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Cyprinidae

The Cyprinidae are the family of freshwater fishes, collectively called cyprinids, that includes the carps, the true minnows, their relatives. Called the "carp family", or "minnow family", Cyprinidae is the largest and most diverse fish family and the largest vertebrate animal family in general, with about 3,000 species of which only 1,270 remain extant, divided into about 370 genera, they range from about 12 mm to the 3-m Catlocarpio siamensis. The family belongs to the ostariophysian order Cypriniformes, of whose genera and species the cyprinids make up more than two-thirds; the family name is derived from the Ancient Greek kyprînos. Cyprinids are stomachless fish with toothless jaws. So, food can be chewed by the gill rakers of the specialized last gill bow; these pharyngeal teeth allow the fish to make chewing motions against a chewing plate formed by a bony process of the skull. The pharyngeal teeth are used by scientists to identify species. Strong pharyngeal teeth allow fish such as the common carp and ide to eat hard baits such as snails and bivalves.

Hearing is a well-developed sense in the cyprinids since they have the Weberian organ, three specialized vertebral processes that transfer motion of the gas bladder to the inner ear. The vertebral processes of the Weberian organ permit a cyprinid to detect changes in motion of the gas bladder due to atmospheric conditions or depth changes; the cyprinids are considered physostomes because the pneumatic duct is retained in adult stages and the fish are able to gulp air to fill the gas bladder, or they can dispose of excess gas to the gut. Cyprinids are native to North America and Eurasia; the largest known cyprinid is the giant barb, which may grow up to 3 m in length and 300 kg in weight. Other large species that can surpass 2 m are the golden mahseer and mangar; the largest North American species is the Colorado pikeminnow, which can reach up to 1.8 m in length. Conversely, many species are smaller than 5 cm; the smallest known fish is Paedocypris progenetica, reaching 10.3 mm at the longest. All fish in this family most do not guard their eggs.

The bitterlings of subfamily Acheilognathinae are notable for depositing their eggs in bivalve molluscs, where the young develop until able to fend for themselves. Most cyprinids feed on invertebrates and vegetation due to the lack of teeth and stomach. Many species, such as the ide and the common rudd, prey on small fish when individuals become large enough. Small species, such as the moderlieschen, are opportunistic predators that will eat larvae of the common frog in artificial circumstances; some cyprinids, such as the grass carp, are specialized herbivores. For this reason, cyprinids are introduced as a management tool to control various factors in the aquatic environment, such as aquatic vegetation and diseases transmitted by snails. Unlike most fish species, cyprinids increase in abundance in eutrophic lakes. Here, they contribute towards positive feedback as they are efficient at eating the zooplankton that would otherwise graze on the algae, reducing its abundance. Cyprinids are important food fish.

In land-locked countries in particular, cyprinids are the major species of fish eaten because they make the largest part of biomass in most water types except for fast-flowing rivers. In Eastern Europe, they are prepared with traditional methods such as drying and salting; the prevalence of inexpensive frozen fish products made this less important now than it was in earlier times. Nonetheless, in certain places, they remain popular for food, as well as recreational fishing, have been deliberately stocked in ponds and lakes for centuries for this reason. Cyprinids are popular for angling for match fishing and fishing for common carp because of its size and strength. Several cyprinids have been introduced to waters outside their natural ranges to provide food, sport, or biological control for some pest species; the common carp and the grass carp are the most important for example in Florida. In some cases, such as the Asian carp in the Mississippi Basin, they have become invasive species that compete with native fishes or disrupt the environment.

Carp in particular can stir up sediment, reducing the clarity of the water and making plant growth difficult. Numerous cyprinids have become important in the aquarium and fishpond hobbies, most famously the goldfish, bred in China from the Prussian carp. First imported into Europe around 1728, it was much fancied by Chinese nobility as early as 1150 AD and after it arrived there in 1502 in Japan. In the latter country, from the 18th century onwards, the common carp was bred into the ornamental variety known as koi – or more nishikigoi, as koi means "common carp" in Japanese. Other popular aquarium cyprinids include danionins and true barbs. Larger species are bred by the thousands in outdoor ponds in Southeast Asia, trade in these aquarium fishes is of considerable commercial importance; the small rasborines and danionines are p

Rafael Alberti

Rafael Alberti Merello was a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of'27. He is considered one of the greatest literary figures of the so-called Silver Age of Spanish Literature, he won numerous prizes and awards, he died aged 96. After the Spanish Civil War, he went into exile because of his Marxist beliefs. On his return to Spain after the death of Franco, he was named Hijo Predilecto de Andalucía in 1983 and Doctor Honoris Causa by the Universidad de Cádiz in 1985, he published his memoirs under the title of La Arboleda perdida in 1959 and this remains the best source of information on his early life. The Puerto de Santa María at the mouth of the Guadalete River on the Bay of Cádiz was, as now, one of the major distribution outlets for the sherry trade from Jerez de la Frontera. Alberti was born there in 1902, to a family of vintners who had once been the most powerful in town, suppliers of sherry to the crowned heads of Europe. Both of his grandfathers were Italian. However, at some point, while they were handing down the business to the next generation, bad management resulted in the bodegas being sold to the Osbornes.

As a result, Alberti's father was no more than a commercial traveller for the company, always away on business, as the general agent for Spain for brands of sherry and brandy that had, only been exported to the UK. This sense of belonging to a “bourgeois family now in decline” was to become an enduring theme in his mature poetry. At the age of 10, he entered the Jesuit Colegio San Luis Gonzaga as a charity day-boy. During his first year, Alberti was a model student but his growing awareness of how differently the boarders were treated from the day-boys, together with the other ranking systems operated by the Jesuits, inspired in him a desire to rebel. In his memoirs, he attributes it to growing class conflict, he began to play truant and defy the school authorities until he was expelled in 1917. However, his family was at the point of moving to Madrid which meant that the disgrace did not register on Alberti or his family as as it might have done; the family moved to Calle de Atocha in Madrid in May 1917.

By the time of the move, Alberti had shown a precocious interest in painting. In Madrid, he again neglected his formal studies, preferring to go to the Casón del Buen Retiro and the Prado, where he spent many hours copying paintings and sculptures, it was as a painter. For example, in October 1920, he was invited to exhibit in the Autumn Salon in Madrid. However, according to his memoirs, the deaths in 1920 in quick succession of his father, the matador Joselito, Benito Pérez Galdós inspired him to write poetry. In 1921, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis and he spent many months recuperating in a sanatorium in the Sierra de Guadarrama where he read avidly among the works of Antonio Machado and Juan Ramón Jiménez, as well as various Ultraist and Vanguardista writers. At this time, he met Dámaso Alonso, at that time a poet rather than the formidable critic he would become, it was he who introduced Alberti to the works of Gil Vicente and other Golden Age writers, he began to write poetry in earnest and submitted a few to various avant-garde magazines.

The book that resulted from this activity, Marinero en tierra, submitted at the last minute, won the Premio Nacional de Literatura for poetry in 1924. He enjoyed great success over the next few years in the sense of artistic prestige: he was still financially dependent on his family; the new literary magazines were eager to publish his works. He was starting to make friends with the people who would get grouped together as the Generation of'27, he knew Dámaso Alonso and, on one of his returns to Madrid, he met Vicente Aleixandre, a resident of the Salamanca district. It was in October 1924 – Alberti's memoirs are vague on this and many other details – that he met Federico García Lorca in the Residencia de Estudiantes. During further visits to the Residencia - it seems that he never became a member himself - he met Pedro Salinas, Jorge Guillén, Gerardo Diego along with many other cultural icons such as Luis Buñuel, Salvador Dalí; the kind of folkloric/cancionero poetry he had used in Marinero was employed in two further collections – La amante and El alba del alhelí – but with the approach of the Góngora Tercentenary he began to write in a style, not only more formally demanding but which enabled him to be more satirical and dramatic.

The result was Cal y canto. Alberti himself was present at the meeting at a Madrid cafe in April 1926, when the plans for the tercentenary were first sketched out - along with Pedro Salinas, Melchor Fernández Almagro and Gerardo Diego. Before the Tercentennial celebrations were over, Alberti was starting to write the first poems of Sobre los ángeles, a book that showed a complete change of direction in the poetry of not only Alberti, but the whole Group, is considered his masterpiece, his next collections, Sermones y moradas and Yo era un tonto y lo que he visto me ha hecho dos tontos, together with a play El hombre deshabitado, all showed signs of a psychological breakdown which, to the surprise of everyone who knew him, had overwhelmed Alberti and from which he was only saved by his elopement with the writer and political activist María Teresa León in either 1929 or 1930 – again his memoirs are

Valley View, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania

Valley View is a census-designated place in Schuylkill County, United States. The population was 1,677 at the Valley View is located at 40°38′42″N 76°32′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,677 people, 713 households, 491 families living in the CDP; the population density was 512.3 people per square mile. There were 756 housing units at an average density of 230.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 98.63% White, 0.12% African American, 0.30% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 0.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.83% of the population. There were 713 households out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.0% were married couples living together, 6.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families. 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.83. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 19.3% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 23.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $37,838, the median income for a family was $43,558. Males had a median income of $30,071 versus $26,161 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,817. About 1.2% of families and 4.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over

Charles Alain, Prince of Guéméné

Charles Alain de Rohan was a French nobleman and Prince of Guéméné. He died without any surviving descendants. Born on 18 January 1764 at the Palace of Versailles, he was baptised the same day, he was the son of his distant cousin Victoire de Rohan. His mother was governess to the children of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI. After his parents became disgraced with his fathers debts, the family moved from Versailles and had to sell their famous townhouse, the Parisian Hôtel de Rohan-Guémené, he married Louise Aglaé de Conflans d'Armentieres at the Église Saint-Sulpice in Paris on 29 May 1781 and had one daughter, who would marry her uncle the Duke of Bouillon. Berthe would have no children and as such, Charles Alain has no known descendants, his cousins included the son of Charlotte de Rohan, sister of Victoire. He emigrated from France in 1791 and resided in Austria where he joined the army and was promoted to Field Marshal, he entered the service of Holy Roman Emperor. At the death of his distant cousin Jacques Léopold de La Tour d'Auvergne the Duke of Bouillon in 1802, Charles Alain was the nearest relative to the family as his grandmother Marie Louise de La Tour d'Auvergne was Jacques Léopold's aunt and thus feudal heiress.

It was he who purchased the Sychrov Castle in the modern Czech Republic where he died 1836. The castle was the home of the Rohan's until 1945. Berthe de Rohan had no issue. 18 January 1764 – 10 December 1788 His Highness the Prince of Rohan 10 December 1788 – 24 April 1809 His Highness the Duke of Montbazon 24 April 1809 – 24 April 1836 His Highness the Prince of Guéméné

Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, Kazan

The Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross is a Roman Catholic church in the city of Kazan, Russia, under the Diocese of Saratov. The first modern Catholics came to Kazan in the eighteenth century and were of German origin. In 1835, the first parish was founded by Polish priests, its parishioners gathered in private homes or temporary structures; the Catholic population of Polish origin and the city of Kazan granted permission to build the church in 1855. Permission to build the church came with the conditions that the church would not stand out from the surrounding buildings and would not display a strong traditional Roman Catholic architectural character. Kazan's Catholic parish dispersed during the era of communism and was reconvened in 1995, but the church was not returned to the Catholic community. Officials of the city instead authorized the use of a small chapel located in one of the city's cemeteries. Once restored, the chapel was consecrated by Bishop Pickel in 1998. A few years due to the removal of the wind tunnel from the old church, city authorities decided to allocate land in the center of Kazan to the Catholic community.

Construction of the new church took three years to complete. On 29 August 2008, the new church was consecrated during a ceremony led by the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Angelo Sodano, in the presence of the Bishop Clemens Pickel, the Apostolic Nuncio Antonio Mennini, other leaders. Roman Catholicism in Russia Exaltation of the Holy Cross

Frank Kramer (footballer, born 1972)

Frank Kramer is a German football manager. He is the head of the youth academy of FC Red Bull Salzburg. From 1990 – 2005 he played as semi-professional for FC Memmingen, Bayern Munich II, TSV Vestenbergsgreuth, SC Weismain, 1. FC Nürnberg II, Greuther Fürth II and 1. SC Feucht. Kramer had three stints as Greuther Fürth II manager before moving to 1899 Hoffenheim. At 1899 Hoffenheim, Kramer had two stints as 1899 Hoffenheim II manager. In between stints, Kramer was interim manager of the first team after the sacking of Markus Babbel. Greuther Fürth appointed Kramer as manager on 12 March 2013, he was sacked on 23 February 2015. On 14 April 2015, it was announced that Kramer would be taking over as manager of Fortuna Düsseldorf from the beginning of the 2015/16 season, he had his first training session on 20 June 2015. He was sacked on 22 November 2015, he was appointed as the head coach of the German U19 national team on 23 August 2016. In the following years, he managed the U20- and U18 squad. Ahead of the 2019-20 season, Kramer was appointed head of the youth academy at FC Red Bull Salzburg.

As of 22 November 2015