Glyptostrobus pensilis, known as Chinese swamp cypress, is the sole living species in the genus Glyptostrobus. It is native to subtropical southeastern China, from Fujian west to southeast Yunnan and it is a medium-sized to large tree, reaching 30 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m, possibly more. The leaves are deciduous, spirally arranged but twisted at the base to lie in two ranks, 5–20 mm long and 1–2 mm broad, but 2–3 mm long. The cones are green maturing yellow-brown, pear-shaped, 2–3 cm long and 1–1.5 cm diameter and they open when mature to release the small, 5–20 mm long, winged seeds. It typically grows in river banks and swamps, growing in water up to 60 cm deep, like the related genus Taxodium, it produces cypress knees, or pneumatophores, when growing in water, thought to help transport oxygen to the roots. There appear to be no remaining plants in China and few of those in Viet Nam are seed-bearing. Gymnosperm Database, Glyptostrobus Arboretum de Villardebelle, photo of cone
Pilgerodendron is a genus of conifer belonging to the cypress family Cupressaceae. It has only one species, Pilgerodendron uviferum, and is endemic to the Valdivian temperate rain forests and Magellanic subpolar forests of southern Chile and it grows from 40 to 55°S in Tierra del Fuego, where it is the southernmost conifer in the world. It is a member of subfamily Callitroideae, a group of southern hemisphere genera associated with the Antarctic flora. It is very related to the New Zealand and New Caledonian genus Libocedrus. It is a synonym for Libocedrus tetragona. It is known locally as Ciprés de las Guaitecas, and elsewhere by its scientific name, the genus is named after Robert Knud Friedrich Pilger. It is a slow-growing, narrowly conical evergreen tree grows from 2–20 m in height. The leaves are scale-like, arranged in decussate pairs, the leaves are all equal in size, giving the shoots a square cross-section. The pollen cones are 5–10 mm long and 2 mm broad and it is found in the evergreen coastal lowland forests along the Pacific coast of the ecoregion, in association the broadleaf evergreens Nothofagus betuloides and Drimys winteri.
It is found in stands in sheltered bogs further inland, where it is often locally dominant. At the northern end of its range it is found in association with Fitzroya cupressoides and it has been planted in the north coast of the Pacific Coast of the United States. The wood is yellow-reddish, very resistant, it has a distinct spicy-resinous smell, it is very valuable. Due to over-exploitation, the species is now much scarcer than formerly, the species is considered threatened by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Much of its lowland habitat has been cleared
Convolvulaceae, known commonly as the bindweed or morning glory family, is a family of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but trees and herbs. The stems of plants are usually winding, hence their Latin name. The leaves are simple and alternate, without stipules, the fruit can be a capsule, berry, or nut, all containing only two seeds per one locule. The leaves and starchy, tuberous roots of some species are used as foodstuffs, some species contain ergoline alkaloids that are likely responsible for the use of these species as ingredients in psychedelic drugs. The presence of ergolines in some species of family is due to infection by fungi related to the ergot fungi of the genus Claviceps. The identified fungus appears to be a seed-transmitted, obligate biotroph growing epiphytically on its host and this finding strongly suggests the unique presence of ergoline alkaloids in some species of the family Convolvulaceae is due to symbiosis with clavicipitaceous fungi.
Members of the family are known as showy garden plants. Convolvulaceae Unlimited Convolvulaceae in Topwalks Family Convolvulaceae Flowers in Israel
Taxodium ascendens, known as pond cypress, is a deciduous conifer of the genus Taxodium, native to North America. It predominates in cypress dome habitats, Taxodium ascendens reaches on average 15–18 metres in height. Compared to T. distichum, the leaves are shorter and are on shoots that tend to be rather than spreading. The trunk is expanded at the base, even on trees, assisting the tree in anchoring in the soft. The cones tend to be smaller, not over 2.5 cm diameter, the bark is a paler gray color. Maximum longevity of this plant is estimated at 1000 years and this figure may be an underestimate, as The Senator, until recently growing in Longwood, Floridas Big Tree Park, was estimated to be over 3,400 years old. This species is native to the southeastern United States, from southeastern Virginia to southeastern Louisiana, stunted individuals of pond cypress are notable in the dwarf cypress savanna of the Everglades National Park. Taxodium ascendens occurs naturally in ponds, lake margins, swamps.
It prefers wet, poorly drained and acidic soils, at an altitude of 0–30 metres above sea level, flora of North America Floridata File, The Senator Tree Longwood Florida. JPG ITIS NCBI
Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, history, artistic legacy, Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is considered a nation within a nation. Tuscany is traditionally a popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto. The village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited destination in the region. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val dOrcia are internationally renowned, Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the worlds 89th most visited city, roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north and east, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast.
The comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany has a western coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea, containing the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, and mountains. Plains occupy 8. 4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the River Arno, many of Tuscanys largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks, following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before Orientalization occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose, the Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art.
The Etruscans lived in Etruria well into prehistory, throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, one reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the 5th century AD, in the years following 572, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia
Cupressus nootkatensis is a species of trees in the cypress family native to the coastal regions of northwestern North America. This species goes by common names including, Nootka cypress, yellow cypress, Alaska cypress, Nootka cedar, yellow cedar, Alaska cedar. However, this placement does not fit with the morphology and phenology of the cones, genetic evidence, published by Gadek et al. strongly supported its return to Cupressus and exclusion from Chamaecyparis. Published in 1864 but overlooked or ignored by subsequent authors. Little et al. therefore synonymised Xanthocyparis with Callitropsis, the name for these species under the ICBN when treated in a distinct genus. The name Xanthocyparis has now proposed for conservation, and the 2011 International Botanical Congress followed that recommendation. In 2010, Mao et al. performed a detailed molecular analysis. However, this is disputed, as the tree would compose a monophyletic subgenus, the argument that it warrants treatment as a monotypic genus is not without merit, in which case the correct name is Callitropsis nootkatensis.
Nootka cypress is native to the west coast of North America, from the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska and it is typically occurring on wet sites in mountains, often close to the tree line, but sometimes at lower altitudes. Cupressus nootkatensis is a tree growing up to 40 meters tall. The foliage is in flat sprays, with green, 3–5 mm long scale-leaves. The Caren Range on the west coast of British Columbia is home to the oldest Nootka Cypress specimens in the world, in Alaska, where the tree is primarily referred to as yellow cedar, extensive research has been conducted into large-scale die-offs of yellow cedar stands. These studies have concluded that the tree has depended upon heavy coastal snowpacks to insulate its shallow roots from cold Arctic winters, the impacts of climate change have resulted in thinner, less-persistent snowpacks, in turn causing increased susceptibility to freeze damage. This mortality has been observed over 7% of the species range, substantial future mortality is likely due to warming temperatures and decreasing snowpacks.
The U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service is reviewing whether to designate the species as threatened or endangered and this species has been considered to be one of the finest timber trees in the world and has been exported to China during the last century. The wood has been used for flooring, interior finish and shipbuilding The various physical properties of the make it an attractive material for both general construction and boat building. Due to its slow growth it is hard and, like other cypress woods it is durable, it offers good dimensional stability, and is resistant to weather, insects. It works easily with hand or machine tools, it turns and it can be fastened with glues and nails
Monterey was founded in 1770 by missionary Junípero Serra and explorer Gaspar de Portolà. Portolà erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port against an expected Russian trading, at the same time, Serra founded Mission San Carlos Borromeo, second in the chain of Spanish Missions of California. Originally near the presidio, the moved a few miles south to its current location in Carmel. Monterey served as the capital of upper Las Californias and Alta California from 1777 to 1848, under the flags of Spain, independent Mexico, the city was originally the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. All shipments into California by sea were required to go through the Custom House, the oldest governmental building in the state, and Californias Historic Landmark Number One. Built in 3 phases, construction on the Custom House began in 1814 under the Spanish, Monterey was the site of the July 7,1846, Battle of Monterey during the Mexican-American War. It was on this date that John D. Sloat, Commodore in the United States Navy, raised the U. S.
flag over the Monterey Custom House, in addition, many California firsts occurred in Monterey. These include Californias first theater, brick house, publicly funded school, public building, public library, and printing press, which printed The Californian, Colton Hall, built in 1849 by Walter Colton, was originally a public school and government meeting place. It hosted Californias first constitutional convention, today it houses a museum, while adjacent buildings serve as the seat of local government. The Monterey post office opened in 1849, the city has a noteworthy history as a center for California painters in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Such painters as Arthur Frank Mathews, Armin Hansen, Xavier Martinez, Rowena Meeks Abdy, in November 1995, California Governor Pete Wilson proclaimed Monterey as The Language Capital of the World. Pacific Grove was founded in 1875 by a group of Methodists who modeled the town after Ocean Grove, in time, the butterflies, fragrant pines and fresh sea air brought others to the Pacific Grove Retreat to rest and meditate.
The initial meeting of the Pacific Coast branch of the Chautauqua Literary, modelled after the Methodist Sunday school teachers’ training camp established in 1874 at Lake Chautauqua, N. Y. this location became part of a nationwide educational network. In November 1879, after the summer campers returned home, Robert Louis Stevenson wandered into the deserted campgrounds, indeed, it was not so much like a deserted town as like a scene upon the stage by daylight, and with no one on the boards. Today, Stevenson School in nearby Pebble Beach is named after the author, the Pacific Grove post office opened in 1886, closed that year, and was re-opened in 1887. Pacific Grove, like Carmel-by-the-Sea and Monterey, became a haven in the 1890s. Artists of the En plein air school in both Europe and the United States were seeking a venue which had natural beauty, so that Pacific Grove was a magnet for this movement. English painter William Adam and other artists moved to Pacific Grove in the early 1900s, for a number of years, John Steinbeck lived in a cottage in Pacific Grove owned by his father, who was Monterey County Treasurer
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
Microbiota is a monotypic genus of evergreen coniferous shrub in the cypress family Cupressaceae, containing only one species, Microbiota decussata. The plant is native and endemic to an area of the Sikhote-Alin mountains in Primorskiy Krai in the Russian Far East. The monotypic taxon Microbiota was discovered in 1923, but political secrecy in the former Soviet Union prevented any knowledge of its existence outside the country for around 50 years and it is generally accepted as being a distinct genus. It has suggested, but not widely followed, that Microbiota could be included in the closely related genus Platycladus. Other fairly close relatives are the genera Juniperus and Cupressus, Microbiota decussata is a prostrate shrub to 20–50 centimetres in height, and 2–5 metres in spreading width. The foliage forms in flat sprays with scale-like leaves 2–4 mm long, the cones are among the smallest of any conifer, 2–3 mm long, green ripening brown in about 8 months from pollination, and have 4 scales arranged in two opposite pairs.
The seeds are 2 mm long, with no wing, there is only one seed in each cone. Microbiota decussata is grown as a plant for use as evergreen groundcover in gardens. It is valued for its tolerance and considerable cold temperature. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit, arboretum de Villardebelle - Microbiota leaf and cone photos Gymnosperm Database - Microbiota decussata Conifers Around the World, Microbiota decussata - Cypress-Juniper
The genus Cupressus is one of several genera within the family Cupressaceae that have the common name cypress, for the others, see cypress. It is considered a polyphyletic group, based on genetic and morphological analysis, the Cupressus genus is found in the Cupressoideae subfamily. The common name comes from Old French cipres and that from Latin cyparissus, as with other conifers, extensive cultivation has led to a wide variety of forms and colours, that are grown in parks and gardens throughout the world. They are evergreen trees or large shrubs, growing to 5–40 m tall, the leaves are scale-like, 2–6 mm long, arranged in opposite decussate pairs, and persist for three to five years. On young plants up to two old, the leaves are needle-like and 5–15 mm long. The cones are 8–40 mm long, globose or ovoid with four to 14 scales arranged in decussate pairs. The seeds are small, 4–7 mm long, with two wings, one along each side of the seed. In other species, the open at maturity to release the seeds.
Many species are grown as trees in parks and, in Asia, around temples, in some areas. A few species are grown for their timber, which can be very durable and it was believed in the Hellenic culture that the Cypress tree was sacred to the goddess, Artemis. Current tendencies are to reduce the number of recognised species, when a species concept is adopted. See the New World species for a split in the genus in the future. The Old World cypresses tend to have cones with more scales, each scale with a broad ridge. C. sempervirens is the species of the genus, defining the name Cupressus. These species have recently been transferred to Callitropsis. New World species are found in habitats with xeric soils. This type of results in disproportionate local abundance with most species restricted to small neighboring populations. In warm, Mediterranean climates, these plants release large quantities of pollen for approximately seven months each year, farjon, A. Monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys
Chamaecyparis pisifera is a species of false cypress, native to central and southern Japan, on the islands of Honshū and Kyūshū. It is a coniferous tree growing to 35–50 m tall with a trunk up to 2 m in diameter. The bark is red-brown, vertically fissured and with a stringy texture, the foliage is arranged in flat sprays, adult leaves are scale-like,1. The juvenile leaves, found on seedlings, are needle-like, 4–8 mm long, soft. The cones are globose, 4–8 mm diameter, with 6–10 scales arranged in opposite pairs, a related cypress found on Taiwan, Chamaecyparis formosensis, differs in longer ovoid cones 6–10 mm long with 10–16 scales. The extinct Eocene species Chamaecyparis eureka, known from fossils found on Axel Heiberg Island in Canada, is noted to be similar to C. pisifera. It is grown for its timber in Japan, where it is used as a material for building palaces, temples and baths, the wood is lemon-scented and light-colored with a rich, straight grain, and is rot resistant. It is an ornamental tree in parks and gardens.
Conifers Around the World, Chamaecyparis pisifera - sawara cypress
Fitzroya is a monotypic genus in the cypress family. Common names include alerce, lahuán, and Patagonian cypress, the genus was named in honour of Robert FitzRoy. F. cupressoides is the largest tree species in South America, normally growing to 40–60 m, but occasionally more than 70 m in Argentina and its rough pyramidal canopy provides cover for the southern beech and myrtle. The largest known living specimen is Alerce Milenario in Alerce Costero National Park and it is more than 60 m tall, with a trunk diameter of 4.26 m. Much larger specimens existed before the species was heavily logged in the 19th and 20th centuries, Charles Darwin reported finding a specimen 12.6 m in diameter. The leaves are in whorls of three, 3–6 mm long and 2 mm broad, marked with two white stomatal lines. The cones are globose, 6–8 mm in diameter, opening flat to 12 mm across, only the central whorl of scales is fertile, bearing 2–3 seeds on each scale, the lower and upper whorls are small and sterile. The seeds are 2–3 mm long and flat, with a wing along each side, the seeds mature 6–8 months after pollination.
In 1993 a specimen from Chile, Gran Abuelo or Alerce Milenario, was found to be 3622 years old, making it the second oldest fully verified age for any living tree species, after the bristlecone pine. A team of researchers from the University of Tasmania found fossilized foliage of a Fitzroya species on the Lea River of northwest Tasmania, the 35-million-year-old fossil was named F. tasmanensis. The finding demonstrates the ancient floristic affinities between Australasia and southern South America, which identify as the Antarctic flora. At present Fitzroya grow mainly at some altitude above sea level, Fitzroya stands near sea level are most likely relicts. F. cupressoides wood has been found in the site of Monte Verde, the Huilliche people are known to have used the wood for making tools and weapons. By the time of the Spanish conquest of Chiloé Archipelago in 1567 most of the islands were covered by dense forest where F. cupressoides grew, the wood was economically important in colonial Chiloé and Valdivia, which exported planks to Peru.
A single tree could yield 600 planks with a width of at least 0.5 m, the wood was highly valued in Chile and Peru for its elasticity and lightness. F. cupressoides wood was the means of exchange in the trade with Peru, and even came to be used as a local currency. It has been argued that the Spanish enclave of Chiloé prevailed over other Spanish settlements in Southern Chile due to the importance of alerce trade. From about 1750 to 1943, when the land between Maullín River and Valdivia was colonized by Spain and Chile, numerous fires of Fitzroya woods occurred in Cordillera Pelada and these fires were initiated by Spaniards and Europeans