Congress Poland or Russian Poland, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland, was a polity created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign Polish state. Until the November Uprising in 1831, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Tsars of Russia. Thereafter, the state was forcibly integrated into the Russian Empire over the course of the 19th century. In 1915, during World War I, it was replaced by the Central Powers with the nominal Regency Kingdom of Poland, which continued to exist until Poland regained independence in 1918. Following the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland ceased to exist as an independent state for 123 years; the territory, with its native population, was split between the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire. An equivalent to Congress Poland within the Austrian Empire was the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria commonly referred to as "Austrian Poland"; the area incorporated into Prussia and subsequently the German Empire had little autonomy and was a province within Prussia - the Province of Posen.
The Kingdom of Poland enjoyed considerable political autonomy as guaranteed by the liberal constitution. However, its rulers, the Russian Emperors disregarded any restrictions on their power, it was, little more than a puppet state of the Russian Empire. The autonomy was curtailed following uprisings in 1830–31 and 1863, as the country became governed by namiestniks, divided into guberniya, thus from the start, Polish autonomy remained little more than fiction. The capital was located in Warsaw, which towards the beginning of the 20th century became the Russian Empire's third-largest city after St. Petersburg and Moscow; the moderately multicultural population of Congress Poland was estimated at 9,402,253 inhabitants in 1897. It was composed of Poles, Polish Jews, ethnic Germans and an insignificant Russian minority; the predominant religion was Roman Catholicism and the official language used within the state was Polish until the January Uprising when Russian became co-official. Yiddish and German were spoken by its native speakers.
The territory of Congress Poland corresponds to modern-day Kalisz Region and the Lublin, Łódź, Masovian and Holy Cross Voivodeships of Poland as well as southwestern Lithuania and part of Grodno District of Belarus. Although the official name of the state was the Kingdom of Poland, in order to distinguish it from other Kingdoms of Poland, it is sometimes referred to as "Congress Poland"; the Kingdom of Poland was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw, a French client state, at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 when the great powers reorganized Europe following the Napoleonic wars. The Kingdom was created on part of the Polish territory, partitioned by Russia and Prussia replacing, after Napoleon's defeat, the Duchy of Warsaw, set up by Napoleon in 1807. After Napoleon's 1812 defeat, the fate of the Duchy of Warsaw was dependent on Russia. Prussia insisted on the Duchy being eliminated, but after Russian troops reached Paris in 1812, Tsar Alexander I intended to annex to the Duchy the Lithuanian-Belarusian lands, now controlled by the Tsardom, which used to be a part of the First Polish Republic and to unite thus created Polish country with Russia.
Both Austria and England did not approve of that idea, Austria issuing a memorandum on returning to the 1795 resolutions, this idea supported by England under George IV and Prime Minister Robert Jenkinson and the English delegate to the Congress, Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, so in effect the Tsar, after the so-called Hundred Days, established the Kingdom of Poland and the 1815 Congress of Vienna approved. After the Congress, Russia gained a larger share of Poland and, after crushing an insurrection in 1831, the Congress Kingdom's autonomy was abolished and Poles faced confiscation of property, forced military service, the closure of their own universities; the Congress was important enough in the creation of the state to cause the new country to be named for it. The Kingdom lost its status as a sovereign state in 1831 and the administrative divisions were reorganized, it was sufficiently distinct that its name remained in official Russian use, although in the years of Russian rule it was replaced with the Privislinsky Krai.
Following the defeat of the November Uprising its separate institutions and administrative arrangements were abolished as part of increased Russification to be more integrated with the Russian Empire. However after this formalized annexation, the territory retained some degree of distinctiveness and continued to be referred to informally as Congress Poland until the Russian rule there ended as a result of the advance by the armies of the Central Powers in 1915 during World War I; the Kingdom had an area of 128,500 km2 and a population of 3.3 million. The new state would be one of the smallest Polish states smaller than the preceding Duchy of Warsaw and much smaller than the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which had a population of 10 million and an area of 1 million km2, its population reached 6.1 million by 1870 and 10 million by 1900. Most of the ethnic Poles in the Russian Empire lived in the Congress Kingdom, although some areas outside it contained a Polish majority; the Kingdom of Poland re-emerged as a result of the efforts of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, a Pole who aimed to resurrect the Polish state in alliance with Russia.
The Kingdom of Poland was one of the few contemporary constitutional monarchies in Europe, with the Emperor of Russia serving as the Polish King. His title as chief of Poland in Russian, was Tsar, similar to usage in
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is estimated at 1.770 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, a significant cultural and economic hub, its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once described as the'Paris of the North', Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. Bombed at the start of the German invasion in 1939, the city withstood a siege for which it was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari. Deportations of the Jewish population to concentration camps led to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 and the destruction of the Ghetto after a month of combat.
A general Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944 led to greater devastation and systematic razing by the Germans in advance of the Vistula–Oder Offensive. Warsaw gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after World War II, which had left over 85% of its buildings in ruins. Warsaw is one of Europe's most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world. In 2017 the city came 4th in the "Business-friendly" category and 8th in "Human capital and life style", it was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe. The city is a significant centre of research and development, Business process outsourcing, Information technology outsourcing, as well as of the Polish media industry; the Warsaw Stock Exchange is most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external border security as well as ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have their headquarters in Warsaw.
Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union. The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University of Warsaw, the Warsaw Polytechnic, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world, the Zachęta National Gallery of Art; the picturesque Old Town of Warsaw, which represents examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St. John's Cathedral, Main Market Square, palaces and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and detail. Warsaw is positioning itself as Central and Eastern Europe’s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants, with around a quarter of the city's area occupied by parks.
Warsaw's name in the Polish language is Warszawa. Other previous spellings of the name may have included Werszewa. According to some sources, the origin of the name is unknown. In Pre-Slavic toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda, it is stated that the toponymy of northern Mazovia tends to have unclear etymology. Warszawa was the name of a fishing village. According to one theory Warszawa means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin Warcisław; however the ending -awa is unusual for a big city. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman and his wife, Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River. In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of the Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland; the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka and warszawianie.
Other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Varšuva, Varsó and Varšava The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were located in Bródno and Jazdów. After Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa; the Prince of Płock, Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern-day Warsaw, in about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the official capital of the Masovian Duchy in 1413. 14th-century Warsaw's economy rested on crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in 1526. In 1529, Warsaw for the first time became the seat of th
Brussels the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita, it covers 161 km2, a small area compared to the two other regions, has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people. Brussels grew from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city-region in Europe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has been a major centre for international politics and the home of numerous international organisations, politicians and civil servants.
Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union, as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, including its administrative-legislative, executive-political, legislative branches and its name is sometimes used metonymically to describe the EU and its institutions. The secretariat of the Benelux and headquarters of NATO are located in Brussels; as the economic capital of Belgium and one of the top financial centres of Western Europe with Euronext Brussels, it is classified as an Alpha global city. Brussels is a hub for rail and air traffic, sometimes earning the moniker "Crossroads of Europe"; the Brussels Metro is the only rapid transit system in Belgium. In addition, both its airport and railway stations are the busiest in the country. Dutch-speaking, Brussels saw a language shift to French from the late 19th century; the Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual in French and Dutch though French is now the de facto main language with over 90% of the population speaking it. Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual.
English is spoken as a second language by nearly a third of the population and a large number of migrants and expatriates speak other languages. Brussels is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, as well as its historical and architectural landmarks. Main attractions include its historic Grand Place, Manneken Pis and cultural institutions such as La Monnaie and the Museums of Art and History; because of its long tradition of Belgian comics, Brussels is hailed as a capital of the comic strip. The most common theory of the origin of the name Brussels is that it derives from the Old Dutch Bruocsella, Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning "marsh" and "home" or "home in the marsh". Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai, made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695, when it was still a hamlet; the names of all the municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region are of Dutch origin, except for Evere, Celtic. In French, Bruxelles is pronounced and in Dutch, Brussel is pronounced. Inhabitants of Brussels are known in French in Dutch as Brusselaars.
In the Brabantian dialect of Brussels, they are called Brusseleirs. The written x noted the group. In the Belgian French pronunciation as well as in Dutch, the k disappeared and z became s, as reflected in the current Dutch spelling, whereas in the more conservative French form, the spelling remained; the pronunciation in French only dates from the 18th century, but this modification did not affect the traditional Brussels' usage. In France, the pronunciations and are heard, but are rather rare in Belgium. See also: History of Brussels The history of Brussels is linked to that of Western Europe. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone Age, with vestiges and place-names related to the civilisation of megaliths and standing stones. During late antiquity, the region was home to Roman occupation, as attested by archaeological evidence discovered near the centre. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Frankish Empire; the origin of the settlement, to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus' construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580.
The official founding of Brussels is situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven, gained the County of Brussels around 1000, by marrying Charles' daughter; because of its location on the shores of the Senne, on an important trade route between Bruges and Ghent, Cologne, Brussels became a commercial centre specialised in the textile trade. The town grew quite and extended towards the upper town, where there was a smaller risk of floods; as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. Around
Maria Ludwika Kalergis, née Reichsgräfin von Nesselrode-Ereshoven. At the age of seventeen Maria von Nesselrode married Jan Kalergis, a rich landowner, much older and proved to be of a jealous disposition. Though they had a daughter, born in 1840 in Saint Petersburg, less than a year after their wedding they mutually decided to separate. Despite several attempts to overcome their aversion for each other, they would continue living separately, without divorcing, until Jan's death, he ensured Maria a prosperous life. The course of Maria's marriage may have been influenced by her childhood experiences. A year after her birth, her father, Friedrich Karl von Nesselrode and his wife Tekla Nałęcz-Górska, had separated due to personality differences. From her sixth year, Maria had been reared in Saint Petersburg in the home of her paternal uncle, Karl Robert von Nesselrode, a Russian diplomat of German descent who for forty years was the Tsar's minister of foreign affairs and who saw to it that Maria received a thorough education.
She may have inherited her musical talent from her parents, for a while took lessons from Chopin, who praised her talent. She was taught Polish by her mother and spoke French, English and Russian, she is remembered as the great love of Cyprian Norwid. For her, the acquaintance with the young poet was but one of many episodes in an active social life. He, shy and deferential, withdrew into the shade of the beautiful Maria's other admirers. For many years he harbored feelings for her that more than once served him as a source of poetic inspiration, he confided his feelings in letters to Maria Trembicka, a close friend of the "white siren." Encouraged by his confidante's friendship, he was not accepted. From 1847 she lived in Paris from 1857 in Warsaw. Guests at her salons included Liszt, Richard Wagner, de Musset, Gautier and Chopin. Back in Warsaw she became a patroness of the arts and took part in charity fund-raising concerts and theatrical performances, her resources were always available to those in need.
When Stanisław Moniuszko wanted to premiere the four-act version of his opera Halka in Warsaw, he was opposed by the director of the Warsaw government theaters, Siergiej Muchanow. Thanks to Maria's intervention, Moniuszko managed to get the opera put on. Three months after the January 1858 opening, she organized a concert to benefit Moniuszko, having financial difficulties; the concert raised 25,000 Polish złotych, which enabled the composer to meet his basic needs and take a journey abroad. Maria Kalergis had an appreciable influence on the development of musical culture, helping found the Warsaw Musical Institute and founding with Moniuszko the Warsaw Musical Society, now the Warsaw Philharmonic. In 1857–71 she appeared as a pianist. Soon after her husband's death in 1863, she married ten years her junior, he nursed her devotedly through her final days. It was then that, sensing the approaching end of her life, Maria destroyed her correspondence, her letters to her daughter, son-in-law and friends have survived and have made it possible to reconstruct many facts about her life and are a valuable source of knowledge about the period.
She was interred together with her late father at Warsaw's Powązki Cemetery. On her death, Liszt wrote his Elegy on Marie Kalergi. Maria Kalergis' grandson, Heinrich von Coudenhove, with Emperor Franz Josef's permission, changed his surname to Coudenhove-Calergi, he married Mitsuko Aoyama. Their son, Count Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, in 1923 founded the Paneuropean Union. Maria Kalergis, Listy do Adama Potockiego, ed. by Halina Kenarowa, translated from the French by Halina Kenarowa and Róża Drojecka, Warsaw, 1986. Stanisław Szenic, Maria Kalergi, Warsaw, Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1963. Stanisław Szenic, Cmentarz Powązkowski 1851-1860, Warsaw, 1982. Pierścień Wielkiej Damy by Cyprian Kamil Norwid
Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen was a Russian writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism" and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism. With his writings, many composed while exiled in London, he attempted to influence the situation in Russia, contributing to a political climate that led to the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, he published the important social novel Who is to Blame?. His autobiography, My Past and Thoughts, is considered the best specimen of that genre in Russian literature. Herzen was born out of wedlock to a rich Russian landowner, Ivan Yakovlev, a young German Protestant woman, Henriette Wilhelmina Luisa Haag from Stuttgart. Yakovlev gave his son the surname Herzen because he was a "child of his heart", he was first cousin to Count Sergei Lvovich Levitsky, considered the patriarch of Russian photography and one of Europe's most important early photographic pioneers and innovators. In 1860, Levitsky would immortalize Herzen in a famous photo capturing the writer's essence and being.
Herzen was born in Moscow, shortly before Napoleon's invasion of Russia and brief occupation of the city. His father, after a personal interview with Napoleon, was allowed to leave Moscow after agreeing to bear a letter from the French to the Russian emperor in St. Petersburg, his family accompanied him to the Russian lines. A year the family returned to Moscow, remaining there after Herzen had completed his studies at Moscow University. In 1834, Herzen and his lifelong friend Nikolay Ogarev were arrested and tried on charges of having attended a festival during which verses by Sokolovsky that were uncomplimentary to the tsar, were sung, he was found guilty, in 1835 banished to Vyatka, now Kirov, in north-eastern European Russia. He remained there until 1837, when the tsar's son, Grand Duke Alexander, accompanied by the poet Zhukovsky, visited the city and intervened on his behalf. Herzen was allowed to leave Vyatka for Vladimir, where he was appointed editor of the city's official gazette. In 1837, he eloped with his cousin Natalya Zakharina, secretly marrying her.
In 1839 he was set free and returned to Moscow in 1840, where he met literary critic Vissarion Belinsky, influenced by him. Upon arrival he was appointed as secretary to Count Alexander Stroganov in the ministry of the interior at St Petersburg. In 1846, his father died. In 1847, Herzen emigrated with his wife and children, never to return to Russia. From Italy, on hearing of the revolution of 1848, he hastened to Paris and to Switzerland, he supported the revolutions of 1848, but was bitterly disillusioned with European socialist movements after their failure. It was as a political writer, his assets in Russia were frozen because of his emigration, however Baron Rothschild with whom his family had a business relationship negotiated the release of the assets, which were nominally transferred to Rothschild. Herzen and his wife Natalia had four children together, his mother and one of his sons died in a shipwreck in 1851. His wife carried on an affair with the German poet Georg Herwegh and died from tuberculosis in 1852.
That same year, Herzen left Geneva for London. He hired Malwida von Meysenbug to educate his daughters. With the publications of his Free Russian Press, which he founded in London in 1853, he attempted to influence the situation in Russia and improve the situation of the Russian peasantry he idolized. In 1856 he was joined in London by his old friend Nikolay Ogarev; the two worked together on their Russian periodical Kolokol. Soon Herzen began an affair with Ogarev's wife Natalia Tuchkova, daughter of the war hero general Tuchkov. Tuchkova bore Herzen three more children. Ogarev found the friendship between Herzen and Ogarev survived. Herzen spent time in London organising with the International Workingmen's Association, becoming well acquainted with revolutionary circles including the likes of Bakunin and Marx, it was during his time in London that Herzen began to make a name for himself for "scandal-mongering" when he told Bakunin, freshly arrived having escaped imprisonment in Siberia, that Marx had accused him of being a Russian agent.
In 1864, Herzen returned to Geneva, after some time went to Paris, where he died in 1870 of tuberculosis complications. Buried in Paris, his remains were taken to Nice. Herzen was disillusioned with the Revolutions of 1848 but not disillusioned with revolutionary thought, he became critical of those 1848 revolutionaries who were "so revolted by the Reaction after 1848, so exasperated by everything European, that they hastened on to Kansas or California". Herzen had always broadly adopted its values. In his early writings, he viewed the French Revolution as the end of history, the final stage in social development of a society based on humanism and harmony. Throughout his early life, Herzen saw himself as a revolutionary radical called to fight the political oppression of Nicholas I of Russia. Herzen fought against the ruling elites in Europe, against Christian hypocrisy and for individual freedom and self-expression, he promoted both socialism and individualism and ar
Dresden is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated near the border with the Czech Republic. Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs; the city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, destroyed the entire city centre. After the war restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Zwinger and the famous Semper Oper. Since German reunification in 1990 Dresden is again a cultural and political centre of Germany and Europe; the Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and ranks first in Saxony. It is dominated by high-tech branches called “Silicon Saxony”; the city is one of the most visited in Germany with 4.3 million overnight stays per year. The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in Europe. Main sights are the nearby National Park of Saxon Switzerland, the Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe Valley and Moritzburg Castle; the most prominent building in the city of Dresden is the Frauenkirche. Built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II; the remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, before being rebuilt between 1994 and 2005. Dresden has nearly 560,000 inhabitants, the agglomeration is the largest in Saxony with 780,000 inhabitants. According to the Hamburgische Weltwirtschaftsinstitut and Berenberg Bank in 2017, Dresden has the fourth best prospects for the future of all cities in Germany. Although Dresden is a recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people, the area had been settled in the Neolithic era by Linear Pottery culture tribes ca. 7500 BC.
Dresden's founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name etymologically derives from meaning people of the forest. Dresden evolved into the capital of Saxony. Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany had developed on the southern bank. Another settlement existed on the northern bank, it was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, as Altendresden, both "old Dresden". Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place "Civitas Dresdene". After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate, it was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. It was taken by the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great in 1319. From 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, from 1547 the electors as well.
The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King Augustus II the Strong of Poland in 1697. He gathered many of the best musicians and painters from all over Europe to the newly named Royal-Polish Residential City of Dresden, his reign marked the beginning of Dresden's emergence as a leading European city for technology and art. During the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland most of the city's baroque landmarks were built; these include the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Japanese Palace, the Taschenbergpalais, the Pillnitz Castle and the two landmark churches: the Catholic Hofkirche and the Lutheran Frauenkirche. In addition significant art collections and museums were founded. Notable examples include the Dresden Porcelain Collection, the Collection of Prints and Photographs, the Grünes Gewölbe and the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon. In 1726 there was a riot for two days after a Protestant clergyman was killed by a soldier who had converted from Catholicism.
In 1729, by decree of King Augustus II the first Polish Military Academy was founded in Dresden. In 1730, it was relocated to Warsaw. Dresden suffered heavy destruction in the Seven Years' War, following its capture by Prussian forces, its subsequent re-capture, a failed Prussian siege in 1760. Friedrich Schiller wrote his Ode to Joy for the Dresden Masonic lodge in 1785. During the decline of Poland Dresden was site of preparations for the Polish Kościuszko Uprising; the city of Dresden had a distinctive silhouette, captured in famous paintings by Bernardo Bellotto and by Norwegian painter Johan Christian Dahl. Between 1806 and 1918 the city was the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony. During the Napoleonic Wars the French emperor made it a base of operations, winning there the famous Battle of Dresden on 27 August 1813. Following the November Uprising many Poles, including writers Juliusz Słowacki, Stefan Florian Garczyński, Klementyna Hoffmanowa and composer Frédéric Chopin, fled from the Russian Partition of Poland to Dresden.
National poet Adam Mickiewicz stayed several months in Dresden, starting in March 1832. He wrote the poetic drama Dziady, P
Lubomirski is a Polish princely family. The Lubomirski family's coat of arms is the Drużyna coat of arms, similar to the Szreniawa coat of arms but without a cross; the Lubomirski family have been actors in the history of Poland since the 10th century. There are two theories regarding the family's origin. One, by Adam Boniecki, a Polish heraldist, assumes. One settled at the Szreniawa River in Proszowice County while the other established itself in Szczyrzyc County; the time of this division of the family is not known, but most it was before the adoption of Christianity by Poland. The Szreniawici family used a similar coat of arms, which means that the two families had the same ancestry. At the time of Mieszko I, the members of the Lubomirski family demonstrated bravery in battle against pagans. For this they were awarded the rank of knight and a coat of arms, which depicts bends of the Szreniawa River in the form of a letter S of white colour on a red background, instead of the Szreniawici cross, with the motto Patriam Versus.
This coat of arms has been used by the representatives of the family to the present time. The author of the second theory of the family's origins is the medievalist Władysław Semkowicz. In his article "The fellowship and Śreniawa. Heraldic study" he writes that the family used to live on the banks of the Szreniawa River in Szczyrzycki poviat, in the area surrounded by the Raba and Stradomka rivers, the Trzciański brook, the Łososina and Krzyworzeka streams. Semkowicz says. Semkowicz says that the coat of arms does not show bends of a river, but a curved rod – a sign of episcopal or secular power, signifying that for many centuries before the adoption of the name, the family had exercised significant power; this theory assumes, in its part, that, in the 15th century, the Polish chronicler Jan Długosz incorrectly ascribed the origin of the coat of arms of the fellowship, other heraldists accepted this view. The history of the Szreniawici, or Drużynnici, family is linked with the rulers of the Piast dynasty.
One of the Szreniawici was a canon at the Wawel court, people using this coat of arms belonged to the inner circle of Bolesław Śmiały, according to Jan Długosz, in Annals or Chronicles of the Famous Kingdom of Poland. The oldest document mentioning the Lubomirski family comes from the 11th century, it is in the property section of the Crown Register of 1682 in Kraków. The original no longer exists. There is only a mention in the register under a given year. Successive members of the family took up positions of bishops, for example, Archbishop of Gniezno mediated between the princes of the Piast dynasty during the congress in Łęczyca in 1180; the family performed important functions at the court of the Piast dynasty and extended their estates through investing in land within the territory of the Małopolska province. Jakub Lubomirski served as a borough writer in the 14th century. Piotr, the heir of Lubomierz, the territorial designation, the basis of the family name, is regarded as the progenitor of the Lubomirski family.
The economic foundation of the family rested on the exploitation of salt mines in Kraków province, the mineshafts being leased from rulers of Poland. The Lubomirski family established private mines in Małopolska province. Sebastian, who in 1581 became a mine administrator of Kraków, was the creator of this economic power; this was the first administrative position in the capital city occupied by a member of the family. While taking up his duties, Sebastian had the support of Stefan Batory. In 1595, Sebastian received the title of Count of Wiśnicz from the Emperor Rudolf II, he opened a private salt mine shaft "Kunegunda" in Siercza, exploited for about 100 years. Money gained from the salt trade allowed the Lubomirski family to lend money to the wealthiest people in the country; this enabled them to take them over from insolvent debtors. The family built up its economic position over many generations, accumulating assets that they held for centuries; the first mentions of the home in Lubomierz were recorded in 1398.
The number of family estates, starting with Gdów and Szczyrzyca which the family possessed in the 13th century, increased significantly. In the 17th and 18th centuries they were located in Lubomierz, Nowy Wiśnicz, Wieliczka, Łańcut, Baranów Sandomierski, Puławy, Rzeszów, Równe, Tarnów, Jarosław, Janowiec upon the Vistula, among others. To this day, the castle in Nowy Wiśnicz has been the property of the Family Association of the Princes Lubomirski. Many estates were located in the territories of the largest Polish cities: Warsaw, Kraków, Rzeszów, Lvov. Maintaining foreign residences in Drezno and Paris enhanced family prestige; the members of the family were referred to as "the owners of the bank of the Dnieper River" because many of their estates were located in what is now Ukraine and Slovakia. The Lubomirski family enjoyed political and economic influence, concentrated in the provinces of Kraków, Stanisławów, Ruthenia, to cover the whole area of the Commonwealth of the Two Nations, they kept this state of ownership until the collapse of the Polish state, when they were deprived of many estates as a result of penalties for