Cycling called biking or bicycling, is the use of bicycles for transport, exercise or sport. People engaged in cycling are referred to as "cyclists", "bikers", or less as "bicyclists". Apart from two-wheeled bicycles, "cycling" includes the riding of unicycles, quadracycles and similar human-powered vehicles. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number one billion worldwide, they are the principal means of transportation in many parts of the world. Cycling is regarded as a effective and efficient mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Bicycles provide numerous benefits in comparison with motor vehicles, including the sustained physical exercise involved in cycling, easier parking, increased maneuverability, access to roads, bike paths and rural trails. Cycling offers a reduced consumption of fossil fuels, less air or noise pollution, much reduced traffic congestion; these lead to less financial cost to the user as well as to society at large. By fitting bicycle racks on the front of buses, transit agencies can increase the areas they can serve.

In addition, cycling provides a variety of health benefits. The World Health Organization states that cycling can reduce the risk of cancers, heart disease, diabetes that are prevalent in sedentary lifestyles. Cycling on stationary bikes have been used as part of rehabilitation for lower limb injuries after hip surgery. Individuals who cycle have reported mental health improvements, including less perceived stress and better vitality. Among the disadvantages of cycling are the requirement of bicycles to be balanced by the rider in order to remain upright, the reduced protection in crashes in comparison to motor vehicles longer travel time, vulnerability to weather conditions, difficulty in transporting passengers, the fact that a basic level of fitness is required for cycling moderate to long distances. Cycling became an activity after bicycles were introduced in the 19th century. Today, over 50 percent of the human population knows. In many countries, the most used vehicle for road transport is a utility bicycle.

These have frames with relaxed geometry, protecting the rider from shocks of the road and easing steering at low speeds. Utility bicycles tend to be equipped with accessories such as mudguards, pannier racks and lights, which extends their usefulness on a daily basis; as the bicycle is so effective as a means of transportation various companies have developed methods of carrying anything from the weekly shop to children on bicycles. Certain countries rely on bicycles and their culture has developed around the bicycle as a primary form of transport. In Europe and the Netherlands have the most bicycles per capita and most use bicycles for everyday transport. Road bikes tend to have a more upright shape and a shorter wheelbase, which make the bike more mobile but harder to ride slowly; the design, coupled with low or dropped handlebars, requires the rider to bend forward more, making use of stronger muscles and reducing air resistance at high speed. The price of a new bicycle can range from US$50 to more than US$20,000, depending on quality and weight.

However, UCI regulations stipulate. Being measured for a bike and taking it for a test ride are recommended before buying; the drivetrain components of the bike should be considered. A middle grade dérailleur is sufficient for a beginner, although many utility bikes are equipped with hub gears. If the rider plans a significant amount of hillclimbing, a triple-chainrings crankset gear system may be preferred. Otherwise, the lighter and less expensive double chainring may be better. Much simpler fixed wheel bikes are available. Many road bikes, along with mountain bikes, include clipless pedals to which special shoes attach, via a cleat, enabling the rider to pull on the pedals as well as push. Other possible accessories for the bicycle include front and rear lights, bells or horns, child carrying seats, cycling computers with GPS, bar tape, baggage racks, baggage carriers and pannier bags, water bottles and bottle cages. For basic maintenance and repairs cyclists can carry a pump, a puncture repair kit, a spare inner tube, tire levers and a set of allen keys.

Cycling can be more efficient and comfortable with special shoes and shorts. In wet weather, riding can be more tolerable with waterproof clothes, such as cape, jacket and overshoes and high-visibility clothing is advisable to reduce the risk from motor vehicle users. Items required in some jurisdictions, or voluntarily adopted for safety reasons, include bicycle helmets, generator or battery operated lights and audible signalling devices such as a bell or horn. Extras include a bicycle computer. Bikes can be customized, with different seat designs and handle bars, for example. Many schools and police departments run educational programs to instruct children in bicycle handling skills to introduce them to the rules of the road as they apply to cyclists. In some countries these may be operated as schemes such as Bikeability. Education for adult cyclists is available from organizations such as the Leag

Essential Commodities Act

The Essential Commodities Act is an act of Parliament of India, established to ensure the delivery of certain commodities or products, the supply of which if obstructed owing to hoarding or blackmarketing would affect the normal life of the people. This includes foodstuff, fuel etc; the ECA was enacted in 1955. It has since been used by the Government to regulate the production and distribution of a whole host of commodities it declares ‘essential’ in order to make them available to consumers at fair prices. Additionally,the government can fix the maximum retail price of any packaged product that it declares an “essential commodity”; the list of items under the Act include drugs, fertilisers and edible oils, petroleum and petroleum products. The Centre can include new commodities as and when the need arises, take them off the list once the situation improves. Here's. If the Centre finds that a certain commodity is in short supply and its price is spiking, it can notify stock-holding limits on it for a specified period.

The States act on this notification to specify limits and take steps to ensure that these are adhered to. Anybody trading or dealing in the commodity, be it wholesalers, retailers or importers are prevented from stockpiling it beyond a certain quantity. A State can, choose not to impose any restrictions, but once it does, traders have to sell into the market any stocks held beyond the mandated quantity. This brings down prices; as not all shopkeepers and traders comply, State agencies conduct raids to get everyone to toe the line and the errant are punished. The excess stocks are sold through fair price shops. For instance, the Union Government on 14 March 2020 brought masks and hand-sanitisers under the Essential Commodities Act, 1955 to make sure that these products, key for preventing the spread of Covid-19 infection, are available to people at the right price and in the right quality. Essential Services Maintenance Act

Đoàn Thị Điểm

Đoàn Thị Điểm, courtesy name Thụy Châu, pseudonym Mai Khuê or Rosy Clouds Lady, was the classical-Vietnamese female poet. Đoàn Thị Điểm was born in 1705 at Văn Giang district, Kinh Bắc local government. She is best known for her biography of the goddess Liễu Hạnh and her version of Đặng Trần Côn's poem Lament of a soldier's wife from Han into vernacular Nôm; the Lament is an example of double seven, six eight form. Đoàn Doãn Nghi: Father Đoàn Doãn Luân: Older brother. Nguyễn Kiều: Husband. Cai Yan Shin Saimdang Heo Chohui