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A cymbal is a common percussion instrument. Used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin round plates of various alloys; the majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note. Cymbals are used in many ensembles ranging from the orchestra, percussion ensembles, jazz bands, heavy metal bands, marching groups. Drum kits incorporate at least a crash, ride, or crash/ride, a pair of hi-hat cymbals. A player of cymbals is known as a cymbalist; the word cymbal is derived from the Latin cymbalum, the latinisation of the Greek word κύμβαλον kymbalon, "cymbal", which in turn derives from κύμβη kymbē, "cup, bowl". In orchestral scores, cymbals may be indicated by the French cymbales. Many of these derive from the word for plates. Cymbals have existed since ancient times. Representations of cymbals may be found in reliefs and paintings from Armenian Highlands, Babylon, ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, ancient Rome. References to cymbals appear throughout the Bible, through many Psalms and songs of praise to God.

Cymbals may have been introduced to China from Central Asia in the 3rd or 4th century AD. In India, Cymbals have been in use since the ancient times and are still used across all major temples and Buddhist sites. Gigantic Aartis along Ganges which are revered by Hindus all over the world, are incomplete without large cymbals. Cymbals were employed by Turkish janissaries in the 14th century or earlier. By the 17th century, such cymbals were used in European music, more played in military bands and orchestras by the mid 18th century. Since the 19th century, some composers have called for larger roles for cymbals in musical works, a variety of cymbal shapes and hardware have been developed in response; the anatomy of the cymbal plays a large part in the sound. A hole is drilled in the center of the cymbal, used to either mount the cymbal on a stand or for tying straps through; the bell, dome, or cup is the raised section surrounding the hole. The bell produces a higher "pinging" pitch than the rest of the cymbal.

The bow is the rest of the surface surrounding the bell. The bow is sometimes described in two areas: the crash area; the ride area is the thicker section closer to the bell while the crash area is the thinner tapering section near the edge. The edge or rim is the immediate circumference of the cymbal. Cymbals are measured in inches or centimeters; the size of the cymbal affects its sound, larger cymbals being louder and having longer sustain. The weight describes. Cymbal weights are important to the sound how they play. Heavier cymbals have a louder volume, more cut, better stick articulation. Thin cymbals have a fuller sound, lower pitch, faster response; the profile of the cymbal is the vertical distance of the bow from the bottom of the bell to the cymbal edge. The profile affects the pitch of the cymbal: higher profile cymbals have higher pitch. Cymbals offer a composer nearly endless amounts of effect, their unique timbre allows them to project against a full orchestra and through the heaviest of orchestrations and enhance articulation and nearly any dynamic.

Cymbals have been utilized to suggest frenzy, fury or bacchanalian revels, as seen in the Venus music in Wagner's Tannhäuser, Grieg's Peer Gynt suite, Osmin's aria "O wie will ich triumphieren" from Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail. Orchestral crash cymbals are traditionally used in pairs, each one having a strap set in the bell of the cymbal by which they are held; such a pair is always known as crash plates. The sound can be obtained by rubbing their edges together in a sliding movement for a "sizzle", striking them against each other in what is called a "crash", tapping the edge of one against the body of the other in what is called a "tap-crash", scraping the edge of one from the inside of the bell to the edge for a "scrape" or "zischen," or shutting the cymbals together and choking the sound in what is called a "hi-hat chick" or crush. A skilled percussionist can obtain an enormous dynamic range from such cymbals. For example, in Beethoven's ninth symphony, the percussionist is employed to first play cymbals pianissimo, adding a touch of colour rather than loud crash.

Crash cymbals are damped by pressing them against the percussionist's body. A composer may write "Let vibrate", secco, or equivalent indications on the score. Crash cymbals have traditionally been accompanied by the bass drum playing an identical part; this combination, played loudly, is an effective way to accentuate a note since it contributes to both low and high frequency ranges and provides a satisfying "crash-bang-wallop". In older music the composer sometimes provided one part for this pair of instruments, writing senza piatti or piatti soli if only one is needed; this came from the common practice of having one percussionist play using one cymbal mounted to the shell of the bass drum. The percussionist would crash the cymbals with the left hand and use a mallet to strike the bass drum with the right; this method is nowadays employed in pit orchestras and called for by composers who desire a certain effect. Stravinsky calls for

Strawberry, Kansas

Strawberry was a town in Washington County, United States. It was first settled in the spring of 1861 and was named after the wild strawberries growing in the area. Strawberry was first settled in the spring of 1861 by John Millfelt, John Gieber, Peter Gieber. Other settlers followed, including Peter George Stegman in 1865, William Bell in 1868; the town's first wedding took place on January 1868, between John Gieber and Susan Keifer. By this year, five families lived in the town, home to a post office, a general store, a school district; the general store was the town center, owned by Art Leiszler. The Leiszler family ran the post office. Peter Gieber was the postmaster; the town's first death took place in 1870. Katherine Myers was driving her cattle home, she got lost. She was shot when a settler mistook her for a wolf. On July 2, 1871, residents from the northern part of Clifton Township presented a petition to the county board to form a new township; the petition was granted. The township of Strawberry was created.

It was named by Roger Howley and a Mr. Alcott after the wild strawberries growing in the area after a large bed near the town center; the town was home to School District #18. A one-room schoolhouse was built made of limestone near the general store, it had one teacher. Hulda Ellsworth was the school's first teacher who taught its first term in 1872; the post office was disbanded in 1904. In 1909, the Leiszlers built a skating rink and a dance hall which became a popular destination for travelers. In 1910, Strawberry's population declined to 52 people due to transportation. During the Great Depression, this number decreased further; the skating rink and dance hall were still popular. In the 20s and 30s, many cars in the area had spare tire covers reading, "I Danced at the Strawberry Pavilion". In 1951, Strawberry's remaining buildings were demolished to make way for the construction of Kansas Highway 148. On August 12, 1990, a marker was placed near the site to commemorate the former town, it was donated by other members from the Strawberry community.

Three hundred people attended a ceremony where archivist Dan Fitzgerald of the Kansas Historical Society spoke about ghost towns. The land around Strawberry is a prairie tillable for farming. Several streams, including Parsons Creek which runs through the town center, flow south into the Republican River. Strawberry's population "at the outset" was 436. In 1878, the population was 934, in 1880, it was 1,258. By 1910, the population declined to 52 people due to poor roads and transportation; this number further decreased during the Great Depression. Peter Gieber at Find a Grave Arthur Charles Leiszler at Find a Grave

Yuken Europe

Yuken Europe is an advanced manufacturing and hydraulic technology company based in the Speke area of Liverpool, on Merseyside, in the United Kingdom. It serves markets in Europe and Africa, it was founded as Yuken UK in 1979 and is wholly owned by the global Japanese group, Yuken Kogyo, whose history dates back as far as 1928. It has affiliated companies in Hong Kong, three in China, South Korea and India. After its formation in 1979, Yuken UK acted as an assembler and distributor of hydraulic pumps and valves, shipped in from the parent company in Japan, it continued performing this function until 2004 when it began designing bespoke hydraulic products and technology for customers. Current general manager Mannie Saunders, in the post since 2000, started with the company in 1981 as an apprentice after reading business studies at the Liverpool Polytechnic. Yuken Europe specialises in designing and distributing pumps and valves using hydraulic technology, it produces its own line of products and designs and builds new devices for customers on a bespoke basis.

Its products are used by original equipment manufacturers working in a diverse range of sectors including shipping, ferries and subsea. Its products can be found in machines which perform a variety of functions such as chocolate makers and contact lens manufacturing equipment. Yuken Europe is based on Speke Hall Industrial Estate; the plant in Liverpool is used for manufacturing and development of new products. In 2013, Yuken invested a five-figure sum into a new laboratory at its base in Speke to test servo valves; this technology is used in extreme precision engineering to provide control for fast operating machines which carry out precise movements. The laboratory allows engineers to diagnose and repair faults with servo vales made by Yuken and other companies. Yuken Europe has a relationship with Combilift, the Ireland-based manufacturer of industrial forklift truck vehicles, it has a subsidiary company, Yuken CZ Sro, based in Rakovník near Prague, which it opened in 2012 in order to expand into the Czech Republic.

It signed a new distribution deal with Basque Country company Diprax to expand its presence in the Spanish market in 2013

Do You Like Hitchcock?

Do You Like Hitchcock? is a 2005 made-for-TV giallo film directed by Dario Argento. The film is a homage to the acclaimed thriller film director Alfred Hitchcock. Giulio, a film student, spies on Sasha, an attractive neighbor, rents Fritz Lang films for his thesis, he sees Sasha at the video store. She tries to rent Alfred Hitchcock's Strangers on a Train at the same time as another woman, Federica; the two strike up a friendship. The next day, riding his bicycle, Giulio sees Sasha and Federica having furtive conversation by a fountain. An intruder uses a key to enter Sasha's apartment while her mother is home alone and murders her with a brass pestle. Giulio is awakened that night by the police investigation. Reading the newspaper, Giulio finds out that Sasha Zerboni was an only child and her mother was a rich widow. Giulio tells his girlfriend Arianna that he suspects Sasha and Federica are in an agreement similar to the one in Strangers on a Train. Giulio finds a cleaning crew mopping up the crime scene.

He snatches a letter out of the mailbox: a bank statement showing 1 million Euros in the Zerboni account. Back at his apartment, his mother tells him about her new fiancé. Upon Sasha's return, the cleaning crew chief tells her about Giulio's visit. Someone breaks into Giulio's apartment; the intruder flees when Giulio hears the noise. Giulio asks her to spend the night because he's nervous; when Giulio hypothesizes that it is Sasha's turn to kill someone close to Federica, Arianna says he is crazy. The next day, the video store clerk, tells Giulio Sasha had been in and asked about him, saying she knew he watched her; the following day, Andrea asks Giulio to mind the video store. While Andrea is away, he looks up Federica's address on the store computer. Giulio follows her to her workplace. At the end of the day, Federica disconsolately leaves with her boss. Giulio sees them arguing in a second floor window; the boss is blackmailing Federica for sexual favors over money. He spots Giulio looking through the window.

Giulio falls and fractures his ankle. He limps to his motorbike escaping; the doctor tells Giulio. Arianna comes over to help him mend; when he tells her his theory that Federica wants Sasha to kill her boss, Arianna says he's crazier than and storms out. Andrea comes by, ostensibly to visit Giulio while he's laid up, tries to drown him in the tub. While Giulio and Andrea are struggling, Giulio's mother and her fiancé come to visit. Hearing the screams, the fiancé pulls Andrea off Giulio. Andrea is fatally hit by a car; the police arrest Sasha. Arianna comes over and she and Giulio make up. Giulio explains. Arianna sees a woman dressed in black approaching Sasha's apartment. Arianna chases. Giulio sees through his binoculars, she is looking for the key. Giulio realizes. Giulio calls Arianna on her cell phone. Giulio calls the inspector, who arrives at Sasha's apartment before Arianna has a chance to confront Federica, they chase her up to the rooftop. Federica slips off the edge of the building; the inspector and Arianna haul Federica to safety, she is placed under arrest.

In the final scene, Giulio's cast is off and he gets a phone call from his mother. While they talk he sees another beautiful woman has taken residence in Sasha's former apartment, she is naked and reading a book on the couch. She doesn't seem to mind. Elio Germano as Giulio Chiara Conti as Federica Lalli Elisabetta Rocchetti as Sasha Zerboni Cristina Brondo as Arianna Ivan Morales as Andrea Edoardo Stoppa as Inspector Elena Maria Bellini as Giulio's mother Ed Gonzalez gave the film two and a half stars in Slant Magazine, describing it as "ambitious for a small-screen enterprise, preferable to the embarrassment of 1998's The Phantom of the Opera but still a pale imitation of the director's early giallos." He identified the motor scooter chase sequence as the highlights. The film was nominated for Best TV-Movie at the 2006 Barcelona Film Awards. Do You Like Hitchcock? on IMDb Do You Like Hitchcock? at AllMovie

Du Rangneng

Du Rangneng, courtesy name Qunyi, formally the Duke of Jin, was an official of the late Tang dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Xizong and Emperor Xizong's brother Emperor Zhaozong. Early in Emperor Zhaozong's reign, against Du's recommendations, Emperor Zhaozong planned a campaign against the warlord Li Maozhen and put Du in charge of the campaign. After Li subsequently defeated the imperial forces, he marched on the capital Chang'an and demanded Du's death, Emperor Zhaozong was forced to order Du to commit suicide. Du Rangneng was born during the reign of Emperor Wuzong, he was a descendant of the early Tang Dynasty chancellor Du Ruhui. His father Du Shenquan served as a chancellor early in the reign of Emperor Wuzong's cousin Emperor Yizong. Du Rangneng himself passed the imperial examinations in 872, late in Emperor Yizong's reign, he thereafter served as the sheriff of Xianyang County. When the former chancellor Wang Duo served as the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit, he invited Du to serve on his staff.

Subsequently, by which time Emperor Yizong's son Emperor Xizong was emperor, Du was recalled to the capital Chang'an to serve as the sheriff of Chang'an County, one of the two counties making up Chang'an, as well as an assistant at Jixian Institute. Sometime when his mother died, he left governmental service to observe a mourning period for her. After the end of the mourning period, he served on the staff of the former chancellor Liu Ye while Liu served as the military governor of Huainan Circuit, he was recalled to Chang'an to serve as an imperial censor with the title Jiancha Yushi. Subsequently, when Niu Wei served as the military governor of Shannan West Circuit, Du served on his staff. Du subsequently was recalled to Chang'an, he went through a progression of offices: You Bujue, a low-level advisory official at the legislative bureau of government; when Emperor Xizong fled from Chang'an to Chengdu late in 880 due to an attack by the major agrarian rebel Huang Chao, Du fled and caught up with the emperor in Chengdu.

When the chancellor Xiao Gou served as the director of finances, Du, in addition to his duty at the ministry of defense served under Xiao in that capacity. Subsequently, he was made Libu Langzhong, a supervisory official at the ministry of rites, as well as an editor of imperial history. Thereafter, he was put in charge of drafting edicts, was made Zhongshu Sheren, a mid-level official at the legislative bureau, it was said that, at that time, as Emperor Xizong had to issue edicts in monitoring the Tang forces' campaigns against Huang, many edicts had to be written and Du wrote and efficiently. Emperor Xizong made him the deputy minister of census. After Emperor Xizong was able to return to Chang'an after Huang's defeat, Du was made the minister of rites, given the honorary title of Yinqing Guanglu Daifu, created the Viscount of Jianping. Subsequently, he was made the minister of chief imperial scholar. In late 885, after the powerful eunuch Tian Lingzi got into a dispute with the warlord Wang Chongrong the military governor of Hezhong Circuit and tried to transfer Wang to another circuit and his ally Li Keyong the military governor of Hedong Circuit engaged the forces under Tian and Tian's allies Zhu Mei the military governor of Jingnan Circuit and Li Changfu the military governor of Fengxiang Circuit.

Wang's and Li Keyong's forces defeated those under Tian, Li Changfu, approached Chang'an. Emperor Xizong fled to Xingyuan, very few imperial officials followed, with Du being one of the few. Subsequently, Emperor Xizong made both him and another official who followed to Xingyuan, Kong Wei, with the designation Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi. By this time, Zhu Mei had occupied Chang'an and declared Emperor Xizong's distant relative Li Yun the Prince of Xiang the new emperor, it was said that few circuits remained obedient to Emperor Xizong. With Tian Lingzi realizing that the people of the empire were against him and having left Emperor Xizong's presence and another eunuch, Yang Fugong having succeeded Tian as the commander of the Shence Armies, Du pointed out that Yang Fugong's brother Yang Fuguang had worked with Wang Chongrong and Li Keyong in defeating Huang and recapturing Chang'an, he suggested having Yang write letters to Wang and Li Keyong to persuade them to rejoin Emperor Xizong's cause, after Yang did so, Wang and Li Keyong redeclared their allegiance to Emperor Xizong and sent material supplies to Xingyuan.

Late in the year, with Zhu's officer Wang Xingyu, whom Zhu had ordered to try to capture Xingyuan to seize Emperor Xizong, unsuccessful in that task, Wang Xingyu was enticed by Yang's declaration that if anyone killed Zhu, that person would be allowed to succeed Zhu as the m

Buffalo Gals and Other Animal Presences

Buffalo Gals and Other Animal Presences is a collection of short stories and poems by Ursula K. Le Guin, first published in 1987 by Capra Press, it includes the author's introductions to the pieces in each section of the collection. The book has a theme of works about "animal, vegetable, or mineral."It was reviewed in Locus and Analog Science Fiction and Fact. Introduction "Come Into Animal Presences" by Denise Levertov I. "Buffalo Gals, Won't You Come Out Tonight" II. Three Rock Poems "The Basalt" "Flints" "Mt. St. Helens/Omphalos" III. "The Wife's Story" and "Mazes" "Mazes" "The Wife's Story" IV. Five Vegetable Poems "Torrey Pines Reserve" "Lewis and Clark and After" "West Texas" "Xmas Over" The Crown of Laurel" V. "The Direction of the Road" and "Vaster Than Empires" "The Direction of the Road" "Vaster Than Empires and More Slow" VI. Seven Bird and Beast Poems "What is Going on in the Oaks" "For Ted" "Found Poem" "Totem" "Winter Downs" "The Man Eater" "Sleeping Out" VII. "The White Donkey" and "Horse Camp" "The White Donkey" "Horse Camp" VIII.

Four Cat Poems "Tabby Lorenzo" "Black Leonard in Negative Space" "A Conversation With a Silence" "For Leonard and Burton Watson" IX. "Schrödinger's Cat" and "The Author of the Acacia Seeds" "Schrödinger's Cat" "The Author of the Acacia Seeds and Other Extracts from the Journal of Therolinguistics" X."May's Lion" "May's Lion" XI. Rilke's "Eighth Duino Elegy" and "She Unnames Them" "The Eighth Elegy" "She Unnames Them"