Winger (ice hockey)
Winger, in the game of ice hockey, is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play on the ice is along the outer playing area. They work by flanking the centre forward; the name was given to forward players who went up and down the sides of the rink. Nowadays, there are different types of wingers in the game — out-and-out goal scorers, checkers who disrupt the opponents, forwards who work along the boards and in the corners, they tend to be smaller than defenseman. This position is referred to by the side of the rink that the winger takes, i.e. "left wing" or "right wing." The wingers' responsibilities in the defensive zone include the following: getting open for a pass from their teammates intercepting a pass to the opposing defenceman attacking the opposing defencemen when they have the puckWingers should not: play deep in their defensive zone help out their teammates along the boards Wingers should be playing high in the zone, always be vigilant for a breakout pass or a chance to chip the puck past the blue line.
When wingers receive a pass along the boards, they can exercise a number of options: Bank the puck off the boards or glass to get it out of the zone Redirect or pass the puck to a rushing forward Shoot the puck out to the centre line to another forward who can either set up an attack, or dump the puck into the offensive zone to summon a line change Carry the puck themselves into the offensive zone to attempt a breakaway or an odd man rush Wingers are the last players to backcheck out of the offensive zone. On the backcheck, it is essential. Once the puck is controlled by the opposing team in the defensive zone, wingers are responsible for covering the defenceman on their side of the ice. Prior to the puck being dropped for a face-off, players other than those taking the face-off must not make any physical contact with players on the opposite team, nor enter the face-off circle. After the puck is dropped, it is essential for wingers to engage the opposing players to prevent them from obtaining possession of the puck.
Once a team has established control of the puck, wingers can set themselves up into an appropriate position. Some wingers are employed to handle faceoffs. Rover Centre Defenceman Forward Goaltender Power forward List of NHL players
Penalty (ice hockey)
A penalty in ice hockey is a punishment for an infringement of the rules. Most penalties are enforced by sending the offending player to a penalty box for a set number of minutes. During the penalty the player may not participate in play. Penalties are enforced by the referee, or in some cases, the linesman; the offending team may not replace the player on the ice, leaving them short-handed as opposed to full strength. When the opposing team is said to be on a power play, they will have one more player on the ice than the short-handed team; the short-handed team is said to be "on the penalty kill" until the penalty expires and the penalized player returns to play. While standards vary somewhat between leagues, most leagues recognize several common varieties of penalties, as well as common infractions; the statistic used to track penalties was traditionally called "Penalty Infraction Minutes", although the alternate term "penalty minutes" has become common in recent years. It represents the total assessed length of penalties each team has accrued.
The first codified rules of hockey, known as the Halifax Rules, were brought to Montreal by James Creighton, who organized the first indoor hockey game in 1875. Two years the Montreal Gazette documented the first set of "Montreal Rules", which noted that "charging from behind, collaring, kicking or shinning the ball shall not be allowed"; the only penalty outlined by these rules was that play would be stopped, a "bully" would take place. Revised rules in 1886 mandated that any player in violation of these rules would be given two warnings, but on a third offence would be removed from the game, it was not until 1904. At that time, a referee could assess a two-, three- or five-minute penalty, depending on the severity of the foul. By 1914, all penalties were five minutes in length, reduced to three minutes two years and the offending player was given an additional fine; when the National Hockey League was founded in 1917, it mandated that a team could not substitute for any player, assessed a penalty, thus requiring them to play shorthanded for the duration.
The penalty was shortened to two minutes for the 1921–22 season, while five- and ten-minute penalties were added two years later. Both the NHL and the International Ice Hockey Federation recognize the common penalty degrees of minor and major penalties, as well as the more severe misconduct, game misconduct, match penalties. A minor penalty is the least severe type of penalty. A minor penalty is two minutes in length; the offending player is sent to the penalty box and in most cases, his team will play shorthanded. If the offending player is the goaltender or a team is given a "bench minor" penalty any skater, on the ice at the time of the infraction may serve the penalty. In rare cases, when the offending player suffers an injury on the same play, whoever is on the ice at the time of the penalty may serve the penalty, as was the case of Game 2 of the Pittsburgh Penguins-Washington Capitals during the 2017 Stanley Cup playoffs, when Phil Kessel served a penalty in place of Tom Kuhnhackl. A team with a numerical advantage in players will go on a power play.
If they score a goal during this time, the penalty will end and the offending player may return to the ice. In hockey's formative years, teams were shorthanded for the entire length of a minor penalty; the NHL changed this rule following the 1955–56 season where the Montreal Canadiens scored multiple goals on one power play. Most famous was a game on November 5, 1955, when Jean Béliveau scored three goals in 44 seconds, all on the same power play, in a 4–2 victory over the Boston Bruins. Coincidental minor penalties occur when an equal number of players from each team are given a minor penalty at the same time; the permission of a substitute player depends on the league and the situation at the time of the infractions. In some leagues, such as the NHL, the teams will play four-on-four for the duration of the penalties if they occurred when both teams were at strength. However, if there is a manpower differential both teams are allowed to make substitutions while the penalized players will remain in the penalty box until the first stoppage in play after their penalty expires.
In other competitions, such as IIHF events, coincidental penalties do not affect manpower in any situation. Coincidental minor penalties are not ended. In some cases, a referee can impose a triple minor; the infraction is counted as three separate minor penalties. If a team scores a power play goal during such a penalty, only the current block of two minutes being counted down is canceled. Expiration rules of double- or triple-minor penalties due to goals being scored are identical to that of regular minor penalties being served back-to-back. A major penalty is a stronger degree of penalty for a more severe infraction of the rules than a minor. Most infractions which incur a major penalty are more severe instances of minor penalty infractions. A player who receives a major penalty will remain off the ice for five minutes of play during which his team will be short-handed. A major penalty cannot end early if a goal is scored against the short-handed team, unless the goal is scored during an overtime period.
If major penalties are assessed to one player on each team at
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league in North America comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada; the Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season. The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario; the NHL took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name.
The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. From 1942 to 1967, the league had only six teams, collectively nicknamed the "Original Six"; the NHL added six new teams to double its size at the 1967 NHL expansion. The league increased to 18 teams by 1974 and 21 teams in 1979. Between 1991 and 2000, the NHL further expanded to 30 teams, it added its 31st team in 2017 and has approved the addition of a 32nd team in 2021. The league's headquarters have been in New York City since 1989 when the head office moved there from Montreal. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, the league resumed play in 2005–06 under a new collective agreement that included a salary cap. In 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships and television audiences; the International Ice Hockey Federation considers the Stanley Cup to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport".
The NHL draws many skilled players from all over the world and has players from 20 countries. Canadians have constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons; the current NHL Champions are the Washington Capitals, who defeated the Vegas Golden Knights four games to one in the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association. Founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey, but by the NHA's eighth season, a series of disputes with Toronto Blueshirts owner Eddie Livingstone led team owners of the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs to hold a meeting to discuss the league's future. Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, on November 26, 1917, formed the National Hockey League.
Frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the Arenas, to compete with the Canadiens and Senators; the first games were played on December 19, 1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL continued on as a three-team league until the Bulldogs returned in 1919; the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup; the Canadiens won the league title in 1919. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL; the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus. The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after they defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final.
Montreal was defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup. It was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation; the National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons and Boston Bruins in 1924. The Bruins were the first American team in the league; the New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, were joined by the Pittsburgh Pirates. The New York Rangers were added in 1926; the Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL. A group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and renamed them the Maple Leafs; the first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, whose career ended on a vicious hit by Eddie Shore. The second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenz's family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a game.
The Great Depression and the onset of World War II took a toll on the league. The Pirates became the Philadelphia Quakers in 1930 folded one year later; the Senators became the St. Louis Eagles in 1934 lasting only one
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular knowledge and skills necessary to perform their specific role within that profession. In addition, most professionals are subject to strict codes of conduct, enshrining rigorous ethical and moral obligations. Professional standards of practice and ethics for a particular field are agreed upon and maintained through recognized professional associations, such as the IEEE; some definitions of "professional" limit this term to those professions that serve some important aspect of public interest and the general good of society. In some cultures, the term is used as shorthand to describe a particular social stratum of well-educated workers who enjoy considerable work autonomy and who are engaged in creative and intellectually challenging work. In narrow usage, not all expertise is considered a profession.
Although sometimes incorrectly referred to as professions, occupations such as skilled construction and maintenance work are more thought of as trades or crafts. The completion of an apprenticeship is associated with skilled labour, or trades such as carpenter, mason, painter and other similar occupations. A related distinction would be that a professional does mental work, as opposed to engaging in physical work. Although professional training appears to be ideologically neutral, it may be biased towards those with higher class backgrounds and a formal education. In his 2000 book, Disciplined Minds: A Critical Look at Salaried Professionals and the Soul-Battering System that Shapes Their Lives, Jeff Schmidt observes that qualified professionals are less creative and diverse in their opinions and habits than non-professionals, which he attributes to the subtle indoctrination and filtering which accompanies the process of professional training, his evidence is both qualitative and quantitative, including professional examinations, industry statistics and personal accounts of trainees and professionals.
A key theoretical dispute arises from the observation that established professions are subject to strict codes of conduct. Some have thus argued that these codes of conduct, agreed upon and maintained through recognized professional associations, are a key element of what constitutes any profession. Others have argued that strict codes of conduct and the professional associations that maintain them are a consequence of'successful' professionalization, rather than an intrinsic element of the definition of professional; the etymology and historical meaning of the term professional is from Middle English, from profes, having professed one's vows, from Anglo-French, from Late Latin professus, from Latin, past participle of profitēri to profess, from pro- before + fatēri to acknowledge. Thus, as people became more and more specialized in their trade, they began to'profess' their skill to others, and'vow' to perform their trade to the highest known standard. With a reputation to uphold, trusted workers of a society who have a specific trade are considered professionals.
The usage of the word'profess' declined from the late 1800s to the 1950s, just as the term'professional' was gaining popularity from 1900–2010. Notably, in American English the rise in popularity of the term'professional' started at the beginning of the 20th century whereas in British English it started in the 1930s and grew fastest in the 1960s and 70s. Centre for the Study of Professions Organizational culture Professional boundaries Professional sports Semi-professional Amateur
Goal (ice hockey)
In ice hockey, a goal is scored when the puck crosses the goal line between the two goal posts and below the goal crossbar. A goal awards one point to the team attacking the goal scored upon, regardless of which team the player who deflected the puck into the goal belongs to. A player on the team attempting to score shoots the puck with their stick towards the goal net opening, a player on the opposing team called a goaltender tries to block the shot to prevent a goal from being scored against their team; the term goal may refer to the structure in which goals are scored. The ice hockey goal is rectangular in shape. A net is attached to the back of the frame to catch pucks that enter the goal and to prevent pucks from entering it from behind; the entire goal is considered an inbounds area of the playing surface, it is legal to play the puck behind the goal. Under NHL rules, the opening of the goal is 72 inches wide by 48 inches tall, the footprint of the goal is 44 inches deep; the object of the game of ice hockey is to score more goals than the opposing team.
Goaltenders and defencemen are concerned with keeping the other team from scoring a goal, while forwards are concerned with scoring goals on the other team. Forwards have to be defensively responsible while defencemen need to press offensively, it is not unknown for goalies to attempt to position the puck for a counterattack, or attempt to shoot against an unguarded net. For a goal to be scored, the puck must cross the goal line between the posts and under the crossbar of the goal frame. A goal is not allowed under any of the following conditions: the puck is sent into the goal from a stick raised above the height of the crossbar the puck is intentionally kicked, batted, or thrown into the net by an attacking player; the puck breaks into two or more pieces prior to any portion of it entering the goal. Additionally, in many leagues, a goal does not count if a player from the attacking team has a skate or stick in the goal crease before the puck; the National Hockey League abolished this rule starting in the 1999-2000 season after the disputed triple-overtime goal in the 1999 Stanley Cup Finals.
Brett Hull of the Dallas Stars scored the series-clinching goal against the Buffalo Sabres. There are those. A goal may be awarded if a player would be awarded a penalty shot, but the opposing team had substituted a skater for a goaltender. I such rare cases, a goal is awarded rather than allowing a penalty shot attempt on an empty goal net; the last player on the goal-scoring team to touch the puck before it goes into the net is credited with scoring that goal. Zero, one, or two other players on the goal-scoring team may credited with an assist for helping their teammate to score the goal. If another player on the goal-scoring team touched the puck to help score the goal before the goal-scoring player touched it without an opposing player intervening that player gets an assist. If yet another player on the goal-scoring team touched the puck before that without an opposing player intervening that player gets an assist. For a hockey player, a goal or an assist credited to them is considered a point.
However, a rule says. This means one player cannot be credited with a goal and an assist for the same goal scored, it means that one player cannot be credited with two assists for the same goal scored. On a hockey team, forwards score the most goals and get the most points, although defensemen can score goals and get assists. In professional play, goaltenders only get an assist, only rarely score a goal when the opposite net is empty; the number of goals scored is a watched statistic. Each year the Rocket Richard Trophy is presented to the NHL player to have scored the most goals; the trophy is named after Maurice Richard, the first player to score 50 goals in a season, at a time when the NHL regular season was only 50 games. The player to have scored the most goals in an NHL season is Wayne Gretzky. Gretzky is the fastest to 50 goals; the overall amount of goal scoring is closely watched. In recent years, goal scoring has decreased. Many believe the game is less entertaining beca