations; the whole coast is served by a number of dedicated walkers' bus services, which operate over the entire length of the path, including the Puffin Shuttle, the Coastal Cruiser, the Celtic Coaster, St David's Peninsula Shuttle Service, the Strumble Shuttle, the Poppit Rocket. Since the construction of the Cleddau Bridge across Milford Haven Waterway it is possible to walk the whole route of the trail without a break; the path, however, is not continuous in that it is not designated through built-up areas in the southern section, such as Milford Haven, Pembroke Dock and Saundersfoot.
There is an undesignated section between St Dogmaels and Cardigan at the northern end of the path where Cardigan Bridge over the River Teifi is the nearest point to the coast between the Pembrokeshire and Ceredigion Coast Paths. Listed from north to south: There are a number of smaller trails near the Coast Path, which take users inland on shorter routes; the trail runs from Station Road, through Teifi Marshes Nature Reserve, to Cilgerran, passing the Welsh Wildlife Centre and following the trackbed of the former Whitland and Cardigan Railway. Cilgerran Gorge Circular Walk; this is a medium-length walk of 4.2 miles lasting around 3 hours. It starts at Dolbadau car park and follows the woodland pathway to the Wildlife Centre and returning via undulating paths up and down the steep-sided Cilgerran Gorge. Brunel Way Walk; this is a long walk of 9 miles on well-surfaced tarmac pathways, lasting around 4 hours. It begins at Brunel Quay car park and ends at County Hall, Haverfordwest. Along the way there are views of Milford Haven and of the quay.
All the rocks underlying the
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement; the word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church; the word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French hamel. This, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām and Modern English home. In Afghanistan the counterpart of the hamlet is the qala meaning "fort" or "hamlet"; the Afghan qala is a fortified group of houses with its own community building such as a mosque, but without its own marketplace. The qala is the smallest type of settlement in Afghan society, trumped by the village, larger and includes a commercial area.
In Australia a hamlet is a small village. A hamlet differs from a village in having no commercial premises, but has residences and may have community buildings such as churches and public halls. In Canada's three territories, hamlets are designated municipalities; as of January 1, 2010: Northwest Territories had 11 hamlets, each of which had a population of less than 900 people as of the 2016 census. In Canada's provinces, hamlets are small unincorporated communities within a larger municipality, such as many communities within the single-tier municipalities of Ontario or within Alberta's specialized and rural municipalities. Canada's two largest hamlets—Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park—are located in Alberta, they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60,000—well in excess of the 10,000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta. As such, these two hamlets have been further designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery and grant eligibility.
During the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was up-to-date to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of some houses or farms with rustic appearance, but in fact were comfortable; the best known is the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles. Or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet; the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited. The German word for hamlet is Weiler. A Weiler has, compared to no infrastructure; the houses and farms of a Weiler can be scattered. In North West Germany, a group of scattered farms is called Bauernschaft. In a Weiler there are no street names, the houses are just numbered. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet. In Haryana and Rajasthan it is called "dhani" or "Thok". In Gujarat a hamlet is called a "nesada". In Maharashtra it's called a "pada". In southern Bihar in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a "bigha".
All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as kampung. They are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra. In Pakistan a hamlet is called a gron. In Poland a hamlet is called osada, is a small rural settlement differing by type of buildings or inhabited by population connected with some place or workplace, it can be a part of other settlement, like village. In Romania hamlets are called cătunuri, they represent villages that contain several houses at most, they are considered villages, statistically, they are placed in the same category. Like villages, they do not have a separate administration, thus are not an administrative division, but are part of a parent commune. In the Russian language there are several words which mean "a hamlet", but all of them are equal; the most common word is деревня. A hamlet in Russia has a church, some little shops, a school and a local culture center, in which different culture events and national holidays take place.
A hamlet in Russia consists of several tens of wooden houses. In the past hamlets were the most common kind of settlement in Russia, but nowadays many hamlets in Russia are settled only during the summer as places for vacation because people go to towns and cities in order to find better
Blue Flag beach
The Blue Flag is a certification by the Foundation for Environmental Education that a beach, marina, or sustainable boating tourism operator meets its stringent standards. The Blue Flag is a trademark owned by FEE, a not-for-profit non-governmental organisation consisting of 65 organisations in 60 member countries. FEE's Blue Flag criteria include standards for quality, environmental education and information, the provision of services and general environmental management criteria; the Blue Flag is sought for beaches and sustainable boating tourism operators as an indication of their high environmental and quality standards. Certificates, which FEE refers to as awards, are issued on an annual basis to beaches and marinas of FEE member countries; the awards are announced yearly on 5 June for Europe, Morocco and other countries in a similar geographic location, on 1 November for the Caribbean, New Zealand, South Africa, other countries in the southern hemisphere. In the European Union, the water quality standards are incorporated in the EC Water Framework Directive.
Spain has held the 1st position for nearly three decades since the awards began in 1987. As a result of the 2015 awards, a total of 4,154 Blue Flags are waving around the world; the table below lists the Blue Flags awarded and in force in 2015. The table can be sorted to show the total number of Blue Flags per country and the number of Blue Flags per population, per area or per the length of the coastline of each country. Note: Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland have always been treated as individual countries e.g. in 2015 Northern Ireland had 10 Blue Flag beaches and marinas, England had 61, Wales had 41 and Scotland 1. The Blue Flag was created in France in 1985, as a pilot scheme from the Office of the Foundation for Environmental Education in Europe where French coastal municipalities were awarded the Blue Flag on the basis of criteria covering sewage treatment and bathing water quality. 11 French municipalities got the award in 1985. 1987 was the "European Year of the Environment" and the European Commission was responsible for developing the European Community activities of that year.
The Foundation for Environmental Education in Europe presented the concept of the Blue Flag to the Commission, it was agreed to launch the Blue Flag Programme as one of several "European Year of the Environment" activities in the Community. The French concept of the Blue Flag was developed on European level to include other areas of environmental management, such as waste management and coastal planning and protection. Besides beaches marinas became eligible for the Blue Flag. In 1987, 244 beaches and 208 marinas from 10 countries were awarded the Blue Flag. There have been increases in the numbers of Blue Flags awarded each year; the criteria have during these years been changed to more strict criteria. As an example, in 1992 the Programme started using the restrictive guideline values in the EEC Bathing Water Directive as imperative criteria, this was the year where all Blue Flag criteria became the same in all participating countries. In 2001, FEEE rules were changed to allow non-European national organisations, sharing the objectives of FEEE, to become members, changed its name by dropping Europe from its name, becoming the Foundation for Environmental Education.
Several organisations and authorities outside the European Union have joined FEE. In 2001, South Africa and several Caribbean countries joined. FEE has been cooperating with UN WTO on extending the Programme to areas outside Europe. South Africa, Morocco, New Zealand and four countries in the Caribbean region are members of FEE. Aruba and Brazil are in the pilot phase of the Programme and Jordan, Turks & Caicos Islands and United Arab Emirates have started the implementation of the Blue Flag Programme. FEE standards allow for regional variations in beach criteria to reflect specific environmental conditions of a region; as of 2006 an international set of criteria is being used with some variations. In 2016, Blue Flag extended its programme boat-based tourism activities like nature watching, recreational fishing and crewed charter tours. Certified tour operators have to comply with criteria regarding the sustainable operation of their boats and their business as a whole. In 2015 over 4,154 beaches and marinas globally were awarded the Blue Flag.47 countries are participating in the Blue Flag Programme: Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Germany, Iceland, Israel, Jordan, Lithuania, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Poland, Puerto Rico, Serbia, Sint Marteen, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Tunisia and Tobago, United Arab Emirates, Ukraine, US Virgin Islands and Wales.
Information relating to coastal zone ecosystems and natural, sensitive areas in the coastal zone must be displayed Information about bathing water quality must be displayed Information about the Blue Flag Programme must be displayed Code of conduct for the beach area must be displayed and the laws governing beach use must be available to the public upon request A minimum of 5 environmental education activities must be offered Compliance with the requirements and standards for excellent bathing water quality No industrial or sewage related discharges may affect the beach area Monitoring on the health of coral reefs located in the vicinity of
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c