Latvia the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. Since its independence, Latvia has been referred to as one of the Baltic states, it is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, Belarus to the southeast, shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Latvia has 1,957,200 inhabitants and a territory of 64,589 km2; the country has a temperate seasonal climate. After centuries of Swedish and Russian rule, a rule executed by the Baltic German aristocracy, the Republic of Latvia was established on 18 November 1918 when it broke away and declared independence in the aftermath of World War I. However, by the 1930s the country became autocratic after the coup in 1934 establishing an authoritarian regime under Kārlis Ulmanis; the country's de facto independence was interrupted at the outset of World War II, beginning with Latvia's forcible incorporation into the Soviet Union, followed by the invasion and occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941, the re-occupation by the Soviets in 1944 to form the Latvian SSR for the next 45 years.
The peaceful Singing Revolution, starting in 1987, called for Baltic emancipation from Soviet rule and condemning the Communist regime's illegal takeover. It ended with the Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia on 4 May 1990, restoring de facto independence on 21 August 1991. Latvia is a democratic sovereign state, parliamentary republic and a highly developed country according to the United Nations Human Development Index, its capital Riga served as the European Capital of Culture in 2014. Latvian is the official language. Latvia is a unitary state, divided into 119 administrative divisions, of which 110 are municipalities and nine are cities. Latvians and Livonians are the indigenous people of Latvia. Latvian and Lithuanian are the only two surviving Baltic languages. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via the language and musical traditions. However, as a consequence of centuries of Russian rule and Soviet occupation, Latvia is home to a large number of ethnic Russians, some of whom have not gained citizenship, leaving them with no citizenship at all.
Until World War II, Latvia had significant minorities of ethnic Germans and Jews. Latvia is predominantly Lutheran Protestant, except for the Latgale region in the southeast, predominantly Roman Catholic; the Russian population are Eastern Orthodox Christians. Latvia is a member of the European Union, Eurozone, NATO, the Council of Europe, the United Nations, CBSS, the IMF, NB8, NIB, OECD, OSCE, WTO. For 2014, the country was listed 46th on the Human Development Index and as a high income country on 1 July 2014. A full member of the Eurozone, it began using the euro as its currency on 1 January 2014, replacing the Latvian lats; the name Latvija is derived from the name of the ancient Latgalians, one of four Indo-European Baltic tribes, which formed the ethnic core of modern Latvians together with the Finnic Livonians. Henry of Latvia coined the latinisations of the country's name, "Lettigallia" and "Lethia", both derived from the Latgalians; the terms inspired the variations on the country's name in Romance languages from "Letonia" and in several Germanic languages from "Lettland".
Around 3000 BC, the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people settled on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. The Balts established trade routes to Byzantium, trading local amber for precious metals. By 900 AD, four distinct Baltic tribes inhabited Latvia: Curonians, Selonians, Semigallians, as well as the Finnic tribe of Livonians speaking a Finnic language. In the 12th century in the territory of Latvia, there were 14 lands with their rulers: Vanema, Bandava, Duvzare, Megava, Pilsāts, Upmale, Sēlija, Jersika, Tālava and Adzele. Although the local people had contact with the outside world for centuries, they became more integrated into the European socio-political system in the 12th century; the first missionaries, sent by the Pope, sailed up the Daugava River in the late 12th century, seeking converts. The local people, did not convert to Christianity as as the Church had hoped. German crusaders were sent, or more decided to go on their own accord as they were known to do. Saint Meinhard of Segeberg arrived in Ikšķile, in 1184, traveling with merchants to Livonia, on a Catholic mission to convert the population from their original pagan beliefs.
Pope Celestine III had called for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe in 1193. When peaceful means of conversion failed to produce results, Meinhard plotted to convert Livonians by force of arms. In the beginning of the 13th century, Germans ruled large parts of today's Latvia. Together with Southern Estonia, these conquered areas formed the crusader state that became known as Terra Mariana or Livonia. In 1282, the cities of Cēsis, Limbaži, Koknese and Valmiera, became part of the Hanseatic League. Riga became an important point of east-west trading and formed close cultural links with Western Europe. After the Livonian War, Livonia fell under Lithuanian rule; the southern part of Estonia and the northern part of Latvia were ceded to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and formed into the Duchy of Livonia. Gotthard Kettler, the last Master of
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Hogan's Heroes is an American television sitcom set in a German prisoner of war camp during World War II. It ran for 168 episodes from September 17, 1965, to April 1971, on the CBS network. Bob Crane starred as Colonel Robert E. Hogan, coordinating an international crew of Allied prisoners running a special operations group from the camp. Werner Klemperer played Colonel Wilhelm Klink, the incompetent commandant of the camp, John Banner played the bungling sergeant-of-the-guard, Sergeant Hans Schultz. Hogan's Heroes centers around U. S. Army Air Forces Colonel Robert Hogan and his staff of experts who are prisoners of war in the fictional Stalag 13; the group secretly use the camp to conduct Allied espionage and sabotage and to help Allied POWS who had escaped from other prison camps via a secret network of tunnels that operate under the ineptitude of commandant Colonel Klink and his main Sergeant Schultz. The prisoners cooperate with resistance groups, spies and disloyal officers to accomplish this.
They devise schemes such as having Sergeant Andrew Carter visit the camp disguised as Adolf Hitler as a distraction, or rescuing a French Underground agent from Gestapo headquarters in Paris. Klink technically has a perfect operational record as camp commandant as no prisoners have escaped during his time; this record, the fact that the Allies would never bomb a prison camp, allows the Germans to use the Stalag to hide high level meetings, important persons, secret projects. Klink has many other important visitors and is temporarily put in charge of special prisoners; this brings the prisoners in contact with many important VIPs, scientists, high-ranking officers and some of Germany's most sophisticated and secret weapons projects such as the Wunderwaffe and the Manhattan Project, of which the prisoners take advantage in their efforts to hinder the German war effort. The setting is a prisoner-of-war camp for captured Allied airmen. Like the historical Stalag XIII-C, it is located just outside of a town called Hammelburg, though it is inconsistently placed throughout the series.
In the second season episode "Killer Klink", Sergeant Schultz states that the camp is 106.7 kilometres away from his home in Heidelberg by direct flight. The show is a combination of several writing styles that were popular in the 60s: the "wartime" show, the "spy" show, "camp comedy". However, although in reality Hammelburg is well inland in Franconia, several first season episodes place the camp closer to the North Sea. In "Anchors Aweigh, Men of Stalag 13", Colonel Klink specifies that the camp is 60 miles from the North Sea. To complicate matters further, it is mentioned in several episodes that the nearest major city to the camp is Düsseldorf, fairly far inland and by air is about 157 miles from the actual Hammelburg; the camp has 103 Allied prisoners of war during the first season, but becomes larger by the end of the series. Bob Crane as Colonel Hogan, the senior ranking POW officer and the leader of the men in the POW camp, he uses his ingenuity in missions to counter the Nazi's battle plans.
Crane was offered the role after appearing as "guy next door" types in television shows like The Dick Van Dyke Show and as a regular in The Donna Reed Show. Werner Klemperer as Colonel Klink, the commandant of the POW camp, he is painfully unaware of the men's operation and believes the camp has a perfect escape record under his command. Klemperer was from a Jewish family in real life and found the role to be a "double-edged sword". Klemperer remarked, "I had one qualification when I took the job: if they wrote a segment whereby Colonel Klink would come out the hero, I would leave the show."John Banner as Sergeant Schultz, Klink's main sergeant. He is a clumsy and inept man that gives out information to the prisoners for bribes. Banner was, in reality, born to Jewish parents and was a U. S. Army sergeant during World War II. Ivan Dixon as Sergeant Kinchloe, the man responsible for contacting with the underground by electronic communications. Kinchloe uses Morse code, a coffee pot radio to receive and transmit messages.
Casting Dixon, or any African-American actor as a positively shown supporting character, was a major step for a television show in the mid 1960s. Dixon ended up leaving the show and was replaced by Kenneth Washington as Sgt. Richard Baker in the final season. Larry Hovis as a chemical explosive and demolition expert, he is in charge of making and producing formulas and explosive devices in order to stop the Nazis' plans. Hovis was discovered by Richard Linke, the producer of The Andy Griffith Show, was a recurring character on Gomer Pyle U. S. M. C. Before landing the role of Sergeant Carter. Robert Clary as Corporal LeBeau, a gourmet chef and patriotic Frenchman, he has trained the guard uses their kennels as tunnels to bring their allies into. Clary is Jewish in real life, was deported to a Nazi concentration camp but survived by using his talent in singing and dancing in shows. Clary said in an interview with the Los Angeles Times, "Singing and being in kind of
Robert Edward Crane was an American actor, radio host, disc jockey known for starring in the CBS situation comedy Hogan's Heroes. A drummer from age 11, Crane began his career as a radio personality, first in New York City and Connecticut before moving to Los Angeles, where he hosted the number-one rated morning show. In the early 1960s, he moved into acting landing the lead role of Colonel Robert Hogan in Hogan's Heroes; the series aired from 1965 to 1971, Crane received two Primetime Emmy Award nominations for his work on the series. After Hogan's Heroes ended, Crane's career declined, he began performing in dinner theater. In 1975, he returned to television in the NBC series The Bob Crane Show; the series was cancelled after 13 weeks. Afterward, Crane returned to performing in dinner theaters and appeared in occasional guest spots on television. While on tour in June 1978 for a dinner theater production, Beginner's Luck, Crane was found bludgeoned to death in his Scottsdale apartment, the victim of a homicide.
The murder remains unsolved. Due to the suspicious nature of his death and posthumous revelations about his personal life, Crane's image changed from a cultural icon to a controversial figure. Crane was born in Waterbury and spent his childhood and teenage years in Stamford, he began playing drums, by junior high was organizing local drum and bugle parades with his neighborhood friends. He joined his high school's marching and jazz bands and the orchestra, he played for the Connecticut and Norwalk Symphony Orchestras as part of their youth orchestra program. He graduated from Stamford High School in 1946. In 1948, Crane enlisted for two years in the Connecticut Army National Guard and was honorably discharged in 1950. In 1949, Crane married his high-school sweetheart Anne Terzian, they had three children - Robert David, Deborah Anne, Karen Leslie. In 1950, Crane began his broadcasting career at WLEA in New York, he soon moved to WBIS in Bristol, WICC in Bridgeport, Connecticut, a 1,000-watt operation with a signal covering the northeastern portion of the New York metropolitan area.
In 1956, he was hired by CBS Radio to host the morning show at its West Coast flagship KNX in Los Angeles to re-energize that station's ratings and to halt his erosion of suburban ratings at WCBS in New York City. In California, he filled the broadcast with sly wit and such guests as Marilyn Monroe, Frank Sinatra, Bob Hope, his show topped the morning ratings with adult listeners in the Los Angeles area, Crane became "king of the Los Angeles airwaves". Crane's acting ambitions led to guest-hosting for Johnny Carson on the daytime game show Who Do You Trust? and appearances on The Twilight Zone, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, General Electric Theater. After Carl Reiner appeared on his radio show, Crane persuaded Reiner to book him for a guest appearance on The Dick Van Dyke Show. After seeing Crane's performance on The Dick Van Dyke Show, Donna Reed offered him a guest shot on her program. After the success of that episode his character, Dr. David Kelsey, was incorporated into the story line and Crane became a regular cast member, beginning with the "Friends and Neighbors" episode.
Crane continued to work full-time at KNX during his stint on The Donna Reed Show, running back and forth from the KNX studio at Columbia Square to Columbia Studios. He left the show in December 1964. In 1965, Crane was offered the starring role in a television situation comedy set in a World War II POW camp. Hogan's Heroes involved the sabotage and espionage missions of allied soldiers, led by Hogan, from under the noses of the oblivious Germans guarding them; the show was a hit. The distinctive military-style snare drum rhythm that introduces the show's theme song was played by Crane himself; the series lasted for six seasons, Crane was nominated for an Emmy Award twice, in 1966 and 1967. In 1968, he became romantically involved with cast member Patricia Olson, who played Hilda under the stage name Sigrid Valdis, he divorced Anne in 1970, just prior to their 21st anniversary, married Olson on the set of the show that year. Their son, was born in 1971, they adopted a daughter, Ana Marie; the couple separated in 1977, but according to several family members, reconciled shortly before Crane's death.
In 1968, Crane and series co-stars Werner Klemperer, Leon Askin, John Banner appeared with Elke Sommer in a feature film, The Wicked Dreams of Paula Schultz, set in the divided city of Berlin during the Cold War. In 1969, Crane starred with Abby Dalton in a dinner theater production of Cactus Flower. Following the cancellation of Hogan's Heroes, Crane appeared in two Disney films: Superdad, in the title role, Gus. In 1973, he purchased the rights to a comedy play called Beginner's Luck and began touring it, as its star and director, at the Showboat Dinner Theatre in St. Petersburg, the La Mirada Civic Theatre in California, the Windmill Dinner Theatre in Scottsdale and other dinner theaters around the country. Between theater engagements, he guest-starred in a number of TV shows, including Police Woman, Quincy, M. E. and The Love Boat. In 1975, Crane returned to TV with his own series, The Bob Crane Show on NBC, cancelled after 13 episodes. In early 1978, Crane taped a travel documentary in Hawaii, recorded an appearance on the Canadian cooking show Celebrity Cooks.
Neither aired in the U. S. following his death. His appearance on Celebrity Cooks did air in Canada in late 1978, a
Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944
The Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944 refers to the military occupation of Latvia by the Soviet Union in 1944. During World War II Latvia was first occupied by the Soviet Union in June 1940 and was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1941–1944 after which it was re-occupied by the Soviet Union. Army Group Centre was in tatters, the northern edge of the Soviet assault threatened to trap Army Group North in a pocket in the Courland region. Panzers of Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz had been sent back to the capital of Ostland, Riga and in ferocious defensive battles had halted the Soviet advance in late April 1944. Strachwitz had been needed elsewhere, was soon back to acting as the Army Group's fire brigade. Strachwitz's Panzerverband was broken up in late July. By early August, the Soviets were again ready to attempt to cut off Army Group North from Army Group Centre. A massive Soviet assault sliced through the German lines and Army Group North was isolated from its neighbour.
Strachwitz was trapped outside the pocket, Panzerverband von Strachwitz was reformed, this time from elements of the 101st Panzer Brigade of panzer-ace Oberst Meinrad von Lauchert and the newly formed SS Panzer Brigade Gross under SS-Sturmbannführer Gross. Inside the trapped pocket, the remaining panzers and StuG IIIs of the Hermann von Salza and the last of Jähde's Tigers were formed into another Kampfgruppe to attack from the inside of the trap. On 19 August 1944, the assault, dubbed Unternehmen Doppelkopf got underway, it was preceded by a bombardment by the cruiser Prinz Eugen's 203mm guns, which destroyed forty-eight T-34s assembling in the square at Tukums. Strachwitz and the Nordland remnants meet on the 21st, contact was restored between the army groups; the 101. Panzerbrigade was now assigned to the army detachment "Narwa active at the Emajõgi River Front, bolstering the defenders' armour strength. Disaster had been averted. Army Group North was vulnerable to being cut off. In 1944, the Red Army lifted the siege of Leningrad and re-conquered the Baltic area along with much of Ukraine and Belarus.
However, some 200,000 German troops held out in Courland along with Latvian forces resisting Soviet reoccupation. They were besieged with their backs to the Baltic Sea; the Red Army failed to take the Courland Pocket. Colonel-General Heinz Guderian, the Chief of the German General Staff insisted to Adolf Hitler that the troops in Courland should be evacuated by sea and used for the defence of the Third Reich, he believed them necessary to protect German submarine bases along the Baltic coast. On January 15, 1945, Army Group Courland was formed under Colonel-General Dr. Lothar Rendulic; until the end of the war, Army Group Courland defended the Latvian peninsula. It held out until May 8, 1945, when it surrendered under Colonel-General Carl Hilpert, the army group's last commander, he surrendered to Marshal Leonid Govorov, the commander of opposing Soviet forces on the Courland perimeter. At this time the group still consisted of some 31 divisions of varying strength. After May 9, 1945 203,000 troops of Army Group Courland began moving to Soviet prison camps in the East.
The Soviet Union reoccupied Latvia as part of the Baltic Offensive in 1944, a twofold military-political operation to rout German forces and the "liberation of the Soviet Baltic peoples" beginning in summer-autumn 1944, lasting until the capitulation of German and Latvian forces in Courland pocket in May 1945, they were absorbed into Soviet Union. After World War II, as part of the goal to more integrate Baltic countries into the Soviet Union, mass deportations were concluded in the Baltic countries and the policy of encouraging Soviet immigration to Latvia continued. On January 12, 1949 the Soviet Council of Ministers issued a decree "on the expulsion and deportation" from Latvia of "all kulaks and their families, the families of bandits and nationalists", others. More than 200,000 people are estimated to have been deported from the Baltic in 1940–1953. In addition, at least 75,000 were sent to Gulag. 10 percent of the entire adult Baltic population was sent to labor camps. Many soldiers evaded capture and joined the Latvian national partisans' resistance that waged unsuccessful guerilla warfare for several years.
The precedent under international law established by the earlier-adopted Stimson Doctrine, as applied to the Baltics in U. S. Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles's declaration of July 23, 1940, defined the basis for non-recognition of the Soviet Union's forcible incorporation of Latvia. Despite Welles's statement, the Baltics soon reprised their centuries-long role as pawns in the conflicts of larger powers. After visiting Moscow in the winter of 1941–1942, British Foreign Minister Anthony Eden advocated sacrificing the Baltics to secure Soviet cooperation in the war; the British ambassador to the U. S. Lord Halifax, reported, "Mr. Eden cannot incur the danger of antagonizing Stalin, the British War Cabinet have... agree to negotiate a treaty with Stalin, which will recognize the 1940 frontiers of the Soviet Union." By 1943 Roosevelt had consigned the Baltics and Eastern Europe to Stalin. Meeting with Archbishop Spellman in New York on September 3, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated, "The European people will have to endure Russian domination, in the hope that in ten or twenty years they will be able to live well with the Russians."
Meeting with Stalin in Tehran on December 1, Roosevelt "said that he f
Gidget Grows Up
Gidget Grows Up is a 1969 American television film directed by James Sheldon with stars Karen Valentine, Edward Mulhare and Paul Petersen as well as alphabetically listed special guest stars Warner Anderson, Bob Cummings, Nina Foch and Paul Lynde. Adapted from the novel Gidget Goes New York by Frederick Kohner, the film premiered on ABC on December 30, 1969, was intended as a pilot for a possible new Gidget series a sequel to the 1960s sitcom Gidget. After two years of college abroad, Gidget returns to Santa Monica, she discovers that the letters she wrote to her boyfriend Jeff, intended to make him jealous, have backfired, her attempts to patch things up with him are rebuffed. Inspired by a speech she hears on television made by the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, she hops a bus to New York City to work for the United Nations, she meets the Ambassador, who finds her a job, but because she has only two years of college education, the best position the United Nations will offer her is tour guide.
She meets and has a fling with Alex Mac Laughlin, an Australian agronomist who finds her and two of her fellow employees an inexpensive Greenwich Village apartment, managed by the eccentric Louis B. Latimer, a grown child actor has-been attempting a comeback as an independent film director. Gidget has a number of comical and romantic adventures before being reunited with former boyfriend Jeff. Karen Valentine as Gidget And Edward Mulhare as Alex Mac Laughlin Co-Starring Paul Petersen as MoondoggieSpecial Guest Starsin alphabetical order Warner Anderson as Ambassador Post Bob Cummings as Russ Lawrence Nina Foch as Bibi Crosby Paul Lynde as Louis B. LatimerCast members listed only in end credits Gidget Gidget Goes Hawaiian Gidget Goes to Rome Gidget's Summer Reunion The New Gidget List of television films produced for American Broadcasting Company Gidget Grows Up on IMDb Gidget Grows Up at OVGuide, eight video clips comprising the entire film, more or less
Mission: Impossible is an American television series and produced by Bruce Geller, chronicling the exploits of a team of secret government agents known as the Impossible Missions Force. In the first season the team is led by Dan Briggs, played by Steven Hill; each episode opens with a fast-paced montage that unfolds as the series' theme music composed by Lalo Schifrin plays, after which in a prologue Briggs or Phelps receives his instructions from a voice delivered on a recording which self-destructs. The series was financed and filmed by Desilu Productions, aired on the CBS network from September 1966 to March 1973, it was revived in 1988 for two seasons on ABC. It inspired a series of theatrical motion pictures starring Tom Cruise, beginning in 1996; the series follows the exploits of the Impossible Missions Force, a small team of secret agents used for covert missions against dictators, evil organizations and crime lords. On occasion, the IMF mounts unsanctioned, private missions on behalf of its members.
The identities of the higher echelons of the organization that oversees the IMF are never revealed. Only rare cryptic bits of information are provided during the life of the series, such as in the third season mission "Nicole", where the IMF leader states that his instructions come from "Division Seven". In the 1980s revival, it is suggested the IMF is an independent agency of the United States government; this is implied by the fact that towards the end of the taped instructed messages, the narrator includes the passage:- "As always, should you or any of your IM force be caught or killed, the Secretary will disavow any knowledge of your actions", or words to that effect. The leader of the IMF is Dan Briggs, played by Steven Hill; as an Orthodox Jew, Hill had to leave on Fridays at 4 p.m. to be home before sundown and was not available until after dark the next day. Although his contract allowed for filming interruptions due to religious observances, the clause proved difficult to work around due to the production schedule and as the season progressed, an increasing number of episodes featured little of Briggs.
Hill had other problems as well. After cooperatively crawling through dirt tunnels and climbing a rope ladder in the episode "Snowball in Hell," in the following episode he balked at climbing a stairway with railings and locked himself in his dressing room. Unable to come to terms with Hill, the producers re-shot the episode without him, reduced Briggs' presence in the five episodes left to be filmed to a minimum; as far as Hill's religious requirements were concerned, line producer Joseph Gantman had not understood what had been agreed to. He told author Patrick J. White, "'If someone understands your problems and says he understands them, you feel better about it, but if he doesn't care about your problems you begin to resent him. Steven Hill may have felt the same way."Hill was replaced without explanation to the audience after the first season by Peter Graves playing the role of Jim Phelps, who remained the leader for the remainder of the original series and in the 1988–1990 revival. In theory and Phelps are the only full-time members of the IMF.
As the series was conceived, they would form teams made up of part-time agents who came from a variety of professions, choosing their operatives based on the particular skills necessary for the mission. In practice, however and Phelps would choose the same core group of three or four agents for every single mission, leading these regulars to be considered de facto full-time IMF agents. Still, many episodes feature guest stars playing one-time additional agents who have special skills; the regular agent line-up during the first season consisted of: Cinnamon Carter, a top fashion model and actress Barnard "Barney" Collier, a mechanical and electronics genius and owner of Collier Electronics William "Willy" Armitage, a world record-holding weight lifter Rollin Hand, a noted actor, makeup artist, escape artist, magician and "man of a million faces." Landau was billed as a "special guest star" during the first season. His contract gave producers an option to have him "render services for additional episodes".
To fill the void left by Hill's Sabbath absences, producers wound up using Landau for more episodes, always as a "guest star". He struck a deal to appear in all the first season's remaining episodes, but always billed as a "guest star" so that he could have the option to give notice to work on a feature film. Landau contractually became a series regular in season two; as actors left the series over time, others became regulars. Replacements possessed the same skills as their predecessors. For example, "The Great Paris", Hand's replacement in the fourth and fifth seasons, is an actor, makeup artist, magician and "master of disguise." Seen in seasons five and six is Dr. Doug Robert, played by Sam Elliott. Cinnamon's "replacement" in season four was a series of guest stars, only one making more than one appea